Criminal Justice:     A Brief Introduction                      Ninth Edition              By Frank SchmallegerPearson Edu...
Criminal Justice:     A Brief Introduction                      Ninth Edition              By Frank Schmalleger           ...
Police Personality and Culture         • Police Subculture                    – A particular set of values, beliefs, and a...
Police Personality and Culture         • At least two sources of police personality                    – Component of the ...
Corruption and Integrity         • Police Corruption                    – The abuse of police authority for personal or   ...
Corruption and IntegrityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e           6    Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 200...
Corruption and Integrity         • Knapp Commission                    – Grass eaters and meat eaters         • Mollen Com...
Building Police Integrity         • Difficult to control corruption                    – Reluctance of officers to report ...
Drug Testing of Police Employees         • Today, many departments require all officers to           submit to routine dru...
Violence in the Line of Duty         • FBI study found that slain officers appeared to           be good-natured and conse...
Violence in the Line of Duty         • Possible reasons for the decline                    – Heightened awareness among of...
Risk of Disease and Infected Evidence         • Biological Weapon                    – A biological agent used to threaten...
Stress and Fatigue among Police Officers         • Stress is a natural component of police work         • American Institu...
Stress Reduction         • Humor         • Exercise, meditation, deep breathing,           biofeedback, self-hypnosis, ind...
Terrorism’s Impact on Policing         • Law enforcement agencies at all levels now           devote an increased amount o...
Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism         • Intelligence-Led Policing                    – The collection and an...
Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism         • Law enforcement intelligence consists of two           types        ...
Information Sharing and Antiterrorism         • Law Enforcement Online (LEO)                    – National interactive com...
Police Civil Liability         • Civil Liability                    – The potential responsibility for payment of damages ...
Common Sources of Civil Suits         • Most common sources are assault, battery, false           imprisonment, and malici...
Federal Lawsuits         • 1983 Lawsuit                    – A civil suit brought under Title 42, Section 1983 of         ...
Federal Lawsuits         • In the past, the doctrine of sovereign immunity           barred legal actions against state an...
Racial Profiling and Biased Policing         • Racial Profiling                    – Any police-initiated action that reli...
Racially Biased Policing         • Racially Biased Policing: A Principled           Response         • Recommendation from...
Police Use of Force         • Police Use of Force                    – The use of physical restraint by a police officer w...
Police Use of Force         • Studies show that police use force in fewer than           20% of adult custodial arrests   ...
Police Use of Force         • Problem Police Officer                    – A law enforcement officer who exhibits problem  ...
Deadly Force         • Deadly Force                    – The force likely to cause death or great bodily harm         • Te...
Deadly Force         • Suicide by cop                    – Direct confrontations                    – Disturbed interventi...
Less-Lethal Weapons         • Less-Lethal Weapon                    – A weapon that is designed to disable, capture, or   ...
Professionalism and Ethics         • Police Professionalism                    – The increasing formalization of police wo...
Education and Training         • Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST)           Program                    – The of...
Education and Training         • Benefits of hiring educated officers                    –      Better written reports    ...
Recruitment and Selection         • Nearly all departments use personal interviews         • Large majority use           ...
Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing         • 2001 Status of Women in Policing Survey                    – Women fill ...
Private Protective Services         • Growth of Private Protective Services                    – Public police are employe...
Private Protective Services         • Private police outnumber public police         • Private agencies provide tailored p...
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  1. 1. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank SchmallegerPearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank Schmalleger Chapter 6 Policing: Issues and ChallengesPearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Police Personality and Culture • Police Subculture – A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior with which the police profession strives to imbue new recruits • This process of informal socialization plays a bigger role than the formal police academy training • Police Working Personality – All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police officers who have been effectively socialized in the police subcultureCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. Police Personality and Culture • At least two sources of police personality – Component of the police personality already exist and draws people toward police work • Conservative background and view themselves as defenders of middle-class morality – Some aspects of the police personality can be attributed to the socialization into the subculture that rookie officers experience when they are inducted into police ranksCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. Corruption and Integrity • Police Corruption – The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain • Slippery slope – Holds that even a small thank-you accepted by a member of the public can lead to a more ready acceptance of larger bribes • Knapp Commission – A committee that investigated corruption in New York City in the early 1970sCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. Corruption and IntegrityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. Corruption and Integrity • Knapp Commission – Grass eaters and meat eaters • Mollen Commission • Los Angeles Police Department Rampart DivisionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. Building Police Integrity • Difficult to control corruption – Reluctance of officers to report corrupt activities – Reluctance of administrators to acknowledge the existence of corruption – Benefits of corrupt transactions to the parties involved – Lack of victims willing to report corruption • Internal Affairs – The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoingsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. Drug Testing of Police Employees • Today, many departments require all officers to submit to routine drug testing • The courts have supported drug testing based on a reasonable suspicion that drug abuse has been or is occurring • Drug and alcohol addictions are “handicaps” protected by the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. Violence in the Line of Duty • FBI study found that slain officers appeared to be good-natured and conservative in the use of force • Also perceived as well-liked by the community and department, friendly to everyone, laid back and easy going • Most officers who were killed failed to wear protective vests • There has been a significant decline in police deaths from all causesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. Violence in the Line of Duty • Possible reasons for the decline – Heightened awareness among officers – Renewed push for the use of body armor – Increased availability of less-lethal weapons – Broader use of mandatory handcuffing – Widespread and better analysis of police dashboard videos to critique officer behavior – Better arming of police officersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. Risk of Disease and Infected Evidence • Biological Weapon – A biological agent used to threaten human life • Areas of concern – The need to educate officers about AIDS, anthrax, other serious infectious diseases – Responsibilities of departments to prevent the spread of AIDS and diseases in lockups – Necessity of effective and nondiscriminatory enforcement activities and lifesaving measures by police in environments contaminatedCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. Stress and Fatigue among Police Officers • Stress is a natural component of police work • American Institute of Stress ranks policing among the top ten stress-producing jobs • Danger, frustration, paperwork, the daily demands of the job, lack of understanding from family members and friends • Suicide rate is more than twice that of the general population • “Macho” attitudeCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. Stress Reduction • Humor • Exercise, meditation, deep breathing, biofeedback, self-hypnosis, induced relaxation, music, prayer, and diet have all been cited as useful techniques for stress reduction • The amount of stress an officer experiences is directly related to his or her reactions to potentially stressful situationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. Terrorism’s Impact on Policing • Law enforcement agencies at all levels now devote an increased amount of time and other resources to preparing for possible terrorist attacks and gathering intelligence necessary to thwart themCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism • Intelligence-Led Policing – The collection and analysis of information to produce an intelligence end product designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and strategic levels • Criminal Intelligence – The information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism • Law enforcement intelligence consists of two types – Tactical • Gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat – Strategic • Provides information to decision makers about the changing nature of threats for the purpose of “developing response strategies and reallocating resources” to accomplish effective preventionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  18. 18. Information Sharing and Antiterrorism • Law Enforcement Online (LEO) – National interactive computer communications system and information service • International Justice and Public Safety Information Sharing Network (NLETS) – State criminal histories, homeland alert messages, immigration databases, AMBER alerts, hazardous materials notifications and regulationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 18 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  19. 19. Police Civil Liability • Civil Liability – The potential responsibility for payment of damages or other court-ordered enforcement as a result of a ruling in a lawsuit • Two types – State • The more common form of civil litigation – FederalCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 19 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  20. 20. Common Sources of Civil Suits • Most common sources are assault, battery, false imprisonment, and malicious prosecution • Biscoe v. Arlington County (1984) • City of Canton, Ohio v. Harris (1989) • Board of the County Commissioners of Bryan County, Oklahoma v. Brown (1997)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 20 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  21. 21. Federal Lawsuits • 1983 Lawsuit – A civil suit brought under Title 42, Section 1983 of the U. S. Code against anyone who denies others their constitutional right to life, liberty, or property without due process of law • Bivens v. Six Unknown Federal Agents (1971) • Bivens Action – A civil suit brought against federal government officials for denying the constitutional rights of othersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 21 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  22. 22. Federal Lawsuits • In the past, the doctrine of sovereign immunity barred legal actions against state and local governments • Qualified immunity – Hunter v. Bryant (1991) – Saucier v. Katz (2001) – Pearson et al v. Callahan (2009) – Scott v. Harris (2007) • Idaho v. Horiuchi (2001)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 22 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  23. 23. Racial Profiling and Biased Policing • Racial Profiling – Any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or on information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being engaged in criminal activity • Being in the wrong car • Being in the wrong neighborhood • Petty traffic violationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 23 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  24. 24. Racially Biased Policing • Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response • Recommendation from the 2001 PERF report – Supervisors should monitor activity reports – Conduct spot checks and regular sampling of in-car videotapes, radio transmissions – Determine if formal and informal communications are professional and free from biasCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 24 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  25. 25. Police Use of Force • Police Use of Force – The use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public • NIJ estimates that more than 43.5 million people nationwide have face-to-face contact with the police over a typical 12-month period – Nearly 18 million as a result of traffic stops – Approximately 1.6% become subject to the use of force or the threat of forceCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 25 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  26. 26. Police Use of Force • Studies show that police use force in fewer than 20% of adult custodial arrests – Female officers found to be less likely to use physical force and firearms • More likely to use chemical weapons • Excessive force – The application of an amount or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subjectCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 26 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  27. 27. Police Use of Force • Problem Police Officer – A law enforcement officer who exhibits problem behavior, as indicated by high rates of citizen complaints and use-of-force incidents and by other evidence • Recent studies have found that problem police officers do not differ significantly in race or ethnicity from other officersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 27 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  28. 28. Deadly Force • Deadly Force – The force likely to cause death or great bodily harm • Tennessee v. Garner (1985) • Graham v. Connor (1989) • Estimated in an average year, 600 suspects are killed by public police in the U. S. – Another 1,200 are shot and wounded – 1,800 are shot at and missedCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 28 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  29. 29. Deadly Force • Suicide by cop – Direct confrontations – Disturbed interventions – Criminal interventionsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 29 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  30. 30. Less-Lethal Weapons • Less-Lethal Weapon – A weapon that is designed to disable, capture, or immobilize – but not kill – a suspectCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 30 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  31. 31. Professionalism and Ethics • Police Professionalism – The increasing formalization of police work and the accompanying rise in public acceptance of the police • Police Ethics – The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in police workCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 31 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  32. 32. Education and Training • Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Program – The official program of a state or legislative jurisdiction that sets standards for the training of law enforcement officers • Federal law enforcement agents receive schooling at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) in Georgia • Davis v. Dallas (1985)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 32 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  33. 33. Education and Training • Benefits of hiring educated officers – Better written reports – Enhanced communications with the public – More effective job performance – Fewer citizen complaints – Greater initiative – Wiser use of discretion – Heightened sensitivity to racial and ethnic issues – Fewer disciplinary problemsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 33 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  34. 34. Recruitment and Selection • Nearly all departments use personal interviews • Large majority use – Basic skills tests – Physical agility measurements – Medical exams – Drug tests – Psychological evaluations – Background investigationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 34 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  35. 35. Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing • 2001 Status of Women in Policing Survey – Women fill only 12.7% of all sworn law enforcement positions nationwide – Women account for 46.5% of employed people over the age of 16 nationwide • Women as Effective Police Officers – Female officers often underutilized – Departments hesitate to assign women to patrol – Women experience frustration and lack of satisfaction with their jobsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 35 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  36. 36. Private Protective Services • Growth of Private Protective Services – Public police are employed by the government and enforce public laws – Private security personnel work for corporate employers and secure private interests • Private Protective Services – The independent or proprietary commercial organizations that provide protective services to employers on a contractual basisCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 36 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  37. 37. Private Protective Services • Private police outnumber public police • Private agencies provide tailored policing funded by the guarded organization rather than through the expenditure of public monies • Major reasons for growth of proprietary security – An increase in crimes in the workplace – An increase fear of crime and terrorism – The fiscal crises of the states – Increased public and business awarenessCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 37 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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