Affirmative and negative expressions neither…nor  ni…ni     either…or o…o   nor  ni     or o   not yet  todavía no     alr...
Expresiones Indefinidas y negativas <ul><li>Algo vs. Nada </li></ul><ul><li>Algo  something and  nada  nothing are invaria...
<ul><li>Alguno vs. Ninguno </li></ul><ul><li>Alguno  &quot;someone / some&quot; and  ninguno  &quot;no one / none&quot; ca...
<ul><li>The Use of Multiple Negative </li></ul><ul><li>1. Whenever the negative words  nada, nadie, nunca, tampoco, jamás,...
<ul><li>Double No </li></ul><ul><li>When the answer to a question is negative, the word  no  appears twice. It appears at ...
<ul><li>Nunca más </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca más  is equivalent to &quot;never again&quot;.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca más vi a...
<ul><li>También </li></ul><ul><li>También  &quot;also / too&quot; expresses the union of  two affirmative  sentences.  </l...
<ul><li>Ni ... ni </li></ul><ul><li>Ni ... ni  &quot;neither ... nor&quot; connects two negative constructions, cf.:  </li...
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Negative expressions

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Negative expressions

  1. 1. Affirmative and negative expressions neither…nor  ni…ni     either…or o…o   nor  ni     or o   not yet  todavía no     already  ya   no longer ya no     still todavía, aún   neither tampoco     also también   never jamás     ever  alguna vez   never  nunca     always siempre   no one, none ninguno, -a     someone, some  alguno, -a   no one nadie     someone  alguien   nothing  nada     something  algo   Meaning in English Negative     Meaning in English Affirmative  
  2. 2. Expresiones Indefinidas y negativas <ul><li>Algo vs. Nada </li></ul><ul><li>Algo something and nada nothing are invariable and refer to things and objects , cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>Hay algo afuera. There is something outside. </li></ul><ul><li>No hay nada en el refrigerador. There is nothing in the refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>... Alguien vs. Nadie </li></ul><ul><li>Alguien &quot;someone&quot; and nadie &quot;no one&quot; are invariable and refer to people. When alguien, nadie, alguno and ninguno are direct objects, they must be preceded by the personal a when they refer to a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Invité a alguien a salir. I asked someone out. </li></ul><ul><li>No defiendo a nadie. I don't defend anybody. </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Alguno vs. Ninguno </li></ul><ul><li>Alguno &quot;someone / some&quot; and ninguno &quot;no one / none&quot; can refer to people or things . Furthermore, alguno and ninguno drop the final -o before masculine singular nouns (similarly, uno &quot;one&quot; shortens to un , and bueno &quot;good&quot; to buen ; </li></ul><ul><li>Algún día venderemos millones. Some day we'll sell millions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ningún producto está fallado. None of the products is damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Ninguno is never used in a plural form. ... Alguna vez </li></ul><ul><li>Alguna vez is equivalent to &quot;ever&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>¿Has diseñado alguna vez un logotipo? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever designed a logo? </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Use of Multiple Negative </li></ul><ul><li>1. Whenever the negative words nada, nadie, nunca, tampoco, jamás, follow the verb, no must precede the verb, which produces a multiple negative construction, cf.; </li></ul><ul><li>No como nunca espinaca. I never eat spinach. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The negative word can be placed at the end of the sentence, cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>No como espinaca nunca. I never eat spinach. </li></ul><ul><li>When the negative word precedes the verb, the word no is not used, cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca como espinaca. I never eat spinach. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Double No </li></ul><ul><li>When the answer to a question is negative, the word no appears twice. It appears at the beginning of the sentence and also in front of the verb, cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>-- ¿Abren ahora? </li></ul><ul><li>-- No, no abrimos hasta las diez. -- Are you going to open now? -- No, we don't open until ten. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Usually the subject pronoun is omitted in the answer because the verb ending identifies the subject, as in the example above. ... Nunca jamás </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca jamás &quot;never ever / never again&quot; is one of the strongest negative forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca jamás ganarán. They'll never ever win. </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Nunca más </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca más is equivalent to &quot;never again&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Nunca más vi a Obama. I have not seen Obama ever again </li></ul><ul><li>... Jamás </li></ul><ul><li>Jamás is used as a superlative and is equivalent to &quot;ever&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Este projecto es el más intenso que jamás he empredido. This project is the most intense that I have ever undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>También </li></ul><ul><li>También &quot;also / too&quot; expresses the union of two affirmative sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Yo quiero comer; también ellos quieren comer. </li></ul><ul><li>I want to eat; they want to eat too. </li></ul><ul><li>Nosotros también ganamos la competencia. </li></ul><ul><li>We also won the competition. </li></ul><ul><li>... Tampoco </li></ul><ul><li>Tampoco means &quot;neither&quot; and is used to unite negative sentences, cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>Alejandra no comió, y yo tampoco. Alexandra didn't eat and neither did I. </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Ni ... ni </li></ul><ul><li>Ni ... ni &quot;neither ... nor&quot; connects two negative constructions, cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>No quiero ni comer ni beber. I don't want to eat or drink. </li></ul><ul><li>... Ni siquiera / No ... ni </li></ul><ul><li>Ni siquiera and sometimes No ... ni are equivalent to &quot;not even&quot;, cf.: </li></ul><ul><li>Estefania ni siquiera me saludó. Stephanie did not even greet me. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebeca no quiere ni saludarme. Rebecca doesn't even want to greet me. </li></ul>

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