How Games Teach - MACE 08


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  • How Games Teach - MACE 08

    1. 1. How Games Teach Doug Adams ALTEC
    2. 2. Resources and Files <ul><li>This PowerPoint: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>My Wiki page: </li></ul><ul><li>http://dadams- </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Expectations in Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games and Education </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Why Games? <ul><li>21 st Century Skills </li></ul>
    4. 4. Scientific American Magazine July, 1903 <ul><li>“ The letter of a century ago still has a certain literary value. Nowadays we only ‘correspond’ or we ‘beg to state.’ It still remains for our children to discard the forms of polite address which have come down to us. The letter of the future will be a colorless communication of telegraphic brevity. ” </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Millennial Generation <ul><li>“ Millennials” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Generation Y” </li></ul><ul><li>“ N-Gen”, “Generation Next” </li></ul><ul><li>Oyayubizoku ( 親指族 ) = “Thumb Tribe” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Japanese have become so adept at their phones — manipulating a set of cursor keys or a button-sized joystick by thumb — that some people refer to a new ' thumb culture '. ( The Daily Telegraph , August 7, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Digital Natives” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kids say e-mail is, like, sooooo dead.” – CNET News , July 18, 2007 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Characteristics of Digital Natives <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linear thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-takers </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul>
    7. 7. Attitudes in the Millennial World <ul><li>“ Our knowledge comes from the intelligence of the mob . There are websites that let us view user ratings on news , bookmarks , definitions , wines , burritos , beers , and videos . I want to have that same experience when searching for my first home. Show me what the community thinks. Give me the data the way I am used to receiving it…. ” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Beam Me Up Jimmy - A Look At Tomorrow's 1st Time Home Buyer </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is a Game? <ul><li>A competitive activity in which players follow a set of rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single player (player versus self), multi-player, computer controlled player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: player actions affect outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define victory conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe legal play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate games from one another </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Simulations <ul><li>Simulation: a reproduction or representation of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Some simulations are games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sim City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo Tycoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Serious games ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some simulations may not be games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinematic re-enactments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical or geographical exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incidental Learning </li></ul>
    10. 10. Incidental Learning <ul><li>Systems-based reasoning - reasoning about some phenomenon in terms of a system </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding feedback - understands relationships among system components </li></ul><ul><li>Model-based reasoning - evokes a model to understand some system in the virtual world </li></ul><ul><li>Model-testing & prediction - compares model’s predictions to actual observations </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical modeling - proposes mathematical model to describe relationships in system </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical computation - explicates some mathematical computation not given by game </li></ul><ul><li>-- Constance Steinkuehler , UW-M, 2007 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Gaming in Education <ul><li>Do not, my friend, keep children to their studies by compulsion, but by play -- Plato, Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Games have been widely used in education throughout history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling bees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common uses are assessment and practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental learning minimized </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Gaming in Education <ul><li>The 1970s saw a dramatic increase in the use of games for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;As the true character of gaming as a unique communication form becomes clear, its use… will become pervasive” Richard Duke (1974), The Future’s Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the 1980s there was a focus on basic skill development – Reader Rabbit & Math Blaster </li></ul>
    13. 13. How Games Teach <ul><li>Activity – a game depends on learner not being passive </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement – longer time on task, greater involvement, rewards </li></ul><ul><li>X2: Exploration and Experimentation – support creativity, scientific thinking, opportunity for (relatively consequence free) failure </li></ul>
    14. 14. How Games Teach <ul><li>Frequent achievement – smaller tasks with individual rewards, motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding competence – scaffolding and breadcrumbs </li></ul><ul><li>No right answer </li></ul><ul><li>Working within a set of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Language – signs, symbols, slang all promote language skills. Game literacy = world literacy </li></ul>
    15. 15. How Games Teach <ul><li>Social nature </li></ul><ul><li>Identity and empathy – students identify with characters and situations </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation – students can explore situations that are otherwise impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Practice – drill and repetition </li></ul>
    16. 16. How Games Teach <ul><li>Application – learn and apply new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Context – relationship between objectives and game content </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback cycle – analysis > decision > feedback > analysis </li></ul>
    17. 17. How Games Teach <ul><li>Multimodal – text, images, sounds, symbols, actions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection – emphasis on thinking, problem solving rather than “twitch” </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery – Experienced players teach new players, experts become mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge – game players seek out difficult or challenging tasks </li></ul>
    18. 18. Students retain… 90% of what they learn when they teach someone else 5% of what they’ve learned from a lecture 10% of what they’ve learned from reading 20% of what they’ve learned from audio-visual presentation 30% of what they learn from a demonstration 50% of what they learn when engaged in a discussion 75% of what they learn by doing Source: NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science
    19. 19. Limitations of Games <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment with standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccurate information (most games aren’t designed to be “educational” at all!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fidelity of simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transfer of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical skills </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Club Penguin
    21. 21. But how will people live in a world that is so… VIRTUAL? <ul><li>From Scientific American, Aug, 1902: </li></ul>[C]hildren cope more easily with the new necessities of life, and new arrangements which perplexed their parents become habits easily borne. Thus we may imagine future generations perfectly calm among a hundred telephones and sleeping sweetly while airships whizz among countless electric wires over their heads and a perpetual night traffic of motor cars hurtles past their bedroom windows. As yet, our nervous systems are not so callous.
    22. 22. Doug Adams [email_address]