USD340 Games In Education


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Presentation given at the Jefferson West USD340 offices on Feb 17, 2010 as part of their professional development initiative

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  • "A guild master must be adept at many skills: attracting, evaluating, and recruiting new members; creating apprenticeship programs; orchestrating group strategy; and adjudicating disputes. Guilds routinely splinter over petty squabbles and other basic failures of management; the master must resolve them without losing valuable members, who can easily quit and join a rival guild." Brown, J.S. & Thomas, D. (2006). "You Play World of Warcraft? You're Hired!" Wired 14.04. Core Subjects and 21 st Century Themes Math, Language Arts, Science, Social Studies Global Awareness and Civic Literacy Economic and Business Literacy Health Literacy Learning and Innovation Skills Creativity, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Communication and Collaboration Information Media and Technology Skills Information and Media Literacy - Communication and Technology Literacy Life and Career Skills Flexibility and Adaptability - Initiative, Productivity, and Self-direction Social Skills - Leadership, Accountability and Responsibility
  •,6903,673103,00.html The " thumb tribe " ( 親指族 ) - who primarily input text through the telephone numerical layout - show serious inexperience with using PCs and with typing on a real keyboard. They are "retrogressing" to a point where they have the pathetic PC skills of their out-of-date elders. Over the last six years, almost all age groups have seen their share of total home PC access usage increase - except for 20 year-olds who have dropped from making up 23.6% to now only 11.9%. This current rate means that they make up an almost identical proportion of the total as 50 year-olds. Kids are saying that they use e-mail to talk to their teachers, or for their jobs. “E-mail is useful for talking to adults.” Most of their interpersonal contact is via IM, or through postings on social networking sites.
  • 18:02-19:00 - Jenkins New media is adopted early by kids. Generation growing up with a technology treat it in a pragmatic manner. Next generation of teachers will have had game experience and it will be part of their culture. 20:44-21:05 - Gee The future is going to belong to people who are tech savvy and comfortable with technology, who don't view tech learning as hard or special but instead as an everyday thing. Active Web 2.0 – students are creators. In his book Joystick Nation , J.C. Herz wrote “TV turned kids of the fifties and sixties into a nation of screen watchers, videogames have created a cadre of screen manipulators”. At the very least, kids expect to be able to comment. Usually they want to construct. Multi-tasking The brain is linear in its application. Multi-tasking is really quickly switching and frequently between tasks. This comes naturally to a digital native, but makes non-natives uncomfortable. Non-linear thinking Hypertext and information on demand allows students to explore. Depth of thought is often exchanged for breadth of experience, leaving detailed information for on-demand searching – why memorize the periodic table when you can look it up whenever you need it? Be aware stat student research may lead them away from their initial topic idea. Ubiquity Technology is everywhere, and kids expect to be able to connect with anyone, anytime. See “periodic table” above Technical Fluency Compare to a person who is speaking a foreign language. Even if you speak it well, a native speaker sounds like he is talking faster. A digital native just “knows” how to interact with technology just as a native of a foreign country knows how to interact in a new situation. A native speaker uses nuances, slang, and assumptions of cultural reference. “Invisible bike” or “Leeeroy Jenkins” Feedback Instant feedback is expected. Students will desire frequent reward opportunities. Very clear goals and requirements are desired. And those goals should be individualized as much as possible (next) Individualization Digital Natives expect that their technology will be customized for them. Gone are the days of the model-T (“any color you want as long as it is black”) or the princess phone. Web sites, stores, music, and even material things are individual and customized. Risk-takers Losing a game or failing a task just means that you need to try again. Learning new technology (which happens all the time) is a matter of just trying something and watching how it responds. Mastery priciples should come into play to give students more opportunities – errors are chances to grow rather than failures to learn. Information sifting Students can manage vast amounts of information. They can quickly categorize data and find the relevant parts. For example, embedded advertising and popup windows.
  • 1) simulations that teach about something, i.e.: a) Physical simulations – tectonic plates b) Process simulations – supply and demand 2) simulations that teach how to do something, i.e.: a) Procedural simulations – use a scientific calculator b) Situational simulations – deal with classroom management problems 5:20–5:35 Lemonade Stand Try out “Food Force”
  • In “assessment” games, incidental learning of content is minimized. Learning takes place in preparation for the game, but the actual play has few opportunities for incidental learning of the content. Of course students do learn about interpersonal, intrapersonal, problem solving, communication, and life skills (like time management) strategies even in assessment games.
  • Beginning Video 2:30-3:30 (Jenkins and Gee) Engagement 6:50-7:25 - Jenkins teachers complain that making education "fun" devalues the process of hard work. instead we should talk about "engagement" Active Multi-tasking Non-linear thinking Ubiquity Technical Fluency Feedback Individualization Risk-takers Information sifting
  • Active Multi-tasking Non-linear thinking Ubiquity Technical Fluency Feedback Individualization Risk-takers Information sifting
  • Active Multi-tasking Non-linear thinking Ubiquity Technical Fluency Feedback Individualization Risk-takers Information sifting
  • Active Multi-tasking Non-linear thinking Ubiquity Technical Fluency Feedback Individualization Risk-takers Information sifting
  • Active Multi-tasking Non-linear thinking Ubiquity Technical Fluency Feedback Individualization Risk-takers Information sifting 5:35 -6:00 - Jenkins Kids will go to bed early to avoid difficult homework, but will stay up late to beat a difficult game The worst thing a kid will say about homework is that it is too hard. The worst thing they'll say about a game is that it is too easy 6:00-6:55 - Clark Aldritch Teachers need to take advantage of frustration
  • 4:00-4:30 - Clark Aldrich It is really hard to use a simulation or computer game in a classroom. It is not the same skill set that we use when lecturing or giving tests or even in a lab. It is one of the great next generation teaching skills is to take something like Civilization and use it in the classroom. 4:30-5:20 - James Gee SWAT team, following the rules need similar games to teach kids about other systems, like doing good science
  • Why? Assessments, basic skill attainment
  • On certain kinds of knowledge, like parts of speech, site words (reading recognition) and arithmetic, a student needs to become very fluent (accurate and fast). To build that speed and fluency we need to first build up the response rate to which they perform these skills, disregarding the errors. Once we get a response rate high, we need to focus on the accuracy rate. See an immediate drop in response rate but will build up quickly. Need to be sensible…not use subjects that kids know nothing about, this won’t work. If kids are using fingers to add, this would work for them. Disregard errors until rate is up, then knock out errors. It’s easier to knock out errors than it is to build up speed.
  • 26 million online in Korea. 54% play online games. Lineage has 150,000 simultaneous users, country the size of Indiana. Corporate sponsorship for gamers
  • Human Interface Technology Lab (
  • 7:25-7:55 - Gee Simulations, benefits Good for risk taking, exploration, thinking about complex systems. Games have rules, players have to leverage it and use it for your own purposes. modern way of thinking
  • 8:40-10:35 - Revolution
  • This is a good example of incidental learning. In many games where a market is significant, players who want to participate meaningfully in the market need to understand real world economic characteristics. Most players do just fine playing the game as if they were selling their treasure at garage sales – they try to sell what they have quickly and not to get cheated while making a small amount of money. However a significant number of players treat the online markets as serious business. Castranova article Kaufman grant re: Junior Achievement (Segue into COH)
  • USD340 Games In Education

    1. 1. Games in Education Doug Adams ALTEC/
    2. 2. Food Force <ul><li> </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why Games? 21 st Century Skills
    4. 4. The Millennial Generation <ul><li>“ Millennials” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Generation Y” </li></ul><ul><li>“ N-Gen”, “Generation Next” </li></ul><ul><li>Oyayubizoku ( 親指族 ) = “Thumb Tribe” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Digital Natives” </li></ul>
    5. 5. Characteristics of Digital Natives <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linear thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul>
    6. 6. Tapping into 21 st Century Learners! Henry Jenkins James Gee 2:30-3:30
    7. 7. What is a Game? <ul><li>A competitive activity in which players follow a set of rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive: Single player (player versus self), multi-player, computer controlled player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: player actions affect outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define victory conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe legal play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate games from one another </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Simulations <ul><li>Simulation: a reproduction or representation of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Some simulations are games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sim City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo Tycoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ serious games” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some simulations may not be games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinematic re-enactments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical or geographical exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incidental Learning – Food Force (if ready) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Gaming in Education <ul><li>Do not, my friend, keep children to their studies by compulsion, but by play -- Plato, Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Games have been widely used in education throughout history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling bees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common uses are assessment and practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental learning minimized </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Gaming in Education <ul><li>The 1970s saw a dramatic increase in the use of games for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><li>“ As the true character of gaming as a unique communication form becomes clear, its use… will become pervasive” Richard Duke (1974), The Future’s Language </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980s there was a focus on basic skill development – Reader Rabbit & Math Blaster </li></ul>
    11. 11. Why Games? Brain Research <ul><li>The brain developed to solve problems related to surviving in an unstable outdoor environment that occur in near constant motion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Medina, Brain Rules </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Why Games? Brain Research <ul><li>If you wanted to create an educational environment that is directly opposed to what the brain is good at doing, you would probably design something like the modern classroom . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Medina, Brain Rules </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Patterns The human brain loves patterns. We see patterns all around, in everyday life, in nature, in man-made objects. We see patterns even when they don’t exist
    14. 18. Emotion <ul><li>Our brains work best when there are emotions involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul></ul>
    15. 19. Collaboration Our brains want to work with others
    16. 20. Games… … provide structured patterns … create emotional connections … encourage collaboration
    17. 21. <ul><li>“ Better theories of learning are embedded in the video games many children play than in the schools they attend.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Paul Gee What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy </li></ul></ul>
    18. 22. What kinds of theories? <ul><li>Student-centered learning </li></ul><ul><li>Peer teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy, role-play </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Development of expertise </li></ul>
    19. 23. Frustration and Flow 5:35-7:25 Flow: the mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. ( Mihály Csíkszentmihályi ) It's good for a player when they learn that their failure will never depend on luck, it's all because they strived, learned and finally succeeded.  And at the end, all the fun from this type of game comes down to the joy of learning Gamasutra: The Art and Business of Making Games
    20. 24. Umm, what?
    21. 25. How Games Teach <ul><li>Activity – a game depends on learner not being passive </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement – longer time on task, greater involvement, rewards </li></ul><ul><li>X2: Exploration and Experimentation – support creativity, scientific thinking, opportunity for (relatively consequence free) failure </li></ul>
    22. 26. How Games Teach <ul><li>Frequent achievement – smaller tasks with individual rewards, motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding competence – scaffolding and breadcrumbs </li></ul><ul><li>No right answer </li></ul><ul><li>Working within a set of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Language – signs, symbols, slang all promote language skills. Game literacy = world literacy </li></ul>
    23. 27. How Games Teach <ul><li>Social nature </li></ul><ul><li>Identity and empathy – students identify with characters and situations </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation – students can explore situations that are otherwise impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Practice – drill and repetition </li></ul>
    24. 28. How Games Teach <ul><li>Application – learn and apply new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Context – relationship between objectives and game content </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback cycle – analysis > decision > feedback > analysis </li></ul>
    25. 29. How Games Teach <ul><li>Multimodal – text, images, sounds, symbols, actions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection – emphasis on thinking, problem solving rather than “twitch” </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery – Experienced players teach new players, experts become mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge – game players seek out difficult or challenging tasks </li></ul>
    26. 30. Limitations of Games <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment with standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccurate information (most games aren’t designed to be “educational” at all!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fidelity of simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transfer of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical skills </li></ul></ul>3:30-5:30
    27. 31. Challenges for Teachers <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrics, participation, presentations </li></ul></ul>
    28. 32. Management Strategies <ul><li>Set Expectations & Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Safety & Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Note Home </li></ul><ul><li>Student Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate for Freshness </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Links Organized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Site, Trackstar, Delicious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kids suggestion box </li></ul>
    29. 33. Concerns about Games <ul><li>They cause violence </li></ul><ul><li>They are just for boys </li></ul><ul><li>They are just for kids </li></ul>“ Reality Bytes: Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked” by Henry Jenkins
    30. 34. Scientific American A pernicious excitement to learn and play _____ has spread all over the country, and numerous clubs for playing this game have been formed in cities and villages. Why should we regret this? It may be asked. We answer, _____ is a mere amusement of very inferior character, which robs the mind of valuable time that might be devoted to nobler acquirements, while it affords no benefit whatever to the body. _____ has acquired a high reputation as being a means to discipline the mind, but persons engaged in sedentary occupations should never practice this cheerless game; they require out-door exercises—not this sort of mental gladiatorship.
    31. 35. Scientific American, July, 1859 A pernicious excitement to learn and play chess has spread all over the country, and numerous clubs for playing this game have been formed in cities and villages. Why should we regret this? It may be asked. We answer, chess is a mere amusement of very inferior character, which robs the mind of valuable time that might be devoted to nobler acquirements, while it affords no benefit whatever to the body. Chess has acquired a high reputation as being a means to discipline the mind, but persons engaged in sedentary occupations should never practice this cheerless game; they require out-door exercises—not this sort of mental gladiatorship.
    32. 36. Current Majority: Skill & Drill <ul><li>Mr. Nussbaum / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore for a while </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare “true games” to “simulations” or “activities” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why are most games “drill and practice”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this sort of activity outdated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a place for it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can it still be standards based? </li></ul></ul>1X1=1 2X2=4 3X3=9 4X4=16
    33. 37. ALTEC Games <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math and Language Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angles and Coordinates </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. Jerry Chaffin Theory <ul><li>Rate vs. Percent Correct </li></ul><ul><li>Certain Types of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Build Fluency (accuracy and speed) </li></ul><ul><li>Build speed, disregard accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Once response rate is high, focus on accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate drop is speed, but quick to recover </li></ul><ul><li>Sensible use, kids need foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Adding on fingers, skill and drill is for you </li></ul>
    35. 39. Elementary Math & Language Arts Single & multiplayer Arcademic Skill Builders
    36. 40. <ul><li>Goal: Use emerging technology games and digital tools in after-school programs to improve middle school mathematics achievement of students in urban and rural schools not making AYP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio & Proportion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear Equations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data & Statistics </li></ul></ul>
    37. 41. Plotter Penguin <ul><li>Linear equations </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Adding to X and Y </li></ul><ul><li>Rise and run </li></ul><ul><li>Slope </li></ul><ul><li>Enemy boss </li></ul>
    38. 42. Laser Sonic Spy Using a protractor Reading a protractor Estimation Angle of reflection/ angle of approach http:// /
    39. 43. Vocabulary Ranker Multiplayer Understanding vocabulary Finding examples Peer review
    40. 44. What makes a game… Standards-Based? Worthy? Valid? <ul><li>“ Span It” Basic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>“ Big Al” Biology </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Design a Planet” Planet Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bedtime Bandits” Time </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li>“ Banana Hut” Angles </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    41. 45. Other Sites with Game Lists Top 100 Interactive Educational Games OCSD Interactive Games Mr. Nussbaum http:// / Education World: Sites to See
    42. 46. More Game Examples Food Force Stop Disasters Magic Pen You Are the Historian Team Treks Third World Farmer Minyanland ElectroCity Nanoquest Real Lives Traveler IQ The Forbidden City Discover Babylon Dimension Math Lunar Quest Web Rangers Peacemaker Budget Hero Redistricting Game
    43. 47. Virtual worlds in games <ul><li>Massively multiplayer online games are the fastest growing segment of the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular are modeled after heroic fantasy, but other themes are prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>80% of players are over 19 years old, 60% are male </li></ul><ul><li>Many worlds will support 500,00-1,000,000 players from around the world online at any time </li></ul>
    44. 48. Therapeutic Applications of Virtual Environments <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobias ( Spider World , flying, speaking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-traumatic Stress Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction (exercise, games, ChocolateWorld) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain relief ( Snow World ) </li></ul></ul>
    45. 49. Virtual worlds can be: <ul><li>Immersive </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Compelling </li></ul>
    46. 50. Immersive <ul><li>Three-dimensional world, often with a first-person view </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling of realistic environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passage of time (night/day, food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling of imaginary or impossible environments </li></ul>7:25-8:00
    47. 51. Interactive <ul><li>More than 500,000 players at any given time… </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of communication channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person to person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with computer-controlled characters </li></ul></ul>
    48. 52. Persistent <ul><li>Player characters retain what they earn from one session to another </li></ul><ul><li>Some games allow substantial environmental changes driven by players </li></ul><ul><li>In all games, the world continues whether YOU are logged in or not. </li></ul>
    49. 53. Compelling <ul><li>Typical player spends 22 hours per week in the game (Yee) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Players described the game as an “addiction” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ NeverRest” or “World of Warcrack” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>40% say they spend more time in the world than they do at work (Castranova) </li></ul><ul><li>25% are online for more than 40 hours per week (Haran, BBC News) </li></ul><ul><li>25% report they would spend all of their time in the world, if they could (Yee) </li></ul>
    50. 54. Fine, but how is it educational? <ul><li>Don’t we want all of our educational experiences to be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What would you do with your students if you could visit a virtual world ? </li></ul>
    51. 55. Historical visits Learn about pyramids by seeing them as they were being constructed                                
    52. 56. Historical visits Explore Colonial Williamsburg and see what life was like at the time of the American Revolution 8:30-10:30
    53. 57. Other virtual exploration <ul><li>Difficult or expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space , ocean, volcano </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International visits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microscopic or invasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore an anthill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Futuristic or imaginary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice in Wonderland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martian colony </li></ul></ul>
    54. 58. Interact with ‘bots The Guide says, “Hello, Doug. Welcome to the Louvre museum. What would you like to [see]?” You say, “I want to see the Mona Lisa.” The Guide says, “Go to the left and through the arch to see the work of [Leonardo da Vinci], including the [Mona Lisa]” You say, “Who is Leonardo da Vinci?” The Guide says, “Leonardo da Vinci was an artist and engineer born in [Florence] in 1452. His work epitomized the [Renaissance]. His best known works…”
    55. 59. Interact with other users <ul><li>Chat window </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could support simultaneous translation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, supports voice to voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could support voice to text eventually </li></ul></ul>
    56. 60. Math and Economics <ul><li>Planning and goal setting ( Club Penguin ) </li></ul><ul><li>Auctioning and bidding systems </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual stock exchanges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MarketWatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollywood Stock Exchange </li></ul></ul>
    57. 61. Club Penguin
    58. 62. Economics in Virtual Worlds <ul><li>Thousands of buy and sell transactions occur daily, as players trade items within the game </li></ul><ul><li>Economic transactions impact on real world </li></ul><ul><li>Real economic and social models can be explored </li></ul>
    59. 63. City of Heroes Survey of Discussion Topics 7/15/09 <ul><li>Speculative markets </li></ul><ul><li>Variants on auction strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Market functions and mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrage </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trading transparency” </li></ul>
    60. 64. Protea's Guide to Market Participation “ The instant resolution nature of the consignment house has an interesting effect on steady-state properties of the market. Let’s suppose for a moment that the system is seeded with a large number of random entries for both bids and postings: (b1 b2 … bN) and (p1 p2 … pN) The subscripts here denote increasing denominations of currency, i.e. both the bids and postings are sorted within their own pools. As long as any bids are higher than any postings, the system will resolve transactions and remove those bids and postings from play. If there are any bids and postings left, which we would expect in many instances, there are by definition two domains in the market afterwards: (b1 b2 … bM) ... (pM+1 pM+2 … pN) That is, the highest remaining bid is lower than the lowest remaining posting. In other words, these two domains – known as the bid pool and the sell pool - are disjoint. They have in a very tangible sense become two separate markets.”
    61. 65. Sources Don't Bother Me Mom--I'm Learning!  by Marc Prensky – Paragon House Publishers (2006) What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy by James Paul Gee – Palgrave Macmillan; 2nd edition (2007) How Computer Games Help Children Learn by David Williamson Shaffer – Palgrave Macmillan (2008) Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives  by John Palfrey – Basic Books (2008) Grand Theft Childhood: The Surprising Truth About Violent Video Games and What Parents Can Do by Lawrence Kutner – Simon & Schuster (2008) Brain Rules by John Medina – Pear Press (2008) http:// / “ Reality Bytes: Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked” by Henry Jenkins Federation of American Scientists - Summit on Educational Games (2006) “ Games, Motivation, and Learning” - White Paper (PDF) “ You Play World of Warcraft? You're Hired! Why multiplayer games may be the best kind of job training” by John Seely Brown and Douglas Thomas ( Wired Magazine, April, 2006) Games in Education video by Mark Wagner and Michael Guerena of the Orange County (CA) Department of Education's Educational Technology group --
    62. 66. Web Sites This Presentation – http:// 4Kids – Arcademic Skill Builders – Matrix Games -- Dimension Math (fee-based, demos online) -- Mr. Nussbaum -- Oswego County School District -- National Library of Virtual Manipulatives – Club Penguin – http:// Virtual Stock Exchange – Hollywood Stock Exchange – Marc Prensky’s Web site – http:// /writing/ Henry Jenkins’ blog – http://