Dwi augina hamid research proposal


Published on

My assignment of Research On Language, one of the course in fifth semester. Our lecture asked us to make a research proposal,

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Dwi augina hamid research proposal

  1. 1. Introduction Are the left-handed people more uniqe in every way? People were viewing the lefthanded people are different. In their writing, they seem awkward. Most of people are wondering how to use their left while they write something. According to psycholinguistics, it told about language skills focused in the right side of the brain tend to left-handed person. It means that they have well utterance. But in other side, according to the several studies that have been talked about the left-handed person, individuality they have a bad anxiety level. Problem that are often talked of the experts of psychology is about the truth that the lefties are smarter than people who are not. But, based on Chris McManus, professor of psychology and medical education at University College London responds is no, if we are offending their IQ. Basic Consideration Two studies related to the finding that the researcher made, in order to complete and make balance of the researcher’s finding. The researcher have read some articles have been asserted about how left-handed people’s brain work. They can produce well utterance and pick several important words in speaking. This one at the very significant in their grammatical structure, which is they can producing word as well. As biologically, it because of their gene and their brain stem which is deal with the physical function, reflex and emotion. McManus also said in the journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, as biologically and genetically linked, there are different points of views about the various effects on one’s behavior and abilities. The left-handed person is fastening upon of the weaknesses but various studies have shown that the left-handed person is related to the improvement of abilites. The lefties are more dominant in increasing skills. Other journals regarding this studies was describing about the left-handed person has been associated to
  2. 2. heredity, environment, and the brain functioning. Furthermore, one of this study based on Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology has defined a lot of left-handed person in various views such as the left-handedness in defferent cultures and religions which is said that in most cultures the left-handedness is exceptionally discountenanced. The left-handers have to put in great effort even for simple tasks of life contrary to their natural tendencies and face problems in the use of tools for routine chores. Some of the evident challenges for lefthanded individuals include school desks that are unworkable, vegetable peelers that are of no use, pens that spread ink and make writing unreadable and computer mouse that cause spasms of hand (Flatt, 1999). Additionally, left-handers experience more learning difficulties (related to reading, writing and to comprehend other school subjects) than right-handers, more than half of whom are boys (Kansanen & Lauerman, 1993). Handwriting can also put forward a special obstruction for left-handers (Lance, 2005). The same case that has been clarified in the researchers’ finding is that the left-handers will face more difficulties than the right-handers. They need big effort to undergo their daily life. Because of the complicated of the left-handers, they have high level of discomfort. They psychological have disturbed then appear the feeling of ashame, incompetence, and abnormality. The journals the researcher have read also have their each shortcoming. The first journal only focus to the effect of handedness on intelligence, where this study only deals with the genetic, and also talked about which handers that the most intelligence and have more advantages. This journal also discussed about the method, instrument, procedures and the result and discussion, which is the very most important to know. The second journal also said the same part like the first journal, but this journal is more complete discussion. Whole of the contents in this journal is very necessary for the researcher’s finding. It was examined all things but it more focused to the left-handers only. Reseacrh Question
  3. 3. Based on the basic consideration above, the main problems that investigated in this research are: 1. Which one is the very dominant in incresing skills, the left handed person or right handed person? 2. Why people underestimate the lefties? Objective Research This finding concentrates to the comparison of both handers specifically in their speech production. Give identification of each grammatical structures by producing words and also to see the good utterance of both. This is the notable study because the readers can different the left-handers abilty and right-handers ability, how they use their brain, which hemisphere is dominant in each handers and also the readers may discover the best of skill for each handers. This research also gives a comprehensive for understanding the life experiences of left and right-handers. Research Significances This research hope can help people to understand easily about the left and right handed ratios. In addition, this research will provide new breakthroughs in all findings have found, because no researchs have taken as specifically in left and right handers grammar. This research also hope for the future, the people will interest to manage it deeply. Definition Ancient attitudes to grammar still survive: many people are in awe of it, know little about it, tend to fear or dislike it, often find it baffling or boring if exposed to it at school, and yet a minority is fascinated by it: a field in which precise scholarship and nit-picking pedantry have co-existed for centuries (Sidney Greenbaum, The Oxford English Grammar. Oxford Univ. Press, 1996). Grammatical structure is a means of analyzing written and spoken language. It is concerned with how elements of a sentence such as morphemes, phonemes,
  4. 4. phrases, clauses and parts of speech are put together. Under this form of linguistic analysis, it is how these elements work together that is most important, as the relationships between the elements typically have a greater meaning than any of the single elements. The study of this method therefore is an important tool for improving clarity in communication (Admin). Limitation There are several of camparison between the left and right handed person. This study, the researcher limit the focus to the comparison of their grammatical structures based on the findings’ the researcher found regarding to the aim of this research.
  5. 5. Literature Review Quoted by Elisabeth Ahlsen in Introduction to Neurolinguistics, 2006, neurolinguistics is human language or communication (speech, hearing, reading, writing, or nonverbal modalities) related to any aspect of the brain or brain function. It introduced people the left and righ hemiphere. The researcher is requiring to know about some studies that have some similarities with her study. The previous studies are very important for guidance and also for comparison. The researcher need to clarify that although the previous studies were using the same perspective or method, but it might different. There are several previous studies about the comparison between the left and right handed person that have conducted by another researchers, found by the researcher. Differences in behavioral and hormonal This study focus to the biological of the left and right handed person. Defined about the left handed might took the advantage in the interaction engangement, which is help to increase the possibility of left handers’ survival or their reproduction through improvement of social status. In humans, hand preference is a heritable trait (Carter-Saltzman, 1980; Medland et al., 2009; Saudino and McManus, 1998; Sicotte, Woods, and Mazziotta, 1999) with heritability estimates ranging from 0.23 to 0.66 (Llaurens, Raymond, and Faurie, 2009b). Left-handers are likely to be an heterogeneous group and the determinism of hand preference is not fully characterized, but genetic (McManus, 1991), developmental (Yeo and Gangestad, 1993), and cultural (Hardyck, Goldman, and Petrinovich, 1975) factors have been identified to play a significant role. This study stated that the left handers dominate in terms of social than the right handers based on evidence of the results of their testosterone concentrations. Unfortunately, this study only highlight the men. Discussed which one is the very significant
  6. 6. between the letf and right handers men in terms of play an important role in polimorfism handedness during human evolution. Also focus in one population only and need to investigate other populations. All hand ratios and handedness For certain procesess, brain prefers to use one hemisphere. Dominance is mainly influenced by genetics, and is defined as physiological priority or preference by one member of any bilateral pair of structures in the body when performing various tasks. Handedness depends on neurological inhibiting of the recessive hand so that the dominant hand can develop the precise, corrective, rapid movement without competition from the non-dominant hand. Some studies was asserted about the digit leghts ratios of the left and right handeds in males are equal. No significat differences between them. Another thing in females, for those the left handed females have longer digit length. It shows the left handed females have better ability. They will be success especially in sports. The correlation between intelligence and handedness Handedness is the natural or biological preference for using one hand more than the other in performing special tasks depending on which hemisphere is dominant for the task (Rice, 1998). Many findings of handedness have been studied but no findings have been drawn. Various studies have been declared that the left handers were significantly more intelligent than the right handers, but the right handers taken greater time than the left handers. Several hypotheses also showed that the left handers more intelligent than the right handers. Previous studies also conducted the same case but no strongly arguments yet, spesicifally between the handedness and intelligence. These studies gave brief explanation respectively about the participants in the same amount, same place and different education levels. Also these studies indicated no significant difference between the intelligent students in different educational levels. However, these findings not overly explored the important
  7. 7. role of lateralization in relation of intelligence. Left handedness is correlated with occupation. Its proportion is increased among artists (actors, painters, and architects), the best tennis players, boxers, fencers, baseball players and factory workers. They are typically known to be sharper in stereognosis of objects. Some find that there is no consistent link between IQ and handedness.On the contrary, as a whole left-handed people are not more or less intelligent than right handed one’s and on average both are equal. There is a non-significant relationship between the handedness and intelligence, and there is no difference between left-handers and right-handers in terms of intelligence and abilities that can be detected. Left handers selfported die early Persson and Allebeck (1994) reported on death rates for right- and left-handers (based on shooting stance) who had been conscripted into the Swedish military. A retrospective evaluation, 19 to 20 years after the date of conscription, found no difference in relative risk (Odds Ratio 1.0) for death due to any cause for left-handers compared to right-handers. In that study, lefthanders had a modestly increased risk of dying in motor vehicle accidents (Odds Ratio 1.3). This study raised the statement that the left handers’ mortality come earlier than the right handers. Nevertheless, there is no evidence of Canada’s elderly that being left handers increase risk of death, based on the sample have been done by the researchers. The notion that left-handers die earlier than right-handers originated from observed generational differences in hand preference. Cross-generational data demonstrate a decline in the number of left-handers with age (Coren & Halpern, 1991). General differences traits of handedness and the hemisphere lateralization As for the basis of lateralization, most of studies have focused their attention on the genes and their inheritance (Rogers, 2007). Many of the recent studies also support such an approach in determining the influential factors on hand preference among individuals. The study carried out by Vuoksimaa et al.(2009) is one example of such researches that ends with
  8. 8. the conclusion that the result of their experiments “have shown that most of the variance in handedness is explained by environmental effects, while there are also some familial, probably genetic effects that are not detectible in smaller samples”. People said that the left handers are uniqe. They different from the other. The way how they do their daily activities are seem awkward. Uniqueness, early literature on psychology reveals that handedness is unique to human beings only. Other species are thought to be evenly distributed between leftand right- preference. However, the empirical data from the studies done by MacNeilage et al. challenge these views. They claimed that handedness is wide spread among other species, especially simians as well (Marchant and McGrew, 1998). it is because of the history of the letfies, panctuated by the expression of Bosman (2004) which is stated that the backround of the left handed One area of concern, which is highly referred to as being greatly related to handedness is the brain lateralization for language functions that has to do with the question of which hemisphere is dominant regarding linguistic processes among people. In fact, most of the studies conducted so far on handedness usually focused on the relationship between handedness and language sidedness (Vuoksimaa, 2009). Many studies have reported that the acquisition of language dominance of the left hemisphere because of the work that is dominated by the right people, because the right brain controls the left side of the body in terms of linguistic processing to a greater extent. Many writers say that all left-handed rightbrain dominant, but refer to the literature, a simple idea that is not true. However, these studies found conflicting results. It is most possible because of the diversity of methods used by the researcher. Some studies such as the work of Orton, for example, suggest that “reading disability and speech problems might be more prevalent in those lacking consistent cerebral asymmetry, as reflected in mixed- or left-handedness” (quoted by Corballis et al., 2009). Such claims, however, are challenged by the results of other researches such as that of Petrinovich, and Goldman, and the one conducted by McManus and Mascie-Taylor, which
  9. 9. has reported no difference between the left- and right-hand individuals in terms of their IQ. (Corballis et al., 2009).
  10. 10. Methodology Research design This research considered to qualitative research. According to Denzin and Lincoln (1994), qualitative research focuses on interpretation of phenomena in their natural settings to make sense in terms of the meanings people bring to these settings. Qualitative research involves collecting information about personal experiences, introspection, life story, interviews, observations, historical, interactions and visual text which are significant moments and meaningful in peoples' lives. Qualitative research is concerned with the social aspects of our world and seeks to find answers to the following questions (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). By using it, people are not attempting to predict what will happen in the future. It makes the people easy to understand the comparison between the left and right handed person. Case study method is indexed in many introductory research textbooks and is often taught in qualitative research methods courses that discuss a variety of methods. These may include grounded theory, phenomenology, discourse analysis and case study, for example. Reasonable goals for the learner would be to explore and understand the philosophical and aesthetic paradigms that are foundational to qualitative research methods, compare and contrast the distinctions among selected methods, evaluate traditional and emerging qualitative designs within their disciplinary area, and to apply methods and techniques. Using a step-wise approach students will learn how to design studies, generate data, analyze and interpret the data and disseminate findings. The teacher creates a teaching and learning environment to meet those outcomes (Donna M. Zucker, 2009). Site and participants The study consist of equal number of left handed and right handed participants. The sample select is gender free from Gorontalo. Handedness of the volunteers will divide into
  11. 11. the left handers that have more intelligence and those who are not, and the same are on the right handers. In order to compare them equally. Data collection In collecting data, the researcher will use several instruments. There are observation, interview and documentation. Observation part, the researcher will observe for those who intended, with the aim to find both self-concept. The next step the researcher will testing the participants. With plans to know about their behaviourism. The second is interview. In this part, the researcher will give several questions to the participants. The purpose of this interviewing is to know the left and right handed person pearticipants’ behaviorism, how they bring their self in social, in order to investigate what people’s view about them. And also the researcher may hear directly how they produce their words, and can properly compare them. The last one is documentation. Record will be use as a data source after obtain the informations of the various data collected. Procedure There are several steps that include in procedure. The first step the researcher will do is gain the participants based on the requirements. The researcher observe them then arrange the schedule for the next step is that interview. In interviewing, the researcher plans to ask several questions. While doing the interview, the documentation also ready. The documentation here is kind of recorder. The researcher deliver various of questions and record the informers, as the participants. Data analysis Data reduction Data reduction is a term that applies to the business practice of accumulating, analyzing and ultimately transforming massive amounts of data into a series of summarized reports. The idea behind the data reduction process is to provide a complete though somewhat
  12. 12. simplified format that can be utilized with relative ease in business settings. Several different approaches to the process may be used, with the selection of data reduction techniques and systems depending on the nature of the data and how those summary reports need to be structured in order to provide a full and comprehensive representation of that data (Admin). Drawing conclusion The most important parts of a research report are the descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of the data. What you do with the findings, i.e. the implications, are just as important. The research needs to identify for the reader why and how the analyses and interpretations were made and the way key concepts in the analyses evolved. In addition, the researcher needs to "inform the reader of any unexpected findings or patterns that emerged from the data and report a range of evidence to support assertions or interpretations presented." (Stainback and Stainback, 1988, p. 80-81). Validity According Gottschalk, (1995), the validity of a content analysis study refers to the correspondence of the categories (the classification that raters’ assigned to text content) to the conclusions, and the generalizability of results to a theory.
  13. 13. References Alvergne, A., Faurie, C., and Raymond, M. (2009). Variation in testosterone levels and male reproductive effort: Insight from a polygynous human population. Hormones and Behavior, 56, 491-497. Bennett, J. (1970). The Difference Between Right and Left. American Philosophical Quarterly 7 (1970), pp. 175–191 , 1-23. Cherry, K. (n.d.). About.com. Retrieved January 5, 2014, from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/a/drawing-conclusions.htm Dew, D. J. (1996). Are you a Right-Brain or Left-Brain Thinker? 1-6. Eligar, R. C. (2011). Correlation of Handedness and Intelligence in Adolescents. International Journal of Medicobiological , 1-3. Harris, B. (2013, December 8). What is Structural Grammar? Retrieved January 4, 2014, from WiseGEEK: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-structural-grammar.htm Karthiyanee Kutty, N. A. (2011). Relationship between handedness and ocular dominance in healthy young. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research , 1-3. Nordquist, R. (n.d.). About.com. Retrieved from Grammar & Composition: http://grammar.about.com/od/fh/g/grammarterm.htm Parvaneh K, S. T. (2011). Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain. BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience , 1-6. Rengin Kosif, M. D. (2012). Comparison of all hand digit length ratios in left - and righthanded individuals. 1-8. Saba Ghayas, A. A. (2007). Effect of Handedness on Intelligence Level of Students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology , 1-8. Shyamal Koley, A. P. (2010). Effect of Hand Dominance in Grip Strength in Collegiate. Anthropologist, 12(1): 13-16 (2010) , 1-4. Steenhuis, R. E. (2001). Handedness and Mortality. An examination of the hypothesis that left-handers , 1-8. Villarreal, O. D. (n.d.). Left handed in the workplace. 1-10. Zucker, D. M. (2009). How to Do Case Study Research. 1-17.