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Milk Quality Tracking and Tracing System as a Basis for Quality Based Milk Payment System

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Milk Quality Tracking and Tracing System as a Basis for Quality Based Milk Payment System
In Kenya, raw milk safety has been disputed over a decade but no documented data exists.
Greatest milk quality challenge for the CBE’s are proper ways to maintain cold collection.
The regulatory institutions are constrained financially hence raw milk quality standards are reluctantly applied and enforced.
This creates a vacuum for farmers to switch between buyers of raw milk specially due to quality issues.

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Milk Quality Tracking and Tracing System as a Basis for Quality Based Milk Payment System

  1. 1. Milk Quality Tracking and Tracing System as a Basis for Quality Based Milk Payment System A review of the project milestones and proposed interventions Ndungu Teresiah Wangui MQT&T Project Manager projectmanager@happycowkenya.com FOR: HAPPY COW LTD 28 September 2015 Ndungu T.W. 1
  2. 2. Introduction • In Kenya, raw milk safety has been disputed over a decade but no documented data exists. • Greatest milk quality challenge for the CBE’s are proper ways to maintain cold collection. • The regulatory institutions are constrained financially hence raw milk quality standards are reluctantly applied and enforced. • This creates a vacuum for farmers to switch between buyers of raw milk specially due to quality issues. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 2
  3. 3. Introduction • The critical quality control challenges in line with raw milk collection and bulking are; adulteration, high bacterial load, high somatic cell count and antibiotic residues. • It therefore often fails the KEBS raw cow milk specification on some of the parameters. • Thus production of high quality products becomes a challenge, financial losses incurred and export potential limited. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 3
  4. 4. Introduction HAPPY COW LTD • A private dairy processing company located in Nakuru, Kenya. • It produces a wide range of dairy products, sold in all major supermarkets chains in Kenya and also for exports to neighboring countries. • The source of raw milk are CBE’s namely Ngorika and Olenguruone among many but the MQT&T project will involve the two as a pilot. • Historical data from HCL suggests major challenge in TBC, CC, adulteration and antibiotic residue that are way above the KEBS standards. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 4
  5. 5. Historical data from an accredited lab – SOME EXTREME CASES CBE A was supplying warm milk during this time. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 5 DATE CBE TBC/ML CC/ML RESAZURIN TEST ANTIBIOTIC KEBS Version 2007 < 2,000,000 < 50,000 4-6 < 4 PPB 1 7/6/05 BULK SILO 98,000,000 9,900,000 4 2 2/2/10 BULK SILO 80,000,000 2,900,000 4 3 26/9/11 BULK SILO 160,000,000 1,900,000 4 4 9/7/14 CBE A 170,000,000 6,600,000 4 5 24/10/14 CBE A 89,000,000 7,900,000 4 POSITIVE 6 1/11/14 CBE B 190,000,000 2,000,000 5 POSITIVE 7 19/11/14 CBE A 110,000,000 1,700,000 5 POSITIVE 8 26/11/14 CBE B 10,000,000 190,000 4 POSITIVE 9 7/01/15 CBE A 110,000,000 2,700,000 4 10 28/01/15 CBE A 160,000,000 3,100,000 4 11 30/04/15 CBE A 100,000,000 1,400,000 4
  6. 6. Introduction • Following an application to SNV/KMDP for support in implementation of a QBMPs which was accepted, a number of steps and investments along the value chain were followed. • The first step was the Zero Setting to be followed by interventions, MQT&T system as a precondition for QBMPs. • The potential success of this pilot project, in the smallholder supply chain, can likely be adopted by other processors. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 6
  7. 7. Milk Quality Tracking & Tracing System (MQT&T) MQT&T will allow; • Actors in the CBE’s identify the raw milk quality at critical points in the collection chain. • The identification of the cans and groups. • Identification of the causes contributing to quality losses. • Appropriate corrective actions. Therefore, it must be able to connect the milk quality in a can to a certain group of suppliers for appropriate payment of their milk. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 7
  8. 8. MQT&T cont….... • The poor infrastructure can lead to delays in the collection chain for up to 6-7 hours before milk processing. • Therefore a drastic change in the way milk is collected must be invented together with the CBE’s. • After success of MQT&T system, the possibility of a QMBPs will be evaluated and possibly implemented by year 2016. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 8
  9. 9. QUALITY BASED MILK PAYMENT SYSTEM (QBMPS) • The KDB has often advised the stake holders in dairy sector to take responsibility and pilot a QBMPS. • QBMPS validates the quality and revenue of raw milk delivered. • Currently, increase in volumes and market share are prioritized than milk quality assurance due to vital factors as competition. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 9
  10. 10. QBMPS Practice • QBMPS can instill responsibility on the farmers to ensure delivery of quality raw milk hence implementation will be with consent of the farmers. • Basically the KISS approach (Keep it Simple and Smart) should be applied in QBMPS . • Adequate milk testing facilities should be provided and penalties for added water, high bacterial load and antibiotic positive milk. • It should involve everyone’s efforts in the dairy value chain (farmers, transporters, CBE and processors). 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 10
  11. 11. Materials And Methods The structure of the CBE’s 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 11 SAMPLING LEVELS CBE A CBE B Tanker 1 1 Cooling tanks 1 2 Collection routes 13 31 Project routes 6 6 Farmers cans 44 24
  12. 12. Materials and Methods Sampling procedure • Sampling levels were four; • Composite can, composite route, cooler immediately after it got filled and tanker after its arrival at the processing plant. NB: Samples for morning milk were taken at random in the farmer’s container before bulking. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 12
  13. 13. Materials And Methods Study design • The laboratory experimentation employed a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement and three replications. • ANOVA was used to analyze the laboratory results using PROC GLM procedure of the statistical analysis system version 9.0 (SAS, 2006) and means separated using LSD whenever there is variability at P ≤ 0.05. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 13
  14. 14. Materials and Methods Statistical model for laboratory analysis; 𝒀𝒊𝒋𝒌𝒍 = 𝛍 + 𝛂𝐢 + 𝛃𝐣 + 𝜸 𝒌 + 𝜷𝜸𝒋𝒌 +Ɛ𝐢𝐣𝐤𝒍 where; • Yijk is the response variable for milk quality. • μ is the overall mean. • αi is the ith replication effect. • βj is the jth effect due to CBE blocking effect. • γk is the kth effect due to treatment. • βγjk is the jth CBE blocking effect on the kth treatment. • Ɛijk is the random error term. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 14
  15. 15. Materials and Methods • Chemical Analysis The chemical tests for organoleptic, alcohol, lactometer, sediment, pH, freezing point, acidity, 10 minutes Resazurin, peroxide, antimicrobial, CMT and antibiotics done according to KEBS (2007) and FAO (2009). • Microbial analysis Total Plate Count and Coliform Count done according to AOAC (2005) methods 991.14 and 990.12 respectively using 3MTM petrifilms plates without modifications. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 15
  16. 16. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 16 The serial dilutions
  17. 17. 1 3 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 17 21 2 33 4
  18. 18. Microbial Analysis • The results are for the project routes only. • Sampling was done from the nearest radius to the cooling plant and the cooler sampled immediately it got filled (not yet chilled to 50C). • It was stored and transported separately for analysis and follow up. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 18 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 CAN ROUTE COOLER TANKER MILLLIONS/ML SAMPLING LEVELS CBE B TBC/ML CC/ML
  19. 19. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 19 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 TBC CC LA RT DENS SED TBC/CCMILLIONS/ML TESTS ANALYZED CBE B ROUTE COMPARISON ANALYSIS ROUTE 1 ROUTE 2 ROUTE 3 ROUTE 4 ROUTE 5 ROUTE 6
  20. 20. Individual farmers sampling results Test Best Worst TMTC i.e. ˃˃ 999 Millions. Average countable Minus TMTC TBC/ML 25,000 (5%) 34.3% 6,600,000 CC/ML 0 (14.3%) 31.4% 3,050,000 RESAZURIN TEST 6 5 6 DENSITY 1.029 1.027 1.028 NB: Freezing point determination suggests that 28.57% farmers had added water while 42.86% of the samples had antibiotics residues. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 20
  21. 21. Composite can results (individual delivery) CBE B (project routes) • TBC/ML – 7.66 X 106 • CC/ML – 6.13 X 104 • RT – 6 • LA – 0.14 CBE A (project routes) • TBC/ML – 3.49 X 107 • CC/ML - 9.70 X105 • RT – 6 • LA – 0.14 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 21
  22. 22. Physical chemical tests 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 CBE B RT LA DEN SED 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 CBE A RT LA DEN SED 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 22
  23. 23. Antibiotic Residues This was done using: 1. At HC the two standards tests from Delvo. The first test has high detection power but takes 3hrs while the second one is quick (5min) and tests majorly for β-lactams. 2. The activity/sensitivity test was done at the two CBE checking for inhibitory substances (“3hrs yoghurt culture test”). 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 23
  24. 24. Antibiotic Residues results 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 24 Negative 46% Positive 54% CBE B Negative 65% Positive 35% CBE A
  25. 25. California Mastitis Test BEFORE AFTER 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 25
  26. 26. CMT RESULTS 800-5000 15% 150-500 55% 400-1000 25% 0-200 5% CBE B 800-5000 13% 150-500 65% 400-1000 22% 0-200 0% CBE A 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 26
  27. 27. Water adulteration • This was done using a cryoscope. • The cryoscope suggested that CBE A and B had 23.8% and 36.8% water adulteration respectively. • This indicates that the thermo lacto density meter might not be accurate enough. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 27
  28. 28. CORRELATIONS • The results revealed a significant positive correlation at p≤ 0.05 between time and total bacterial count at the route level. • The correlation between total bacterial count and Resazurin test was not significant at p≤ 0.05. • Its alarming that no correlation was found. • The sediment test and total bacterial test had a positive correlation at p≤ 0.05. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 28
  29. 29. Added observations • Samples of milk which organoleptically smelled and looked like a mixture of water and flour and an acidity of 0.07 to 0.09 % and 0.09 % butter fat. • Some milk delivered with cement bags being used to fasten the lids. • More than 50% of the cans were rejected at the reception. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 29
  30. 30. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 30 A B C D B
  31. 31. Use of plastic jerry cans 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 31
  32. 32. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 32 2 2 1 3
  33. 33. Recording system for QBMPS This will be done according to proposed delivery receipt; • The CBE name, the individual can number, the collection point number, the route name, and the sampling dates respectively. The parameters to be included are; • Date, milking time, milk volume, producers group identification numbers/ names, date of sampling, results of sampling on quality tests done and the name of the grader. • A robust software will be pretested and developed. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 33
  34. 34. Quality Indicators for QBMPS • Total bacterial count. • Coliform count. • Somatic cell count. • Presence of antibiotics residues • Adulteration NB: The samples must conform with the parameters in the following table before microbial analysis. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 34
  35. 35. Quality Tests KEBS Limits 1 Organoleptic Free from off-flavours, odours, and be white creamish in colour. No foreign matter observed. 2 Temperature <5-8°C 3 SNF >8.25 Total solids 4 Butterfat >3.5 11.75 5 pH 6.60 – 6.75 6 Titratable Acidity (% lactic acid) 0.14 -0.18 7 Specific Gravity 1.028 – 1.032 8 Freezing point -0.525 to -0.565 9 Alcohol test Negative 10 Hydrogen peroxide Negative 11 Antibiotics Negative9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 35
  36. 36. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 36 HC LABORATORY
  37. 37. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 37 HC LABORATORY
  38. 38. IN THE PAST • Annato colour was sometimes added to rejected milk to avoid human consumption. • Only aluminium cans were used and were thoroughly cleaned in the processing factories. • Thermization/pre-pasteurization of raw milk with immediate cooling before transportation for pasteurization and packaging at other locations. What went wrong?? We need to learn from the past to improve the future. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 38
  39. 39. Proposed Project Interventions • The construction of lab at CBE levels. • Removal of plastic jerry cans and introduction of vigorous can washing system. • Organizing farmers into groups at the collection points for faster collection. • Training graders on milk testing and grading. • Training the farmers and all milk handlers on raw milk hygienic code of practice. • Penalties on all non conforming milk. • Payment based on quality. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 39
  40. 40. Alternative Payment Methods world wide Payment according to quantity of milk is the most common form of payment. Additionally milk can also be paid according to; • Composition and hygienic quality. • Fat % in milk. • Fat % and SNF% (“solids”). • Seasonal payment according to fat% and SNF%. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 40
  41. 41. Benefits of Improved Raw Milk Quality 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 41 • Exports market expanded. • Prolonged product shelf life. • Improved product quality. • Guaranteed food safety. • Lowered processing costs. • Farmers improved income.
  42. 42. Countries Which Have mplemented QBMP Systems • USA and Europe fully implemented. • New emerging and important dairy African countries have started QBMPS like Zimbabwe and Zambia. • Partly also in China, India, Vietnam, ……etc….. • See next slide Brazil: Milk, Vector of Development, Rennes- France, May 2014. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 42
  43. 43. 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 43
  44. 44. Acknowledgement • HC directors: Mr. and Mrs. Oosterwijk. • Egerton supervisors: Dr. Muliro and Dr. Omwamba. • External backstopper Mr. Jan. • SNV team. • Happy Cow Ltd. team. • Both CBE’s teams. Thanks for listening 9/28/2015 Ndungu T.W. 44

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