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Red Team Apocalypse (RVAsec Edition)

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TABLETOP SCENARIO: Your organization regularly patches, uses application whitelisting, has NextGen-NG™ firewalls/IDS’s, and has the latest Cyber-APT-Trapping-Blinky-Box™. You were just made aware that your entire customer database was found being sold on the dark web. Go. Putting too much trust in security products alone can be the downfall of an organization. In the 2015 BSides Tampa talk “Pentest Apocalypse” Beau discussed 10 different pentesting techniques that allow attackers to easily compromise an organization. These techniques still work for many organizations but occasionally more advanced tactics and techniques are required. This talk will continue where “Pentest Apocalypse” left off and demonstrate a number of red team techniques that organizations need to be aware of in order to prevent a “Red Team Apocalypse” as described in the tabletop scenario above.

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Red Team Apocalypse (RVAsec Edition)

  1. 1. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Red Team Apocalypse Derek Banks (@0xderuke) Beau Bullock (@dafthack)
  2. 2. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity About • Your organization has a vulnerability management program and regularly patches • You implemented application whitelisting and network egress controls • The latest round of pen testers didn’t find anything too concerning • You have the latest Cyber Anti APT Blinky box appliance • Your organization’s critical database is being sold on the dark web. • What happened?!
  3. 3. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity About Us • Pentesters at Black Hills Information Security • 14 SANS certs, OSCP, OSWP, and other certs… • CitySec Meetup Organizers • CigarCitySec – (Tampa, FL) • CitrusSec – (Orlando, FL • TidewaterSec – (Hampton, VA) • Tradecraft Security Weekly, Hacker Dialogues, & CoinSec podcasts • Avid OWA enthusiasts
  4. 4. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Original Pentest Apocalypse • Vulnerability Management Program • Group Policy Preferences • Widespread Local Administrator Account • Weak Passwords (Password Spraying) • Over Privileged Users • Sensitive Data in File Shares • Intranet Information Disclosure • NetBios and LLMNR Poisoning • Local Workstation Privilege Escalation
  5. 5. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Red Team vs Pen Test • Penetration test goals tend to be find as many vulnerabilities in the allotted time • Use COTS tools automated tools like vulnerability scanners • Generally not concerned with alerting the blue team • Red teams engagements model real world adversaries and are focused on achieving a goal • May use custom written malware and tools • Generally attempt to be stealthy and not alert the blue team
  6. 6. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Red Team Methodology • Reconnaissance • Compromise • Persistence • Command and Control • Asset Discovery • Privilege Escalation • Lateral Movement • Actions on Objectives
  7. 7. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Red Teaming G-Suite
  8. 8. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Hangouts Ruse • Remember this? -----------> • This was an invite to chat in Gmail • Apparently this was too much work for some users
  9. 9. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Hangouts Ruse • Now the default Google Hangouts settings allow direct chat without warning • Simply knowing the email address is all that’s needed • Pop a message box open to the target spoofing another person • Say hi, send link, capture creds and/or shell
  10. 10. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Hangouts Ruse • You can modify your default settings to enforce sending an invitation • But even then, spoofed accounts look good • To require invites: • Hangouts.google.com, click hamburger menu in top left, Settings, “Customize Invite Settings”, switch all to “Can send you an invitation” • There doesn’t appear to be a global option for locking down accounts across an org
  11. 11. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Doc Ruse • What if you could get Google to send a phishing link for you? • Google Docs is perfect for this • Create a Google Doc with clickbait name like “Critical Update Pending” • Add content, then add a comment to the doc with your phishing link • In the comment, type their email address prefixed with a + symbol (i.e. +hacker@gmail.com) then check ‘Assign’ • Google will send the target an email from <random- string>@docs.google.com
  12. 12. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Doc Ruse
  13. 13. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Doc Ruse
  14. 14. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Calendar Event Injection • Silently inject events into calendars • Creates urgency via reminders • Include a link to a fake agenda • An email isn’t necessary, simply add a Google user to an event and select checkbox to not notify them • Google will automatically add it to their calendar • This presents a unique phishing situation
  15. 15. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Google Calendar Event Injection • A few ideas: • Include a link to a conference call site but have it pointing to a credential collection page (CredSniper!) • Include a malicious “agenda” • Have victims navigate to a fake Google Auth page and collect creds • Gets more fun with Google API • It’s possible to make it look like they already accepted the invite! • This completely bypasses the setting in G-calendar for not auto-adding events. •
  16. 16. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Email Attacks
  17. 17. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Business Email Compromise • Externally accessible email portals are a target • Even if they are 2FA • OWA I’m looking at you • Cloud services are a target too (Gmail, O365, etc.) • Pen testers may overlook email systems as a target • Threat actors (and Red Teamers) do not • Email is a huge resource for an attacker to learn more about your environment
  18. 18. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Business Email Compromise • MailSniper • https://github.com/dafthack/MailSniper • Domain / Username enumeration • Password Spraying • GAL Download • Open Inbox delegation discovery • Email searching for terms like passwords, 2FA codes, etc… • Bypasses some 2FA products by connecting to EWS instead of OWA •
  19. 19. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity OWA Attack Flow
  20. 20. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Expired Categorized Domains
  21. 21. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Expired Categorized Domains • Technique used to circumvent categorization web proxy blocks for C2 • Uses previous categorization for some length of time • Trivial to find • expireddomains.net • Domainhunter.py • Simulates using a compromised 3rd party website
  22. 22. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Hashes Just Wanna Be Cracked
  23. 23. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Kerberoasting • Ability for any domain user to query the domain for a Service Principal Name for an account associated with running a service • A request to authenticate over Kerberos results in a service ticket where a portion is encrypted with the service account hash • Effectively any domain user can get a hash of a service account with an SPN and take the resulting ticket offline and attempt to crack it
  24. 24. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Evil Twin Wireless Attack • Evil Wireless AP that uses the same ESSID as the target AP • Goal is to trick a user into joining the evil AP and gather the NetNTLMv2 hash from the authentication attempt • Eaphammer from s0lst1c3 • https://github.com/s0lst1c3/eaphammer • Hostapd-wpe • https://github.com/OpenSecurityResearch/ hostapd-wpe • Aircrack suite
  25. 25. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Weaponized LNK File • Place shortcut file located on a commonly used public share • Icon for shortcut points back a UNC location on attacker system • SMB Listener on attacker controlled system • Can use Inveigh for the listener • https://github.com/Kevin- Robertson/Inveigh • Gather NetNTLMv2 hashes
  26. 26. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Onsite Attacks
  27. 27. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity NAC Bypass • Spoof another device • Find a printer or VOIP phone; Spoof MAC and/or IP • Voiphopper to hop VLAN’s • For Wi-Fi NAC spoof MAC and User Agent of connected device • Layer 2 and 3 NAT device • Helps avoid triggering port security rules on 802.1X • Device spoofs both sides of wire • Passively learns MAC addresses
  28. 28. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Dropbox • Fully functional pentesting device to leave at onsite • Persistent reverse SSH tunnels • Can be controlled over WiFi • Relatively unnoticeable • ODROID-C2 build instructions here: • https://www.blackhillsinfosec.com/how-to- build-your-own-penetration-testing-drop- box/
  29. 29. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity PXE Booting Attacks • Obtain the “Golden” image from the network • Set VM to “Boot from network”, boot VM, and get the image • Mount image & profit • Steal Admin hashes • Set local admin pass pre-boot • Overwrite Sticky keys (sethc.exe)
  30. 30. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Post Exploitation
  31. 31. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity PowerUp SQL • PowerShell tool for attacking MSSQL • https://github.com/NetSPI/PowerUpSQL • SQL Server discovery • Weak configuration auditing • Privilege escalation • Data sample searches • OS command injection • All at scale across the enterprise
  32. 32. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Living off the Land • Using built in Windows tools to avoid dropping malware • Internal user and group recon • Remote file listing and copying data • Remote process spawning • Lateral movement
  33. 33. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Living off the Land • Net commands • net groups “DOMAIN ADMINS” /DOMAIN • Listing files on remote hosts • dir hostC$files • WinRM to run remote commands (port 5985) • Invoke-Command -ComputerName -ScriptBlock {Command Here}
  34. 34. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity EDR Bypass Techniques
  35. 35. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity About that Bypass Technique • Recently some products have been getting a little better… • But they still seem to be getting better at catching pen testers and common tools • And then sometimes its just stupid simple to get past a well known security product
  36. 36. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Bypass Techniques • When you need to run Mimikatz but it gets blocked/alerted on • Open Task Manager • Right click the LSASS process • Click ‘Create dump file’ • Run Mimikatz against dump file offline • It’s a feature!
  37. 37. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Stealthy Host/Domain Enumeration • More and more AV, behavioral analysis, app whitelisting, etc. products are starting to either block or alert on built-in system commands • Ex. net, ipconfig, whoami, netstat, etc. • HostRecon PowerShell instead of built- in commands • https://github.com/dafthack/HostRecon • Combine with PowerShell Without PowerShell technique for added bonus
  38. 38. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Detection and Prevention
  39. 39. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Solid Systems Administration • Systems and software inventory (yes, CSC Top 20 are useful) • Workstations should never talk to workstations - client to server communication only • Windows firewall or Private VLANS • Baseline images with GPO enforcement • All inbound and outbound network traffic go through an application proxy system • Any exceptions for direct outbound communication are by documented exception only •
  40. 40. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Enforce Good User Behavior • Change every inbound email subject line with a tag such as (External): • Inform your users that any email with that tag needs extra scrutiny • Minimum of 15 characters for any domain account password • If you have to compromise to sell it to the business, no complexity requirements and 6 month change interval • Consider additional credential defenses • Commercial offerings available • CredDefense Toolkit for Free • https://github.com/creddefense
  41. 41. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Host Log Consolidation • Consolidate key logs from endpoints, servers, and appliances to a central location • Specifically monitor PowerShell and process execution • Sysmon a powerful and free option for gaining insight into host based activity • Once the logging foundation is in place, alert on “abnormal commands” like net commands • Can be done on the cheap: • https://www.blackhillsinfosec.com/end-point-log-consolidation-windows- event-forwarder/
  42. 42. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Network Logging • NetFlow, Bro, or Full Packet Capture? • Depends on your budget and staff capabilities • Bro is a good balance between NetFlow 5-Tuple and Full Packet Capture mass storage requirements • Out of the box captures common protocols into text based files • Can provide an amount of visibility into SSL traffic without breaking SSL • Abnormal certificate information • SSL fingerprinting - JA3 project - https://github.com/salesforce/ja3 • Beacon detection with RITA (AIHunt) • https://www.blackhillsinfosec.com/projects/rita/
  43. 43. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Red Team Prepper • Don’t wait on the Red Team prepare on your own • Use @vysecurity’s Red Team Tips to find techniques to try to detect • https://github.com/vysec/RedTips • MITRE ATT&CK Framework for threat actor techniques • https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Main_Page • Red Canary’s Atomic Red Team - portable scripts to test ATT&CK framework • https://github.com/redcanaryco/atomic-red-team
  44. 44. © Black Hills Information Security | @BHInfoSecurity Summary and Conclusions • Black Hills Information Security • http://www.blackhillsinfosec.com • @BHInfoSecurity • Beau Bullock @dafthack • Derek Banks @deruke • Questions?

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