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Rosin Research

My research about sizing agent in papermaking

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Rosin Research

  1. 1. Gondorukem Processing To Be Sizing Agent For Additive Substance In Papermaking MAHAMMAD KHADAFI, IKE ROSTIKA, TAUFAN HIDAYAT CENTER FOR PULP AND PAPER MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY
  2. 2. OUTLINE
  3. 3. Introduction • Gondorukem (Resina Colophium) is solid form of resin that obtain from pine tree (Pinus Merkusii) and produced by steam distillation process of fresh liquid resin. Gondorukem Volatile Compound Pinus Merkusii By Product Pine Resin (Oleoresin) Steam distillationExtraction (Rezzi et al., 2005)
  4. 4. Introduction Sizing Papermaking • Sizing in papermaking is a process to inhibit the aqueous liquid penetration in paper by modified the hydrophilic fiber surface structure to hydrophobic layer. Either in the body of sheet of paper (internal sizing) or through the surface of sheet (surface sizing). Forming (Gess, 1996) ; ( Hubbe, 2007)
  5. 5. Introduction Rosin as Sizing Agent Pimarane Type Abitane Type • Chemical composition of gondorukem is 90% - 95% diterpenic monocarboxylic acid compound that has ampliphilic molecules reactive group. The component of rosin chemical compound divided into pimarane and abitane type (Soltes and Zinkel, 1989)
  6. 6. Introduction Rosin as Sizing Agent • Rosin can be applied as paper sizing agent in the acidic condition (pH < 7). Because of that rosin has several weaknesses such as : effluent is polutant, corrosive in paper machine and paper strength (physical properties) losses and also yellowing. • Reinforce rosin (rosin fortified) is the result of rosin modification by chemical reaction of abietic acid with maleic or fumaric anhydride with temperature over 100oC to obtain the structure with higher hydrophilicity characters. H+ Over 100oC Rosin Fortified (MPA)(Kirk and Othmer, 1972)
  7. 7. Materials and Method Materials  Equipment that used are: a) Soxhlet apparatus b) Agitator c) Water bath d) Physical properties tester e) Extraction flask f) Cobb 60 tester g) Heating mantle  Materials that used are: a) Gondorukem b) Alum c) Ethanol d) NaOH e) Sulphuric acid f) Maleat anhydride g) Gliserine h) Commercial rosin emulsion i) PAC
  8. 8. Materials and Method Physical and chemical properties testing • Based on direct observationColour • Based on SNI 08-7070-2005Water Content • Based on SNI 7636 : 2011Softening Point • Based on RSNI3 7676 : 2010Acid number • Based onTAPPIT628 cm - 01Saponification number • Solubility on toluena with comparison 1:1Solubility • Based on SNI 7636 : 2011Dirt content
  9. 9. Materials and Method Preparation of Rosin Emulsion Solid gondorumkem • Crushed Gondorukem powder • Doing acid and saponification number tester Result from calculation • Count ratio of NaOH needs The needs of NaOH obtained • Saponification reaction with alcohol mediumT = 90oC Saponification rosin • Added maleic anhydride T = 180oC Reinforce rosin • Solubility test Rosin emulsion
  10. 10. Result and Discussion Physical and Chemical properties of Gondorukem Testing Gondorukem Spesification (SNI 7636 : 2011) Grade X Grade WW Colour* (Gardner standard) Yellow (6) Yellow - Brown (7) 6 – 7 Softening point 88oC 90oC ≥ 78oC Saponification number 199,74 195,84 170 - 220 Dirt content 0,07% 0,04% ≤ 0,05% Solubility in Toluen Soluble Soluble Soluble Acid number 179,92 176,58 160 - 190 Water Content 2,30% 1,82% - • Both of gondorukem meet the standard spesification based on SNI 7636:2011, but gondorukem for gradeWW is more favourable to be rosin sizing agent than grade X due to lower impurity content; lower acid number (free carboxylic group) and also higher softneing point.
  11. 11. Result and Discussion Chromatograms of fatty acid component analysis (GC-MS method) Gondorukem grade X Gondorukem grade WW
  12. 12. Result and Discussion Fatty Acid Composition of Gondorukem (GC-MS method) Fatty acid composition Gondorukem Grade WW Grade X Saturated fatty acid 43,20% 45,68% Butyrate (C-4) 0% 23,10% Caproate (C-6) 11,40% 7,42% Undecanoic (C-11) 5,56% 4,58% Capric (C-10) 6,14% 5,89% Palmitoleic (C-18) 20,10% 5,56% Unsaturated fatty acid 56,80% 54,32% • Analysis of fatty acid composition can be obtain that grade WW has more unsaturated fatty acid composition than grade X. And also there’s small number of short chain saturated fatty acid, it means that grade X is easy oxidized by free air condition.
  13. 13. Result and Discussion Process of making rosin emulsion NaOH PelletsEthanol + Alcoholic NaOH Solution Condition T 150oC, 180 rpm, 1 hour + Maleic anhydride 0%, 3%, 5% & 8% Gondorukem Powder
  14. 14. Result and Discussion Application on Papermaking 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 2 3 4 Cobbfactor(g/m2) Number of Sample Rosin standard Rosin MA 0% Rosin MA 3% Rosin MA 5% Rosin MA 8% • The result of Cobb test factor can be conclude that Rosin emulsion with 3% of MA treatment has similarity water penetration factor with rosin standard. Graph for handsheet water penetration testing (Cobb test)
  15. 15. Result and Discussion Application on Papermaking 61.87 54.28 63.08 48.16 51.66 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Rosin standard Rosin MA 0% Rosin MA 3% Rosin MA 5% Rosin MA 8% TearIndeks(Nm/g) Tearing Index 80 59.8 95.9 72.1 66.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Rosin standard Rosin MA 0% Rosin MA 3% Rosin MA 5% Rosin MA 8% GsmTotal Grammage with size 200cm2 2.47 2.56 2.66 2.2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Rosin standard Rosin MA 0% Rosin MA 3% Rosin MA 5% Rosin MA 8% Percentage(%) Tensile Index 6.62 5.93 6.59 4.5 5.53 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rosin standard Rosin MA 0% Rosin MA 3% Rosin MA 5% Rosin MA 8% TEA(Kgfm/m2) Tensile Energy Adsorpsion
  16. 16. Conclusion  Gondorukem grade WW meets the spesification standard based on SNI 7636 : 2011 for making rosin emulsion than gondorukem grade X  By adding 3% maleic anhydride, rosin emulsion can be obtained in optimum condition with average Cobb Testing Factor 25,34 lower than rosin emulsion standard 27,64.  The physical properties of handsheet with 3% MA rosin emulsion is higher for testing parameter such as tearing index, grammage, TEA and tensile index than 0%, 5% and 8% MA treatment.

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  • rehanahmad91

    Nov. 10, 2018

My research about sizing agent in papermaking

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