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  • Since the late-1990s, Kay has been working on the Squeak programming system, an open source Smalltalk-based environment which could be seen as a logical continuation of the Dynabook concept. Toshiba also has a line of sub-notebook computers called DynaBook. Alan Kay is actively involved in the One Laptop Per Child project that uses Smalltalk, Squeak, and the concepts of a computer for learning. A low cost computer for children. All were influenced by Piaget and Bruener.
  • http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments
  • Learning learning Learning is our main goal; we do not focus on computer literacy, as that is a by-product of the fluency children will gain through use of the laptop for learning. Children—especially young children—do not need to learn about IT and certainly do not need to be fluent users of WORD, EXCEL and POWERPOINT—They are not office workers. However, picking up these skills, having grown up with a laptop, will be readily accomplished. Learning some math facts while learning to hate math is far from ideal. Learning about things that are personally meaningful while constructing knowledge—especially where children realize that they had to extend themselves beyond what they believed they were capable of doing—is both natural and liberating. Children need to learn learning, which is primarily acquired through the passion that comes from access, the ability to make things, to communicate and to express. Writing a computer program, while seemingly esoteric, is in fact the closest a child can come to thinking about thinking. Likewise, debugging a program is the closest one can come to learning learning. It goes without saying that Internet access and tools for expression (text, music, video, graphics) are the contemporary “toys” for learning. Every child of any means in the developed world has access to a computer at home and usually his or her own, with music, DVD, plus interactive and rich media to do anything from learning languages to play games. Making these same resources available to the roughly one-billion other children, who do not have such access, has seemed ridiculously daunting, but is no longer. This is simply because the high costs of laptops has been artificial and perpetuated, not innate. It is fair to say that OLPC has broken this spell and companies like Intel are following it. The intransigence of the problems of formal education in the face of conventional solutions, combined with pervasive poverty and the need for high-quality lifelong learning for inclusion in the global knowledge-based economy, warrants new thinking. The same digital technology that has enabled an unparalleled growth of knowledge, when combined with new methodologies for learning, can unleash the latent learning potential of the children of world. Poor children lack opportunity, not capacity for learning. By providing laptops to every child without cost to the child, we bring the poor child the same opportunities for learning that wealthy families bring to their children.
  • Starting in 1984, Kay was an Apple Fellow at Apple Computer until the closing of the ATG (Advanced Technology Group), one of the company's R&D divisions.[citation needed] He then joined Walt Disney Imagineering as a Disney Fellow and remained there until Disney ended its Disney Fellow program. After Disney, in 2001 he founded Viewpoints Research Institute, a non-profit organization dedicated to children, learning, and advanced software development. Later, Kay worked with a team at Applied Minds, then became a Senior Fellow at Hewlett-Packard until HP disbanded the Advanced Software Research Team on July 20 2005. He is currently head of Viewpoints Institute. [edit] Squeak, Etoys, and Croquet In December 1995, when he was still at Apple, Kay collaborated with many others to start the open source Squeak dynamic media software, and he continues to work on it. In this time, in November 1996, his team began research on what became the Etoys system. More recently he started, along with David A. Smith, David P. Reed, Andreas Raab, Rick McGeer, Julian Lombardi, and Mark McCahill, the Croquet Project, which is an open source networked 2D and 3D environment for collaborative work.
  • olpc_final_8-28-10

    1. 1. One Laptop Per Child http://www.teachingmatters.org/evaluations/olpc_kappa.pdf
    2. 2. Initial people <ul><ul><li>Seymour Papert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicholas Negroponte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of OLPC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MIT; Media Lab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alan Kay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creator of the modern workstation. OLPC is based on Kay's Dynabook idea. Squeak and Etoys software. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. “ It's an education project, not a laptop project.” — Nicholas Negroponte
    4. 4. OLPC: Five Principles <ul><ul><li>Child Ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free and Open Source </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Timeline <ul><ul><li>1967— Logo , the first programming language written especially for children is introduced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1982--Papert and Negroponte distribute Apple II microcomputers to school children in a suburb of Dakar, Senegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1985--The MIT Media Lab opens its doors. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>1988--Costa Rican teachers meet at MIT. LEGO/Logo launches as a commercial product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2002--Negroponte provides 20 Cambodian children with connected laptops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005--sketches of $100 laptop are developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negroponte presents at the World Economic Forum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMD, News Corp, Google and Red Hat meet with OLPC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil, Thailand, Nigeria are the first to commit to OLPC </li></ul></ul></ul>Timeline continued
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>2006—OLPC website goes live and opens office in Cambridge, MA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beta laptop tests begin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007—Nov. Mass production begins--GIGI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dec. Children begin learning with the XO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008—Feb. $50 laptop forecasted by 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008—Caribbean Project: www.waveplace.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2010- Current Deployments: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments </li></ul></ul>Timeline continued
    8. 8. Global view Google Maps, Sept. 2008 <ul><li>Green : OLPC </li></ul><ul><li>Deployments </li></ul><ul><li>(5000+, saturation) Purple : OLPC pilots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue : Preparing for a pilot </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Equity <ul><ul><li>Poor children lack opportunity, not capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We look at children as </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the key agents of change” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing laptops to every child without cost equalizes opportunity for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural inquiry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life-long learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion in the global knowledge-based economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Peru 2007-Present <ul><ul><li>300,000 XOs deployed in more than four thousand schools and is currently the world’s largest OLPC deployment. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Peru’s Goals <ul><ul><li>1) Improving the quality of public primary education, especially that of children of the remotest places of extreme poverty; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Developing skills in curriculum design considered by students of primary level education through pedagogical application of XO laptops; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Train and provide continuous updating of teachers in pedagogical use of the XO laptop. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Results <ul><ul><li>An early evaluation of progress in Peru released in May 2009 showed a 50% improvement in reading comprehension among students and of almost 60% for textual and mathematical analysis. The study also noted the texts produced by children and teachers demonstrate more creativity and improvement in writing and spelling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://laptop.org/en/children/countries/peru.shtml </li></ul>
    13. 13. Founded in Constructivist Theory <ul><ul><li>Piaget, Bruner, & Vygotsky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seymour Papert: The Children’s Machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alan Kay: Squeak, Etoys, and Tweak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolas Negroponte: B eing Digital </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Constructivism & Learning <ul><ul><li>Instructors as facilitators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is an active, social process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer technology as a tool to access and organize information, and to construct personal knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment is individualized, performance-based, and carried out in the appropriate context </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Learning <ul><ul><li>Develop a passion for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information & tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate personally meaningful ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural inquiry </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. “ It's the best answer yet to &quot;a global crisis of education&quot; in which curriculums have no relevance. If we make education pertinent, something the student enjoys, then it won't matter if the classroom's walls are straw or the students are sitting on fruit boxes.” Oscar Becerra, Peru’s Head of Technology
    17. 17. Thailand Nigeria Brazil Peru
    18. 18. “ The biggest obstacle to the XOs success is … fear. Overseas ministers of education fear that changing the status quo might risk their jobs. Big-name computer makers fear that the XO will steal away an overlooked two-billion-person market. Critics fear that the poorest countries need food, malaria protection and clean water far more than computers.” David Pogue
    19. 19. Negroponte’s Response “ Nobody I know would say, ‘By the way, let’s hold off on education.’ Education happens to be a solution to all of those same problems.”
    20. 21. The OLPC XO Laptop <ul><ul><li>Linux® OS – Red Hat derivative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual-mode display—both a full-color, transmissive DVD mode, and a black and white, reflective and sunlight-readable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMD Geode LX 700@.8W 433MHz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>512MB of DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1MB of Flash memory (No HDD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 USB ports/1 SD card slot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless broadband that allows the devices to work as a mesh network; each laptop will be able to talk to its nearest neighbors, creating an ad hoc, local area network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each machine is a full-time wireless router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar User Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative power supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The estimated product lifetime is at least five years. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Keyboard Shortcuts <ul><ul><li>Ctrl–C to copy (Select text first) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–V to paste (Position the cursor where you want the cut text to go) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–X to cut (Select text first) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–U to view source while using the Browse Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–Esc to quit (Esc is the X in the upper-left corner of the keyboard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–Alt–Erase to restart Sugar, the operating system for the XO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt–Tab to switch to another open activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt–1 to save a snapshot of the screen into the Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F1 Neighborhood View Key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F2 Group View Key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F3 Home View Key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F4 Activities View Key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt–r to rotate the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–Alt–F1 to open console 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–Alt–F2 to open console 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl–Alt–F3 to open X Windows (Sugar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl+l to add a link to the shared link tray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt+space Toggle the visibility of the shared link tray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt+enter to View in Fullscreen/Return from Fullscreen </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Home View Activity Taskbar If you leave the Home View to engage in an Activity, you can return to the Home View at any time by pressing the Home Key (circle with one dot) on the keyboard or by clicking on the Home Icon (image), on the frame. Activities The Activity Circle Home Key Frame Group Key Neighborhood Key Activity Key
    23. 24. Group View Hover over a friend’s icon and choose to make a friend or invite them to join an activity. From the Group View, you can see which friends are on the network.
    24. 25. Neighborhood View <ul><li>From the Neighborhood View (also called the Mesh View), you can see: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who is currently on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which activities and objects are being shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which networks are available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your XO icon appears in the center of the screen in the Neighborhood View. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Activity View The Activity view displays the particular activity, or application, that a child is currently working within, such as Browse, Write or Draw.
    26. 27. “ Despite all the obstacles and doubters, OLPC has come up with a laptop that’s tough and simple enough for hot, humid, dusty locales; cool enough to keep young minds engaged, both at school and at home; and open, flexible and collaborative enough to support a million different teaching and learning styles.” Pogue
    27. 28. <ul><ul><li>The XO-2 is the next prototype for OLPC and is expected to be released on 2010. With regards to the price OLPC estimates the XO-2 to cost around $75. </li></ul></ul>Future Developments OLPC XO-2 http://blog.laptopmag.com/first-look-olpc-xo-generation-20
    28. 29. Trends… <ul><ul><li>Pixel Qi (pronounced “chee”). A $75.00 laptop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India’s $35.00 laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC Wiki. http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Home </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. How Can We Be Involved? <ul><ul><li>Questions & Answers </li></ul></ul>