Computers Hardware


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Computers Hardware

  1. 1. INFORMÁTICA: Componentes físicos del ordenador Computers are everywhere, and vary in specification, brands, sizes, shaped, and prices. However, there is one common characteristic among all computer systems. The essentials of every computer system are a motherboard, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory and a hard drive. These 4 components are installed in a computer case to which are attached a monitor and a keyboard and a mouse. This makes up the basic computer. Motherboard The motherboard (sometimes called the mobo) provides the foundation for the rest of the computer components. Everything is attached to the motherboard -- the CPU, the memory, the monitor, the mouse, the keyboard, add-on cards, and extra peripherals like printers, scanners, and speakers. We could say that the motherboard is like the nervous system and skeleton of the human body -- it provides support for the internal components and also passes information between all the computer parts. CPU If the motherboard is the nervous system, the CPU is the brain. Most of the mathematical manipulations that make computers operate are done by the CPU. Other components may also have their own processors, but the results still have to be passed through the CPU. The speed of the computer is usually measured by the speed of the CPU. Even though there are other factors affecting speed, the CPU rating is usually seen the single most important measure of performance. Modern CPUs are usually rated between 2.0 GHz and 3.0 GHz, although you see some models in the 3.5 GHz range. These numbers refer to the number of calculations the processor can make in one second, so obviously the higher the number the faster the computer. CPUs generate a lot of heat, so they need a heat sink and fan to prevent them from overheating. Memory RAM (Random Access Memory) is the part of the computer that stores information while the computer is operating. It is Random Access because the computer can get the stored data in any order, rather than synchronously. Generally speaking, the more RAM the better. 2 to 3 gigabytes is fairly common for memory. The latest type of RAM is DDR3. It offers even faster access rates that DDR and is quickly becoming the standard for computer memory. Colegio Escolapias Gandia. Departamento de Nuevas Tecnologías. Dani Díaz Página 1
  2. 2. INFORMÁTICA: Componentes físicos del ordenador Hard Drive Since the data contained in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off, there has to be a place to store it permanently. This is what the hard disk is for. It also contains all our personal work as well as the operating system. An operating system like Windows uses around 10 gigabytes of hard drive space, and the extra space can be used to install computer programs and to store personal data. Five hundred gigabyte hard drives are the most common, but they are available at up to 1 TB, and several hard drives can be installed in one case. All that is needed to complete the basic computer system is a monitor, keyboard and mouse. Accessories like a printer or scanner can be useful for office work, and gamers will probably want to add speakers and joystick controls. So there you have it. The basic computer is composed of just 7 major components. To get the best performance these components must integrate well. The motherboard is the most important component for determining the type and specification of the other parts so choosing an appropriate one for your computer needs is very important. In summary, when you buy a computer, the most important factors in your decision should be getting a big RAM ( 2 GB At least), and getting a fast CPU processor. Graphic Card A board that plugs into a personal computer to give it display capabilities. Modern video adapters contain memory, so that the computer's RAM is not used for storing displays. In addition, most adapters have their own graphics coprocessor for performing graphics calculations. These adapters are often called graphics accelerators. DVD-R (DVD+Read Write) A rewritable (re-recordable) DVD disc for both movies and data from the DVD+RW Alliance. DVD+RW media can be read on DVD-Video players and computer DVD-ROM drives. Using phase change technology, the first DVD+RW discs held 3GB per side, but were later increased to the industry standard 4.7GB. A double sided disc holds 8.5 GB. In practice, the term "DVD" refers to all DVD formats. The phrase "rewrite the data on the DVD" really means "rewrite the data on the DVD+RW or DVD-RW." Colegio Escolapias Gandia. Departamento de Nuevas Tecnologías. Dani Díaz Página 2
  3. 3. INFORMÁTICA: Componentes físicos del ordenador Keyboard & Mouse A set of input keys on a terminal or computer. It includes the standard typewriter keys, several specialized keys. A mouse is the most popular pointing device. It was called a "mouse" because it more or less resembled one, with the cord being the tail. Although key commands can often substitute, graphical interfaces (GUIs) are designed for pointing devices. Colegio Escolapias Gandia. Departamento de Nuevas Tecnologías. Dani Díaz Página 3