Test Bias, Essay Test, more...Accuracy Accuracy in writing involves the process of editing and revising writing samples. One important element of working toward accuracy in writing includes oral reading-response exercises, where students read their writing out loud to the class and receive constructive feedback. This collaborative exercise is considered more helpful to students that written comments because it offers personal contact.Glossary of EducationHome > Glossary > ReliabilityReliability Capacity of an assessment method to perform in a consistent, stable fashion during successive uses. Reliability is a prerequisite for validity. An unreliable indicator cannot produce trustworthy results. Also, the extent to which the same result is achieved when a measure is repeatedly applied to the same group.Related terms: Data, Accuracy, Construct Validity, Test Construction, Measurement Techniques, CorrelationNot what youre looking for?Validity Validity is the extent to which a test appropriately measures the intended testing area. For example, a valid math test is focused on the numbers and concepts without distracting students with difficult or unfamiliar language or ideas.Related terms: Evaluation, Achievement Test, Competency Test, Reliability, Accountability, Correlation,
CAA Centre >>Resources>>Objective Test DesignWhat are Objective Test Questions?Objective tests require a user to choose or provide a response toa question whose correct answer is predetermined. Such aquestion might require a student to : select a solution from a set of choices (MCQ, true-false, matching) identify an object or position (graphical hotspot) or supply brief numeric or text responses (text input)Because the correct answers to objective test questions are pre-determined, they are well suited to the many forms of CAA thatinvolve automated marking. The electronic marking of theresponses is completely non-subjective as no judgement has tobe made on the correctness or otherwise of an answer at thetime of marking. However, it is worth noting that in terms ofin-built bias, an objective test is only as objective as the testsdesigner makes it. The tutorial below offers an introduction to aselection of question types in popular use with advice onconstruction and best practice. As the question type mostcommonly associated with CAA is multiple choice, particularemphasis has been given to this and should be viewed first. Theprinciples detailed within that section should however, be ofuse when considering other types. 1. Multiple Choice Items o Anatomy of a question o Writing Stems o Writing Distracters 2. Extending Multiple Choice Items 3. Assertion-Reason
4. Multiple Response 5. Matching 6. True/False 7. Text/Numerical 8. Ranking 9. Graphical hotspot 10. Sore Finger 11. Field Simulation 12. Sequencing 13. ReferencesObjectivity in testing is essential. Studies have shown that testresults can be directly impacted by a Testers failure to beobjective:The task involved administering the Wechsler IntelligenceScale for Children to twelve youngsters. Each child was testedby two experimenters, one of whom administered the odd-numbered questions, the other the even-numbered questions.With each child, one of the experimenters was told beforehandthat the subject was above average in intelligence. The otherwas told that the subject was below average.The results? The youngsters scored an average of seven and ahalf points higher on the half of the test administered by theexperimenter who had been told they were bright.[Rosenthal, R. and Rosnow, R. L. Artifact in BehavioralResearch. New York: Academic Press, 1969. (Emphasisadded.)]It is widely accepted within the Quality Assurance industry thatin order for the Quality Assurance process to be effective,Testers must anticipate that the code will fail. A Tester shouldask, "How can I make this code fail?" instead of asking, "Howcan I verify this fix?"Testing that occurs without proper objectivity may ultimatelydemonstrate that the Development Team was successful increating code with no errors, instead of finding the errors thatunquestionably exist. Testing that occurs without properobjectivity will most likely result in the identification of fewerdefects.
Computer Science Objective Tests October 27, 1999 Version: ProvisionalWhat are objective tests?Objective tests as we use them are multiple choice: questions are presented along with a number of options, orchoices, for you to choose from. Only one of these options is the correct answer.There is no subjective judgement exercised by the examiner when assessing the mark given for the answers in anobjective test. The answers are either right orwrong. There are several formats for objective tests but you will be given only tests of the multiple choice type.Contrast this with traditional subjective tests. Typically subjective tests are composed of several multipartquestions, a selection of which must be attempted byyou, the test candidate. These tests usually require you to do a fair amount of writing.There are several advantages and disadvantages to subjective tests:Disadvantages Dependence on presentation. If you have bad handwriting the examiner may be unable/unwilling to struggle in order to understand your answer. Conversely, you may present a well laid out and planned answer that contains a lot of "waffle" or hazy knowledge, yet receives a good mark. Facility in writing. "Those who write fluently, speedily and whose flow of thought comes easily, have an advantage over those who think more slowly (but possibly more deeply) and those who write with less facility (but possibly with better quality content)." p.29, "Objective Testing in Education and Training", W. Bonney Rust Question evasion. If there are several questions in a subjective test, only some of which must be answered, then it is possible for the candidate to avoid questions in areas of the curriculum in which they are weak.
It also follows that as candidates are free to choose a subset of the test questions, it becomes difficult to compare candidates as they are effectively taking different tests. Question Spotting. A good strategy for preparing to take a subjective test is to look at past papers. Candidates soon spot recurring questions on specific topic areas so that it becomes possible to only revise some of the syllabus and still obtain a respectable grade. Variation in marking. This is possibly the greatest disadvantage to a subjective test: inconsistency in subjective assessment. Research* has shown that experienced examiners award widely varying marks not only on the same piece of work marked by other examiners, but on their own marked scripts re-marked after a passage of time. * "An Examination of Examinations", Hartog and RhodesAdvantages Unlike objective tests, subjective tests can demonstrate the candidates ability to marshall material and present it in a logical order. Subjective tests allow a candidate to express originality of thought. Subjective tests allow the candidate to demonstrate their ability to develop an argument. In addition, subjective tests allow the examiner to assess the candidates quality of written expression.SummaryOne the criticisms made of objective tests is is the assertion that they simply test your ability in factual, or memoryrecall. However you will be asked to answermultiple choice questions covering all the material in the syllabus and covering the whole range of intellectualskills. To know more about this you should consultBlooms Taxonomy.Objective tests have many more individual questions than a subjective test. This means that the whole of thecourse syllabus will be covered and you, and we, will
know if you or the class as a whole are having any difficulties in any particular topics covered by the course.Objective Testing: Blooms taxonomyIn his book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Professor Bloom derived a list of intellectual skills thatcould be assessed by carefully constructed questions. Knowledge Recall the facts and concepts. Comprehension Understand what the facts and concepts mean. Application Apply the understanding of facts and concepts in a given situation. Analysis Extract from a context the facts you need to know. Synthesis Combine facts and concepts you understand to achieve a specified goal. Evaluation Assess a situation where knowledge is partial and ambiquous.