Quran english-translation

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THE QURAN, a book which brings glad tidings to mankind along
with divine admonition, stresses the importance of man's discovery
of truth on both spiritual and intellectual planes.
Every book has its objective and the objective of the Quran is to
make man aware of the Creation plan of God. That is, to tell man
why God created this world; what the purpose is of settling man on
earth; what is required from man in his pre-death life span, and what
he is going to confront after death. The purpose of the Quran is to
make man aware of this reality, thus serving to guide man on his
entire journey through life into the after-life.
The main themes of the Quran are enlightenment, closeness to
God, peace and spirituality. The Quran uses several terms, tawassum,
tadabbur, and tafakkur, which indicate the learning of lessons
through reflection, thinking and contemplation on the signs of God
scattered across the world. The present translation of the Quran has
been done keeping in mind these very themes.

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Quran english-translation

  1. 1. THE QURANTHE QURAN, a book which brings glad tidings to mankind alongwith divine admonition, stresses the importance of man’s discoveryof truth on both spiritual and intellectual planes. Every book has its objective and the objective of the Quran is tomake man aware of the Creation plan of God. That is, to tell manwhy God created this world; what the purpose is of settling man onearth; what is required from man in his pre-death life span, and whathe is going to confront after death. The purpose of the Quran is tomake man aware of this reality, thus serving to guide man on hisentire journey through life into the after-life. The main themes of the Quran are enlightenment, closeness toGod, peace and spirituality. The Quran uses several terms, tawassum,tadabbur, and tafakkur, which indicate the learning of lessonsthrough reflection, thinking and contemplation on the signs of Godscattered across the world. The present translation of the Quran hasbeen done keeping in mind these very themes.
  2. 2. MAULANA WAHIDUDDIN KHAN, born in 1925 at Azamgarh in India,is an Islamic spiritual scholar who is well versed in both classicalIslamic learning and modern science. The mission of his life froma very early stage has been the establishment of world-wide peace.To this end he has devoted much time and effort to the developmentof a complete ideology of peace and non-violence based on theteachings of the Quran. In the course of his research, the Maulanacame to the conclusion that the need of the hour was to presentIslamic teachings in the style and language of the present day.Keeping this ideal consistently before him, he has written over 200books on Islam. In 1983, he wrote a commentary on the Quran, theArabic version of which was published by Darel Wafa, Cairo asal-Tadhkir al-Qawim fi Tafsir al-Quran al-Hakim. To cater toinquisitive minds and the needs of the spiritually inclined, theMaulana established at New Delhi in 2001 the Centre for Peace andSpirituality. His most recent publication is The Prophet of Peace:The Teachings of Muhammad (Penguin Books).FARIDA KHANAM, the daughter of Maulana Wahiduddin Khan,holds a Ph.D. in Islamic Studies. She is currently an associateprofessor at Jamia Millia Islamia University at New Delhi. She haswritten and translated a number of books on Islam.
  3. 3. THE QURAN Translated byMAULANA WAHIDUDDIN KHAN Edited by FARIDA KHANAM GOODWORD BOOKS
  4. 4. GOODWORD’S QURAN PROJECT The Quran is the word of God and it is the duty of believers to communicatethe message of the Quran to all human beings so that they may know the reality of life. To facilitate this good work, Goodword Books has produced this English translation of the Quran, so that it may be distributed on a mass scale.This translation of the Quran is copyright free First published by Goodword Books 2009 Goodword Books 1, Nizamuddin West Market New Delhi - 110 013 Email: info@goodwordbooks.com www.goodwordbooks.com www.goodword.net Printed in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd
  5. 5. CONTENTSIntroduction ix The Creation Plan of God x A Book of Divine Warning xi The Inner Spirit and God Realization xii The Word of God xiii Jihad is a Peaceful Ideological Struggle xiv A Revealed Book xviiChronological Table of the Quran xixMap of Arabian Peninsula at the Time of theRevelation of the Quran xxi THE QURAN 1. The Opening (Al-Fatihah) 1 2. The Heifer (Al-Baqarah) 1 3. The Family of ‘Imran (Al-‘Imran) 36 4. Women (Al-Nisa’) 56 5. The Table (Al-Ma’idah) 77 6. The Cattle (Al-An‘am) 92 7. The Heights (Al-A‘raf) 110 8. The Spoils of War (Al-Anfal) 129 9. Repentance (Al-Tawbah) 136 10. Jonah (Yunus) 151 11. Hud (Hud) 162 12. Joseph (Yusuf) 173 13. Thunder (Al-Ra‘d) 183 14. Abraham (Ibrahim) 188 15. The Rocky Tract (Al-Hijr) 193 16. Bees (Al-Nahl) 197 17. The Night Journey (Al-Isra’) 208
  6. 6. vi Contents 18. The Cave (Al-Kahf) 218 19. Mary (Maryam) 227 20. Ta Ha (Ta Ha) 233 21. The Prophets (Al-Anbiya’) 242 22. The Pilgrimage (Al-Hajj) 249 23. The Believers (Al-Mu’minun) 256 24. Light (Al-Nur) 263 25. The Criterion (Al-Furqan) 270 26. The Poets (Al-Shu‘ara’) 276 27. The Ants (Al-Naml) 284 28. The Story (Al-Qasas) 291 29. The Spider (Al-‘Ankabut) 299 30. The Romans (Al-Rum) 305 31. Luqman (Luqman) 310 32. Prostration (Al-Sajdah) 313 33. The Confederates (Al-Ahzab) 315 34. Sheba (Saba’) 323 35. The Creator (Fatir) 328 36. Ya Sin (Ya Sin) 333 37. The Ranks (Al-Saffat) 337 38. Sad (Sad) 343 39. The Crowds (Al-Zumar) 348 40. The Forgiver (Ghafir) 355 41. Revelations Well Expounded (Fussilat) 362 42. Mutual Consultation (Al-Shura) 367 43. Ornaments of Gold (Al-Zukhruf) 372 44. Smoke (Al-Dukhan) 377 45. Kneeling (Al-Jathiyah) 380 46. The Sand Dunes (Al-Ahqaf) 383 47. Muhammad (Muhammad) 387 48. Victory (Al-Fath) 390 49. The Apartments (Al-Hujurat) 394 50. Qaf (Qaf) 396
  7. 7. Contents vii51. Scattering Winds (Al-Dhariyat) 39852. Mount Sinai (Al-Tur) 40153. The Setting Star (Al-Najm) 40354. The Moon (Al-Qamar) 40555. The Merciful (Al-Rahman) 40856. The Inevitable Event (Al-Waqi‘ah) 41157. Iron (Al-Hadid) 41458. The Pleading (Al-Mujadalah) 41759. Banishment (Al-Hashr) 42060. She Who is Tested (Al-Mumtahanah) 42361. Ranks (Al-Saff) 42562. The Day of Congregation (Al-Jumu‘ah) 42763. The Hypocrites (Al-Munafiqun) 42864. Loss and Gain (Al-Taghabun) 42965. Divorce (Al-Talaq) 43166. Prohibition (Al-Tahrim) 43367. The Kingdom (Al-Mulk) 43468. The Pen (Al-Qalam) 43669. The Inevitable Hour (Al-Haqqah) 43970. The Ascending Stairways (Al-Ma‘arij) 44171. Noah (Nuh) 44272. The Jinn (Al-Jinn) 44473. The Wrapped One (Al-Muzzammil) 44574. Wrapped in his Cloak (Al-Muddaththir) 44775. The Day of Resurrection (Al-Qiyamah) 44976. Man (Al-Insan) 45077. Those that are Sent Forth (Al-Mursalat) 45278. The Tidings (Al-Naba’) 45379. The Pluckers (Al-Nazi‘at) 45580. He Frowned (‘Abasa) 45681. Folding Up (Al-Takwir) 45782. The Cleaving Asunder (Al-Infitar) 45883. Those who Give Short Measure (Al-Mutaffifin) 459
  8. 8. viii Contents 84. The Bursting Open (Al-Inshiqaq) 460 85. The Constellations (Al-Buruj) 461 86. That which Comes in the Night (Al-Tariq) 462 87. The Most High (Al-A‘la) 462 88. The Overwhelming Event (Al-Ghashiyah) 463 89. The Dawn (Al-Fajr) 464 90. The City (Al-Balad) 465 91. The Sun (Al-Shams) 465 92. Night (Al-Layl) 466 93. The Glorious Morning Light (Al-Duha) 467 94. Comfort (Al-Sharh) 467 95. The Fig (Al-Tin) 468 96. The Clot (Al-‘Alaq) 468 97. The Night of Destiny (Al-Qadr) 469 98. The Clear Evidence (Al-Bayyinah) 469 99. The Earthquake (Al-Zalzalah) 470100. The Snorting Horses (Al-‘Adiyat) 470101. The Clatterer (Al-Qari‘ah) 471102. Greed for More and More (Al-Takathur) 471103. The Passage of Time (Al-‘Asr) 472104. The Backbiter (Al-Humazah) 472105. The Elephant (Al-Fil) 472106. Quraysh (Quraysh) 473107. Small Things (Al-Ma‘un) 473108. Abundance (Al-Kawthar) 473109. Those who Deny the Truth (Al-Kafirun) 474 110. Help (Al-Nasr) 474 111. Twisted Fibre (Al-Masad) 474112. Oneness (Al-Ikhlas) 475113. Daybreak (Al-Falaq) 475114. People (Al-Nas) 475Index 476
  9. 9. INTRODUCTIONThe Quran is the Book of God. It has been preserved in its entiretyfor all time to come. Although written originally in Arabic, it hasbeen made accessible, thanks to translations, to those who have noknowledge of Arabic. While no substitute for the original, translationsserve the signal purpose of spreading the word of God far beyondthe Arabic-speaking peoples to a far broader spectrum of humanity. The Quran is apparently in the Arabic language, but in reality, itis in the language of nature, that is, the language in which Goddirectly addressed all human beings at the time of Creation. Thisdivine invocation of humanity is ever-present in the consciousnessof all human beings, that is why the Quran is universallyunderstandable—to some on a conscious plane, and to others at thesubconscious level. This reality has been described in the Quran as‘clear revelations in the hearts of those who have been givenknowledge.’ This verse goes on to say that ‘none deny Ourrevelations save the wrongdoers’ (20:49). This means that the Divine Reality, explained by the Quran on aconscious plane, pre-exists in man at the level of the subconscious.The message of the Quran is not, therefore, something which isalien to man. It is in fact a verbal expression of that same DivineReality which is in consonance with man’s own nature and withwhich he is already familiar. The Quran explains this by saying thatthose born in later times were all initially born at the time of thecreation of Adam and, at that time, God had directly addressed allthese human souls. This event is thus alluded to in the Quran: ‘[Prophet], when your Lord brought forth the offspring from theloins of the Children of Adam and made them bear witness aboutthemselves, He said, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ and they replied, ‘Yes,
  10. 10. x Introductionwe bear witness that You are.’ So you cannot say on the Day ofResurrection, ‘We were not aware of this’ (7:172). In the following verse, the Quran makes further mention of thedialogue between God and man: ‘Surely We offered Our trust to the heavens and the earth, and thehills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And manundertook it. But he has proved a tyrant and a fool’ (33:72). The Quran, for man, is in essence already known to him, ratherthan an entirely unknown entity. In reality, the Quran is theunfolding of the human mind. When one whose nature is alive—having saved himself fromlater conditioning—reads the Quran, those brain cells will beactivated wherein God’s first address lies preserved. If we keep thisin mind, it will not be difficult to appreciate that the translation ofthe Quran is a valid means of understanding it. If God’s address was the First Covenant, the Quran is the SecondCovenant. Each testifies to the veracity of the other. If one has little,or even no grasp of the Arabic language, and can read the scripturesonly in translation, he should not anticipate that he will be frustratedin his understanding of the Quran, for the Quranic concept of manas the natural recipient of God’s word has become a reality inmodern times. The science of the genetic code and the findings ofanthropology both fully support this viewpoint. The Creation Plan of GodEvery book has its objective and the objective of the Quran is tomake man aware of the Creation plan of God. That is, to tell manwhy God created this world; what the purpose is of settling man onearth; what is required from man in his pre-death life span, and whathe is going to confront after death. Man is born as an eternalcreature. When God created man as such, He divided his life span
  11. 11. Introduction xiinto two periods, the pre-death period, which is a time of trial, andthe post-death period, which is the time for receiving the rewardsor punishment merited by one’s actions during one’s lifetime. Thesetake the form of eternal paradise or eternal hell. The purpose of theQuran is to make man aware of this reality. This is the theme of thisdivine Book, which serves to guide man through his entire journeythrough life into the after-life. It would be correct to say that man is a seeker by birth. Thesequestions lurk in everyone’s mind: Who am I? What is the purposeof my life? What is the reality of life and death? What is the secretof man’s success and failure? etc. According to the Quran, theanswer to these questions is that the present world is the testingground and whatever man has been endowed with in his pre-deathperiod is all a part of the test. The Hereafter is the place where theresult of the test will be taken into account by the Almighty andwhatever man receives in the life after death, by way of reward orpunishment, will be commensurate with his deeds in this world. Thesecret of man’s success in this life is to understand God’s creationplan and map out his life accordingly. A Book of Divine WarningThe Quran is a book of divine warning. A combination of lessonsand admonitions, it would be even more appropriately called a bookof wisdom. The Quran does not follow the pattern of the traditionaldidactic book. In fact, when the average reader picks up the Quran,it appears to him to be a collection of fragmentary statements.Apparently this feeling is not unreal. But this arrangement of theQuran is not due to any shortcoming, but is rather in conformancewith the Quranic plan of retaining its original form in order to fulfillits purpose of conveying the message of truth to the reader who may,
  12. 12. xii Introductionin his forays into the scriptures, read only one page, one verse orone line at a time. One vital aspect of the Quran is that it is a reminder of theblessings granted by the Supreme Benefactor. The most importantof these are the exceptional qualities with which God endowed manwhen He created him. Another great blessing is that He settled himon the earth, a planet where all kinds of support systems existed forhis benefit. The purpose of the Quran is to ensure that, whileenjoying these blessings of nature, man will keep his Benefactor inmind: he must acknowledge the munificence of his Creator. It is inso doing that man will gain entry into eternal paradise; ignoring hisBenefactor, on the other hand, will lead man straight to hell. TheQuran is indeed a reminder of this inescapable reality. There are some who think that the presence of a realized personis essential for an understanding of the Quran. That is, it is solelywith the assistance of a spiritual person that the meaning of theQuran may be revealed. This is to underestimate both man and theQuran. The Quran addresses man’s mind and the mind is man’sgreatest faculty. Discovering the Quran, therefore, on a purelyintellectual level is sufficient to arrive at its meaning. Indeed, at theintellectual level, the Quran becomes an open book But those whodiscover the Quran at any lower level cannot be said to havediscovered it at all. Falling back instead on their communitytraditions for instruction and enlightenment cannot compare withthe ideal approach to religion that the Quran so consistently offers. The Inner Spirit and God RealizationOne important quality of the Quran is that it gives us only basic,but essential principles, often resorting to reiteration to emphasizethem. On the contrary, non-basics, or matters relating only to form,constitute only a negligible part of the scriptures. This is in
  13. 13. Introduction xiiiconsonance with the Quranic scheme, the importance of form beingentirely secondary. To the Quran, only those precepts are importantwhich figure as fundamental guidelines. This aspect of the Quranis so clear that its reader cannot but appreciate it. The truth is that the inner spirit is of the utmost importance in thebuilding of the Islamic personality. Once the inner spirit isdeveloped, correct form will naturally ensue. But form on its owncan never produce the inner spirit. That is why the aim of the Quranis to initiate and bring to fruition an intellectual revolution withinman. The expression used by the Quran for this intellectualrevolution is ma‘rifah (realization of truth) (5:83). The Quran stresses the importance of man’s discovery of truth atthe level of realization. True faith in God is what one achieves atsuch a level. Where there is no realization, there is no faith. The Word of GodWhen you read the Quran, you will repeatedly find it stated that itis the word of God. Apparently this is a plain fact. But when seenin context, it is an extraordinary statement. There are many booksin the world which are believed to be sacred. But, except for theQuran, we do not find any religious book which thus projects itselfas the word of God. This kind of statement, appearing uniquely inthe Quran, gives a point of departure to the reader. He then studiesit as an exceptional book, rather than as a common book written byhuman beings. We find recurring in the Quran statements wordedmore or less as follows, ‘O man, it is your Lord, who is addressingyou. Listen to His words and follow Him.’ Even this style of addressis quite exceptional. This kind of direct divine invocation is notpresent in any other book. It leaves a lasting impression on man. Hefeels his Lord is directly addressing him. This feeling compels manto take the assertions of the Quran with extreme seriousness, rather
  14. 14. xiv Introductionthan treat them like everyday statements in an ordinary book. Thestyle of compilation of the Quran is also unique. Books written byhuman beings usually have their material arranged in order from Ato Z, according to the topic. But the Quran does not follow a patternof this kind, so that to the common man it appears to be lacking inorder. When looked at in reality, however, it will emerge as anextremely coherent and orderly book, and quite majestic in its styleof writing. While reading the Quran, we feel that its writer is on avery high pedestal from where He is looking down and addressingthe whole of humanity, which is His special concern. This addressfocuses on different groups of human beings, while encompassingall of them. One special aspect of the Quran is that at any moment its readercan consult its Writer, put his questions and receive answers, for theWriter of the Quran is God Himself. He is a living God. As man’sCreator, He directly hears and answers man’s call. Jihad is a Peaceful Ideological StruggleThose who are introduced to the Quran only through the media,generally have the impression that the Quran is a book of jihad, andjihad to them is an attempt to achieve one’s goal by means ofviolence. But this idea is based on a misunderstanding. Anyone whoreads the Quran for himself will easily appreciate that its messagehas nothing to do with violence. The Quran is, from beginning toend, a book which promulgates peace and in no way countenancesviolence. It is true that jihad is one of the teachings of the Quran.But jihad, taken in its correct sense, is the name of peaceful strugglerather than of any kind of violent action. The Quranic concept ofjihad is expressed in the following verse, ‘Do greater jihad (i.estrive more strenuously) with the help of this [Quran]’ (25:52).
  15. 15. Introduction xv Obviously, the Quran is not a weapon, but a book which givesus an introduction to the divine ideology of peaceful struggle. Themethod of such a struggle, according to the Quran, is ‘to speak tothem a word to reach their very soul’ (4:63). So, the desired approach, acccording to the Quran, is one whichmoves man’s heart and mind. That is, in addressing people’s minds,it satisfies them, convinces them of the veracity of the Quran and,in short, brings about an intellectual revolution within them. Thisis the mission of the Quran. And this mission can be performed onlyby means of rational arguments. This target can never be achievedby means of violence or armed action. It is true that there are certain verses in the Quran, which conveyinjunctions similar to the following, ‘Slay them wherever you findthem’ (2:191). Referring to such verses, there are some who attempt to give theimpression that Islam is a religion of war and violence. This istotally untrue. Such verses relate, in a restricted sense, to those whohave unilaterally attacked the Muslims. The above verse does notconvey the general command of Islam. The truth of the matter is that the Quran was not revealed in thecomplete form in which it exists today. It was revealed from timeto time, according to the circumstances, over a time span of 23years. If this is divided into years of war and peace, the period ofpeace amounts to 20 years, while that of war amounts only to 3years. The revelations during these 20 peaceful years were thepeaceful teachings of Islam as are conveyed in the verses regardingthe realization of God, worship, morality, justice, etc. This division of commands into different categories is a naturalone and is found in all religious books. For instance, the Gita, theholy book of the Hindus, pertains to wisdom and moral values. Yetalong with this is the exhortation of Krishna to Arjuna, encouraging
  16. 16. xvi Introductionhim to fight (Bhagavad Gita, 3:30). This does not mean thatbelievers in the Gita should wage wars all the time. MahatmaGandhi, after all, derived his philosophy of non-violence from thesame Gita. The exhortation to wage war in the Gita applies only toexceptional cases where circumstances leave no choice. But forgeneral day-to-day existence it gives the same peaceful commandsas derived from it by Mahatma Gandhi. Similarly, Jesus Christ said, ‘Do not think that I came to bringpeace on Earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.’(Matthew, 10:34). It would not be right to conclude that the religion preached byChrist was one of war and violence, for such utterances relate purelyto particular occasions. So far as general life is concerned, Christtaught peaceful values, such as the building up of a good character,loving each other, helping the poor and needy, etc. The same is true of the Quran. When the Prophet Muhammademigrated from Makkah to Madinah, the idolatrous tribes wereaggressive towards him. But the Prophet always averted theirattacks by the exercise of patience and the strategy of avoidance.However on certain occasions no other options existed, save thatof retaliation. Therefore, he had to do battle on certain occasions.It was these circumstances, which occasioned those revelationsrelating to war. These commands, being specific to certaincircumstances, had no general application. They were not meant tobe valid for all time to come. That is why; the permanent status ofthe Prophet has been termed a ‘mercy for all mankind.’ (21:107) Islam is a religion of peace in the fullest sense of the word. TheQuran calls its way ‘the paths of peace’ (5:16). It describesreconciliation as the best policy (4:128), and states that God abhorsany disturbance of the peace (2:205). We can say that it is noexaggeration to say that Islam and violence are contradictory to
  17. 17. Introduction xviieach other. The concept of Islamic violence is so obviouslyunfounded that prima facie it stands rejected. The fact that violenceis not sustainable, in the present world, is sufficient indication thatviolence, as a principle, is quite alien to the scheme of things inIslam. Islam claims to be an eternal religion and, as such, couldnever afford to uphold any principle, which could not stand up tothe test of time. Any attempt to bracket violence with Islamamounts, therefore, to casting doubt upon the very eternity of theIslamic religion. Islamic terrorism is a contradiction in terms, muchlike ‘pacifist’ terrorism. And the truth of the matter is that, all theteachings of Islam are based, directly or indirectly, on the principleof peace. A Revealed BookThe Quran is a book of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad.It did not come to him in the form of a complete book, but in partsover a period of 23 years. The first part was revealed in 610 AD,when the Prophet Muhammad was in Makkah. Subsequently,different parts continued to be revealed regularly, the final partbeing revealed in 632, when the Prophet was in Madinah. There are 114 chapters in the Quran, both long and short. Theverses number about 6600. To meet the needs of recitation, theQuran was divided into 30 parts. These parts were finally set inorder under the guidance of the Angel Gabriel, through whom Godhad revealed the Quran. When the Quran was revealed in the first quarter of the 7thcentury, paper had already been invented. This paper, known aspapyrus, was made by hand from the fibres of certain trees.Whenever any part of the Quran was revealed, it was written downon papyrus, or in Arabic, qirtas (6:7). During this process, peoplecommitted the verses to memory, the Quran being the only Islamic
  18. 18. xviii Introductionliterature which was recited in prayer, as well as being read out forthe purposes of da‘wah. In this way, the Quran continued to besimultaneously memorized as well as written down. This methodof preservation continued during the lifetime of the ProphetMuhammad. In this way, the Quran was preserved during thelifetime of the Prophet. The third caliph, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, had several copiesprepared. He sent these to different cities, where they were kept inthe great mosques. People not only recited from these copies, butalso prepared more copies from them. The writing of the Quran by hand continued till the printing presswas invented and paper began to be manufactured on a large scale,thanks to the industrial revolution. Then, the Quran began to beprinted. Printing methods went on improving and so the printing ofthe Quran also improved. Now printed copies of the Quran havebecome so common that they can be found in every home, mosque,library and bookstore. Today anyone can find a beautiful copy ofthe Quran, wherever he might be, in any part of the globe. Maulana Wahiduddin Khan sk@skhan.org
  19. 19. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE QURAN570 Birth of the Prophet Muhammad (the Prophet’s father died a few months before his birth)576 Death of the Prophet’s mother Aminah, when the Prophet is six year old578 Death of the Prophet’s grandfather, ‘Abdul Muttalib595 The Prophet’s marriage to Khadijah610 The Prophet receives the first revelation of the Quran at Mount al-Nur near Makkah613 First public preaching.615 Migration of some of the companions of the Prophet to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) to avoid persecution at the hands of the Makkans616-619 The Banu Hashim boycotts the Prophet and his family619 Death of the Prophet’s wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib619 The Prophet visits Taif for support, but the people there give him humiliating treatment.620 The Prophet’s Night Journey to Jerusalem and then to the Seven Heavens622 The Prophet’s migration (hijrah) from Makkah to Madinah, which marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar624 Battle of Badr: the pagan Makkans were defeated by the Muslims
  20. 20. xx Chronological Table of the Quran625 Battle of Uhud: the Muslims were defeated by the pagan Makkans628 The Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Ten year no-war pact with pagan Makkans, allowing peaceful preaching of Islam. As a result many came into the fold of Islam630 No-war pact broken by the pagan Makkans. Makkah’s surrender—the Prophet forgives the Makkans and entire population enters the fold of Islam631 ‘The Year of Embassies’—Islam accepted by Arabian tribes. The Prophet enters into peace treaties with the Christians and Jewish tribes632 The Prophet’s Farewell Pilgrimage to Makkah632 8th June. Death of the Prophet Muhammad at Madinah633 Quran prepared in one volume by Caliph Abu Bakr645 Caliph ‘Uthman has several copies of the Quran made and distributed in neighbouring countries1153 First Latin translation of the Quran1543 First printed edition with preface by Martin Luther1649 Alexander Ross translates the Quran into English from French1734 George Sale’s translation of the Quran1930 Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall’s translation of the Quran1934 ‘Abdullah Yusuf ‘Ali’s translation of the Quran1980 Muhammad Asad’s translation of the Quran
  21. 21. Map of Arabian Peninsula showing places at the time of the revelation of the Quran, 610-632. N W E S
  22. 22. Blank
  23. 23. THE QURAN
  24. 24. (xxiv)Blank
  25. 25. 1. THE OPENING 1 In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful2 All praise is due to God, turn for help. 6 Guide us to thethe Lord of the Universe; straight path: 7 the path of those3 the Beneficent, the Merciful; You have blessed; not of4 Lord of the Day of those who have incurred YourJudgement. 5 You alone we wrath, nor of those who haveworship, and to You alone we gone astray. 2. THE HEIFER In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful1 6 Alif Lam Mim As for those who are bent on denying the truth, it makes no2 This is the Book; there is no difference to them whether youdoubt in it. It is a guide for those warn them or not, they will notwho are mindful of God, 3 who believe. 7 God has sealed theirbelieve in the unseen, and are hearts and their ears, and oversteadfast in prayer, and spend their eyes there is a covering.out of what We have provided They will have a terriblethem with; 4 those who believe punishment.in the revelation sent down to 8 There are some who say, ‘Weyou and in what was sent before believe in God and the Lastyou, and firmly believe in the Day,’ yet they are not believers.life to come—5 they are the 9 They seek to deceive God andpeople who are rightly following the believers, but they onlytheir Lord and it is they who deceive themselves, though theyshall be successful. do not realize it. 10 In their hearts
  26. 26. 2 The Quran 2:11is a disease, which God has up all around them, God tookincreased. They will have a away their light and left them inpainful punishment, because they utter darkness, unable to see—have been lying. 11 When they 18 deaf, dumb, and blind: theyare told, ‘Do not cause corruption will never return [to the rightin the land,’ they say, ‘We are path]. 19 Or their case is like thatonly promoters of peace,’ 12 but of heavy rain pouring down fromit is they who are really causing the clouds, accompanied bycorruption, though they do not darkness, thunder and lightning;realize it. 13 And when they are they thrust their fingers in theirtold, ‘Believe as other people ears at the sound of thunderclapshave believed,’ they say, ‘Are we for fear of death. God thusto believe just as fools believe?’ encompasses those who denySurely they are the fools, even the truth. 20 The lightning almostthough they do not realize it. takes away their sight: whenever14 When they meet those who it flashes upon them, they walkbelieve, they say, ‘We believe.’ on, but as soon as darkness fallsBut when they are alone with around them, they stand still.their evil leaders, they say, ‘We Indeed, if God pleased, He couldare really with you; we were take away their hearing and theironly mocking.’ 15 God will sight: God has power over allrequite them for their mockery, things.and draw them on, for a while, to 21 People, worship your Lord,wander blindly in their insolence. who created you and those before16 Such are those who have taken you, so that you may becomemisguidance in exchange for righteous, 22 who made the earthguidance; but their bargain does a bed, and the sky a canopy; andnot profit them, nor have they it is He who sends down rainfound true guidance. from above for the growth of 17 They are like those who every kind of food for yourkindled a fire, and when it lighted sustenance. And do not
  27. 27. 2:31 The Heifer 3knowingly set up rivals to God. guides many by it. But He makes23 If you are in doubt about the only the disobedient go astray:revelation We have sent down to 27 those who break God’sOur servant, then produce a covenant after they have pledgedsingle chapter like it, and call to keep it, and sever whateverupon your helpers besides God, God has ordered to be joined,if you are truthful. 24 But if you and spread corruption in thecannot do it, and you can never land—it is they who are thedo it, then guard yourselves losers. 28 How can you disbelieveagainst the Fire whose fuel is in God when you were deadmen and stones, prepared for [lifeless] and He gave you life?those who deny the truth. 25 Give He will let you die once more,the good news to those who then bring you back to life again,believe and do good works, that whereupon you will be returnedthey will have Gardens through to Him. 29 It is He who createdwhich rivers flow: whenever they everything on the earth for you:are given fruit to eat they will then He turned towards heavensay, ‘This is what we were and fashioned it into the sevenprovided with before,’ because heavens. He has knowledge ofthey were given similar things. all things.And there will be pure spouses 30 When your Lord said to thefor them, and they will abide angels, ‘I am putting a successorthere forever. on earth,’ they said, ‘Will You 26 God does not disdain to place someone there who willgive a parable about a gnat or a cause corruption on it and shedsmaller creature. The faithful blood, while we glorify You withknow that it is the truth from Your praise and extol Yourtheir Lord, but those who deny holiness?’ [God] answered,the truth ask, ‘What could God ‘Surely, I know that which youmean by this parable?’ He lets do not know.’many go astray through it, and 31 He taught Adam all the
  28. 28. 4 The Quran 2:32names, then He set them before abode and your livelihood for athe angels and said, ‘Tell Me the while!’ 37 Then Adam receivednames of these, if what you say some words [of prayer] from hisbe true.’ 32 They said, ‘Glory be Lord and He accepted histo You; we have no knowledge repentance. He is the Forgivingexcept whatever You have taught One, the Merciful. 38 We said,us. You are the All Knowing, the ‘Go down, all of you, from here:All Wise.’ 33 Then He said, ‘O then when guidance comes toAdam, tell them their names.’ you from Me, anyone whoWhen Adam had told them the follows My guidance will havenames, God said to the angels, no fear, nor will they grieve—‘Did I not say to you: I know the 39 those who deny and reject Oursecrets of the heavens and of the signs shall be the inhabitants ofearth, and I know what you the Fire; therein shall they abidereveal and what you conceal?’ forever.’ 34 40 When We said to the angels, Children of Israel, remember‘Bow down before Adam,’ they the favours I have bestowed uponall bowed except for Iblis [Satan]. you, and fulfil the covenant thatHe refused and acted proudly you made with Me. I shall fulfiland became an unbeliever. 35 We the covenant I made with you.said, ‘O Adam! live with your Fear Me alone. 41 And believe inwife in Paradise and eat freely the message I have sent downfrom it anywhere you may wish. which fulfils that [predictionsYet do not approach this tree lest about the last prophet in theiryou become wrongdoers.’ 36 But Scripture] which you alreadySatan caused them both to slip possess and do not be foremostthrough this and thus brought among those who deny its truth.about the loss of their former Do not sell My revelations for astate. We said, ‘Go down from paltry price; fear Me alone. 42 Dohere as enemies to each other; not mix truth with falsehood, orand on earth you shall have your hide the truth when you know it.
  29. 29. 2:57 The Heifer 543 Attend to your prayers, give for you and saved you andthe zakat [prescribed alms] and drowned Pharaoh’s people, whilebow down with those who bow you looked on. 51 We appointeddown. 44 Do you admonish others for Moses forty nights [on Mountto do good and forget this Sinai], and in his absence youyourselves? Yet you read the Book. took to worshipping the calf,Will you not then understand? and thus became transgressors.45 52 Seek help with patience and Yet after that We pardonedprayer; this is indeed an exacting you, so that you might be grateful.discipline, but not to the humble, 53 Remember when We gave46 who know for certain that they Moses the Scripture, and thewill meet their Lord, and that criterion [to distinguish betweenthey will return to Him. right and wrong], so that you 47 Children of Israel, remember might be guided. 54 When MosesMy blessing which I have said to his people, ‘O my people,bestowed on you, and how I you have indeed wrongedfavoured you above all other yourselves by worshipping thepeople. 48 Guard yourselves calf; turn in repentance to youragainst the Day on which no soul Creator and slay [the culprits]shall in the least avail another, among you. That course is bestwhen neither intercession nor for you in the sight of yourransom shall be accepted from it Maker.’ He relented towards you.nor shall help be given to it. He is the Forgiving One, the49 Remember when We delivered Merciful. 55 Remember when youyou from Pharaoh’s people, who said, ‘Moses, we will not believesubjected you to grievous in you until we see God with ourtorment, slaying your sons and own eyes,’ a thunderbolt strucksparing only your daughters— you while you were looking on.surely in that there was a great 56 Then We brought you back totrial for you from your Lord— life after your death, so that you50 and when We divided the sea might be grateful. 57 Then We
  30. 30. 6 The Quran 2:58caused the clouds to provide 61 When you said, ‘Moses, weshade for you and sent down for cannot bear to eat only one kindyou manna and quails, saying, of food, so pray to your Lord to‘Eat the good things We have bring forth for us some of theprovided for you.’ Indeed, they earth’s produce, its herbs anddid not wrong Us, but they cucumbers, its garlic, lentils,wronged themselves. and onions.’ He said, ‘Would 58 Remember when We said, you take a lesser thing in‘Enter this land and eat freely exchange for what is better? Gowherever you will. Make your to some town and there you willway through the gates, bowing find all that you demand.’down and saying, “God! Forgive Abasement and destitution wereus our sins.” We shall forgive stamped upon them, and theyyou your sins and We shall give incurred the wrath of God, forabundance to those who do having rejected His signs, andgood.’ 59 But the wrongdoers they killed His prophets unjustly,changed the words to something because they were rebels andother than what they had been transgressors.told. So We sent down upon the 62 The believers, the Jews, thetransgressors a punishment from Christians, and the Sabaeans—heaven, because they were all those who believe in God anddisobedient. 60 When Moses the Last Day and do goodprayed for water for his people, deeds—will be rewarded by theirWe said to him, ‘Strike the rock Lord; they shall have no fear, norwith your staff!’ And there shall they grieve.gushed out from it twelve 63 [Children of Israel], Wesprings. Each tribe knew its made a covenant with you anddrinking-place. [We said], ‘Eat raised the mountain high aboveand drink what God has provided you, saying, ‘Hold fast to whatand do not act wrongfully in the We have given you and bear itsland, spreading corruption.’ contents in mind, so that you
  31. 31. 2:75 The Heifer 7may guard yourselves [against your Lord to make it clear to usevil].’ 64 Yet after that you turned the exact type of heifer she shouldaway, and but for God’s grace be, for to us all heifers lookand mercy, you would have surely alike. If God wills, we shallbeen among the losers. 65 You be rightly guided.’ 71 Mosesare aware of those who answered, ‘Your Lord says, shetransgressed in the matter of the should be a heifer which has notSabbath, whereupon We said to been yoked to plough the land orthem, ‘Be as apes, despised!’ water the fields, a heifer free66 We made their fate an example from any blemish.’ ‘Now youto their own generation and to have told us the truth,’ theythose who followed them and a answered, and they sacrificed it,lesson to those who fear God. though they would rather not 67 When Moses said to his have done it. 72 Then, when youpeople, ‘God commands you to [Israelites] killed someone andsacrifice a heifer,’ they said, ‘Are started to blame one another—you making a mockery of us?’ God brought to light what youHe answered, ‘God forbid that I concealed—73 We said, ‘Strikeshould be so ignorant!’ 68 They [the corpse] with a part of it.’said, ‘Ask your Lord to make it Thus God restores the dead toclear to us what sort of heifer she life and shows you His signs, soshould be.’ He answered, ‘God that you may understand.says she should be neither too 74 Then your hearts became asold nor too young, but in hard as rock or even harder: for,between, so do as you are there are rocks from whichcommanded.’ 69 They said, ‘Call streams gush forth; and, thereon your Lord for us, to show us are some that cleave asunder andwhat colour she should be.’ He water flows out from them, whileanswered, ‘God says she should others fall down for fear of God.be a bright yellow heifer, pleasing God is not unaware of what you do.to the eye.’ 70 They said, ‘Ask 75 Do you then hope that they
  32. 32. 8 The Quran 2:76will believe in you when some of days!’ Say [to them], ‘Have youthem have already heard the word received a promise from God—of God and then, after having for God never breaks Hisunderstood it, they knowingly promise—or do you attributeperverted it? 76 When they meet something to God which you dothe faithful, they say, ‘We are not know?’ 81 Truly, those whobelievers.’ But when alone, they do evil and are encompassed bysay to each other, ‘Must you tell their misdeeds, shall be thethem what God has revealed to inmates of the Fire. Therein theyus? They will only use it to argue shall abide forever, 82 but thoseagainst you before your Lord! who believe and do good worksHave you no sense?’ 77 Do they are the heirs of Paradise; therenot know that God knows all they shall abide forever.that they conceal and all that 83 Remember when We made athey disclose? covenant with the Children of 78 There are among them Israel, ‘Worship none but Godunlettered people who have no and be good to your parents andreal knowledge of the Scriptures, to relatives and orphans and theknowing only their own wishful needy. And speak kindly tothinking and following only people. Attend to your prayersconjecture. 79 Woe to those who and pay the zakat [prescribedwrite the scripture with their alms].’ But with the exception ofown hands, and then declare, a few, you turned away [in‘This is from God,’ in order to aversion] and paid no heed.sell it for a paltry price. Woe to 84 When We made a covenantthem because of what their own with you, We said, ‘You shall nothands have written, and woe to shed each other’s blood, nor turnthem for what they have earned. your people out of their homes.’80 They say, ‘The Fire is not You consented to this and boregoing to touch us, and [even if it witness. 85 Yet, here you are,does], it will only be for a few slaying one another and driving
  33. 33. 2:91 The Heifer 9some of your own people from impenetrably wrapped [againsttheir homelands, aiding one whatever you say],’ but God hasanother against them, committing rejected them for their denial;sin and aggression; but if they they have but little faith.came to you as captives, you 89 And now that a Bookwould ransom them. Surely their has come to them from God,very expulsion was unlawful for fulfilling that [predictions aboutyou. Do you believe in one part the final prophet in theirof the Book and deny another scriptures] which is with them,part of it? Those of you who act they deny it—whereas previouslythus shall be rewarded with they used to pray for victorydisgrace in this world and with a against the disbelievers—yetsevere punishment on the Day of when there came to them thatResurrection. God is never which they recognized as theunaware of what you do. 86 Such truth, they rejected it. God’sare they who buy the life of this rejection is the due of all whoworld at the price of the deny the truth. 90 What they haveHereafter. Their punishment sold their souls for is evil: to theshall not be lightened for them, denial of God’s own revelation,nor shall they be helped. grudging that He should reveal 87 To Moses We gave the His bounty to whom He choosesBook and sent a succession of from among His servants! Theymessengers after him. We gave have incurred wrath upon wrath.Jesus, son of Mary, clear signs Humiliating punishment awaitsand strengthened him with the those who deny the truth.Holy Spirit. But, whenever a 91 When they are told, ‘Believemessenger came to you with in what God has revealed,’ theysomething which you did not say, ‘We believe in what wasdesire, you grew arrogant, calling revealed to us,’ while they denysome liars and slaying others. the truth in what has been sent88 They say, ‘Our hearts are down after that, even though it is
  34. 34. 10 The Quran 2:92the Truth, confirming that which a thousand years, though eventhey already have. Say, ‘Why did such a long life would not saveyou kill God’s prophets in the them from [Our] punishment;past, if you were true believers? and God sees all that they do.92 97 Moses came to you with clear Say, ‘Anyone who is ansigns, but in his absence you enemy of Gabriel—who byworshipped the calf and became God’s leave has brought down towrongdoers.’ 93 When We made your heart [the Quran] fulfillinga covenant with you and raised that [predictions about the lastthe mountain above you saying, prophet in the earlier revelations]‘Hold firmly to what We have which precedes it, and is agiven you and listen,’ you said, guidance and good news for the‘We hear, but we disobey,’ and faithful—98 whoever is an enemytheir hearts were filled with the of God, His angels, or Hislove of the calf, because of their messengers, or of Gabriel orrefusal to acknowledge the truth. Michael, will surely find thatSay, ‘Evil is that to which your God too is the enemy of thosefaith enjoins you if you are indeed who deny the truth.’ 99 We havebelievers.’ 94 Say, ‘If God’s abode sent down clear signs to you andof the Hereafter is for you alone, no one will reject them exceptto the exclusion of all others, the wicked. 100 Why is it that,then wish for death, if you are whenever they make a covenant,truthful.’ 95 But they will never some of them cast it aside?wish for death, because of what Most of them do not believe.their own hands have sent on 101 Whenever a messenger frombefore them; God is fully aware God has come to them, fulfillingof the wrongdoers. 96 You will that [predictions] which theyfind them clinging to life more already had, some of those toeagerly than any other people, whom the Book was given have casteven the polytheists. Any of them off the Book of God behind theirwould wish to be given a life of backs as if they had no knowledge.
  35. 35. 2:107 The Heifer 11 102 They pursued what the the Prophet, ‘Ra‘ina’ but say,devils falsely attributed to the ‘Unzurna,’ and listen to himkingdom of Solomon. Solomon with attention.a For those whowas not an unbeliever: it is the deny the truth, there is a painfuldevils who are unbelievers. They punishment. 105 They who denytaught people witchcraft, and the truth from among the Peoplethat which was sent down to of the Book, or from amongHarut and Marut, the two angels those who associate partners within Babylon. But these two taught God, do not desire that any goodno one until they had said, ‘We should be sent down to you fromare but a trial, therefore, do not your Lord. But God singles outdisbelieve [in God’s guidance].’ for His grace whom He wills—So men learnt from them that by for God is limitless in His greatwhich they caused discord bounty. 106 If We abrogate a versebetween man and wife; but they or cause it to be forgotten, Weharmed no one thereby, except will replace it by a better one orby the command of God; [on the one similar to it. Do you notcontrary], these people learned know that God has power overthat which would harm them and all things? 107 Do you not knowdo them no good, knowing full that the kingdom of the heavenswell that whoever acquired [this and the earth belongs to Godknowledge] would have no share alone? And that there is noin the Hereafter. Evil indeed was protector or helper for youthe [price] for which they soldtheir souls, if only they had a Some people would sit in theknown it. 103 And had they but Prophet’s company and, by playing onbelieved and been mindful of words, make a mockery of hisGod, His reward would have been teachings. For instance, instead of using the unambiguous Arabic wordfar better for them, if they had but for ‘May we have your attention’—known it. ‘unzurna’—they would say ‘ra‘ina’, 104 Believers, do not say to meaning ‘our shepherd’.
  36. 36. 12 The Quran 2:108besides God? 108 Do you [all] Christians have no ground towant to question your messenger stand on,’ and the Christians say,just as Moses was questioned ‘The Jews have no ground topreviously? Anyone who stand on.’ Yet they both reciteexchanges faith for unbelief has the Book, and those who havestrayed from the right path. no knowledge say the same; God 109 Many among the People of will judge between them on thethe Book wish, through envy, to Day of Resurrection concerninglead you back to unbelief, now their disputes. 114 Who could bethat you have embraced the faith more wicked than someone whoand the truth has been made prevents God’s name from beingplain to them. But you should mentioned in His places ofpardon them and bear with them worship, and seeks to bring aboutuntil God gives His command. their ruin, while it behoves theseTruly, God has power over all men to enter them with fear inthings. 110 Attend to your prayers their hearts? There is disgrace inand pay the prescribed alms; any store for them in this world andgood you store up for yourselves, a great punishment in the next.you will find it with God. 115 The East and the West belongCertainly, God sees what you do. to God. Whichever way you turn,111 They declare, ‘None shall ever there is the Face of God. God isenter Heaven unless he be a Jew all pervading and all knowing.or a Christian.’ This is their own 116 They say, ‘God has takenwishful thinking. [Prophet], say, a son.’ Glory be to Him!‘Produce your evidence if you Everything in the heavens andare telling the truth.’ 112 Indeed, the earth belongs to Him; allthose who submit themselves to things are obedient to Him. 117 HeGod and act righteously shall be is the Originator of the heavensrewarded by their Lord: they shall and the earth, and when Hehave no fear, nor shall they grieve. decrees something, He says only, 113 The Jews say, ‘The ‘Be!’ and it is.
  37. 37. 2:126 The Heifer 13 118 Those who are devoid of when no human being shall availknowledge say, ‘Why does God another. Nor shall ransom benot speak to us or show us a accepted from any of them, norsign?’ The same demand was shall intercession be of any usemade by those before them; their to them, and none shall behearts are all alike. We have succoured. 124 When his Lordmade the signs clear to those tested Abraham with certainwhose faith is firm. 119 We have commands and he fulfilled them,sent you with the truth, bearing He said, ‘I will make you agood news and giving warning. leader of men.’ Abraham asked,You will not be held accountable ‘And what of my descendants?’for the people of the Fire. He answered, ‘My covenant does120 Neither the Christians nor the not extend to the transgressors.’Jews will be pleased with you 125 And We made the Houseuntil you follow their ways. Say, [the Ka‘bah] a place of assembly‘God’s guidance is the only true and a sanctuary for mankind,guidance.’ If you followed their [saying], ‘Make the place wheredesires after the knowledge Abraham stood a place ofwhich has come to you, you worship.’ We commandedwould not have any patron or Abraham and Ishmael, ‘Purifysupporter against God. 121 Those My House for those who walkwhom We have given this Book round it, those who stay there forfollow it as it ought to be devotion, and those who bowfollowed; it is they who [truly] down and prostrate themselves.’believe in it; those who deny it 126 And when Abraham prayed,will be the losers. ‘My Lord, make this city a city 122 Children of Israel, of peace, and provide itsremember My favour which I inhabitants with fruits, such ofhave bestowed upon you, and them as believe in God and thehow I preferred you above all Last Day.’ God said, ‘As forother people; 123 and fear a Day those who deny the truth, I will
  38. 38. 14 The Quran 2:127grant them benefits for a short 132 and Abraham enjoined hiswhile and then subject them to sons to do the same, as didthe punishment of the Fire—an Jacob, ‘My sons, God has chosenevil destination.’ this religion for you; so do not 127 And when Abraham and let death overtake you, exceptIshmael were laying the when you are in a state offoundations of the House, [they submission.’ 133 Were you presentprayed], ‘Our Lord, accept this when Jacob faced the hour offrom us; for You are All Hearing, death and he asked his sons,All Knowing. 128 Lord, make us ‘Who will you worship aftersubmissive to You; make of our me?’ They answered, ‘We willdescendants a nation that will worship your God and the Godsubmit to You. Teach us our rites of your fathers, Abraham andof worship and turn to us with Ishmael and Isaac: the one God;mercy; You are the Forgiving we have submitted ourselves toOne and the Merciful. 129 Our Him.’ 134 Those were a peopleLord, send forth to them a that have passed away; whatmessenger of their own to recite they did is theirs and what youYour revelations to them, to teach have done is yours. You will notthem the Scripture and wisdom, be answerable for their deeds.and purify them. You are the 135 They say, ‘Be Jews orMighty, the Wise One.’ Christians, and you shall be 130 Who but a foolish man rightly guided.’ Say, ‘By nowould turn away from the means! We believe in the faith ofreligion of Abraham? We chose Abraham, who was ever inclinedhim in this world, and in the [to God]; he was not one ofHereafter he shall be among the those who set up partners withrighteous. 131 When his Lord said God.’ 136 Say, ‘We believe into him, ‘Surrender!’ he God and what was revealed toresponded, ‘I have surrendered us; and what was revealed toto the Lord of the Universe,’ Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob,
  39. 39. 2:144 The Heifer 15and their descendants, and what 141 Those were a people that havewas given to Moses and Jesus passed away; theirs is what theyand what was given to the [other] did and yours what youprophets by their Lord. We make have done. You shall not beno distinction between any of answerable for their deeds.them. It is to Him that we 142 The foolish will ask, ‘Whatsurrender ourselves.’ 137 If they has made them turn away frombelieve as you have believed, their direction of prayer whichthen are they rightly guided; but they used to face?’ Say, ‘Theif they turn back, then know that East and the West belong tothey are entrenched in hostility. God. He guides whom He pleasesGod will surely suffice to defend to the right path.’ 143 Thus Weyou against them, for He is All have made you a middle nation,Hearing, All Knowing. 138 We so that you may act as witnessestake on God’s own dye. Who has for mankind, and the Messengera better dye than God’s? We may be a witness for you. Weworship Him alone. 139 Say, ‘Do decreed your former prayeryou dispute with us about God, direction towards which you usedwhile He is our Lord and your to face only in order that WeLord? We have our actions and might make a clear distinctionyou have your actions. We are between the Messenger’s truedevoted to Him alone. 140 Do followers and those who were toyou claim that Abraham and turn their backs on him. ThisIshmael and Isaac and Jacob and was indeed a hard test for all buttheir descendants were all Jews those whom God has guided.or Christians?’ Say, ‘Do you God will never let your faith goknow better or does God? And to waste. God is compassionatewho could be more unjust than and merciful to mankind.one who conceals a testimony 144 We have frequently seengiven to him by God? God is not you turn your face towardsunaware of what you do.’ heaven. So We will make you
  40. 40. 16 The Quran 2:145turn in a direction for prayer that may be, God will bring you allwill please you. So turn your before Him. God has power overface now towards the Sacred all things. 149 Wherever you setMosque: and wherever you may out from, turn your face inbe, turn your faces towards it. the direction of the SacredThose who were given the Book Mosque—this is the truth fromknow this to be the truth from your Lord: He is not unaware oftheir Lord. God is not unaware what you do—150 wherever youof what they do. 145 But even if come from, turn your face to theyou should produce every kind Sacred Mosque; wherever youof sign for those who have been may be, turn your faces towardsgiven the Book, they would never it, so that people will not haveaccept your prayer direction, nor any argument against you exceptwould you accept their prayer for the wrongdoers among them.direction: nor would any of them Do not fear them; fear Me, soaccept one another’s direction. that I may perfect My favour toIf, after all the knowledge you you and you may be rightlyhave been given, you yield to guided. 151 Thus We have senttheir desires, then, you shall among you a Messenger of yoursurely become a transgressor. own to recite Our revelations to146 Those to whom We have given you, purify you and teach youthe Book recognize it just as they the Book and wisdom, and torecognize their own sons. But, teach you what you did not know.some of them knowingly conceal 152 So remember Me; I willthe truth. 147 Truth is what comes remember you. Be thankful tofrom your Lord; therefore, do Me and do not be ungrateful.not be of those who doubt. 153 You who believe, seek help 148 Each community has its through patience and prayer;own direction in which it turns: surely, God is with the steadfast.vie, then, with one another in 154 Do not say that those who aredoing good works. Wherever you killed in God’s cause are dead;
  41. 41. 2:165 The Heifer 17they are alive, but you are not accept their repentance: I amaware of it. 155 We shall certainly the Ever Relenting, the Mosttest you with fear and hunger, Merciful. 161 Those who denyand loss of property, lives and the truth, and die as deniers, oncrops. Give good news to those them shall be the curse of Godwho endure with fortitude. and of angels and of men156 Those who say, when afflicted altogether. 162 Under it they shallwith a calamity, ‘We belong to remain forever; their punishmentGod and to Him we shall return,’ shall not be lightened, nor shall157 are the ones who will have they be granted respite.blessings and mercy from their 163 Your God is one God. ThereLord: it is they who are on the is no deity save Him. He is theright path! Compassionate, the Merciful. 158 Safa and Marwah are 164 In the creation of the heavensamong the symbols set up by and the earth; in the alternationGod; there is nothing wrong if of night and day; in the ships thatanyone goes on a pilgrimage to sail the ocean bearing cargoesthe House, or performs a minor beneficial to man; in the waterpilgrimage, in walking to and fro which God sends down from thebetween them. Of anyone who sky and with which He revivesdoes good of his own accord, the earth after its death, scatteringGod is appreciative, and aware. over it all kinds of animals; in159 Those who conceal the the courses of the winds, and inevidence of the truth and the the clouds pressed into serviceguidance We have revealed, after between earth and sky, there areWe have made them clear to indeed signs for people who usepeople in the Scripture, will be their reason.rejected by God and so do others. 165 Yet there are some who set160 But from those who repent up equals with God and adoreand mend their ways and make them with the adoration due toknown the truth, I will certainly God, but those who believe love
  42. 42. 18 The Quran 2:166God most. If only the wrongdoers did not use their reason, andcould see—as they will see when were devoid of all guidance.they face the punishment—that 171 Those who deny the truth areall power belongs to God, and like animals which hear nothingthat God is severe in punishment. in your call but the sound of a166 When they face their voice, without understanding itspunishment, those who have meaning. They are deaf, dumbbeen followed will disown their and blind. They understandfollowers, and all their ties shall nothing.be cut asunder, 167 those who 172 Believers, eat thefollowed will say, ‘If we could wholesome things which Weonly return to the world, we have provided for you and givewould disown them as they have thanks to God, if it is Him youdisowned us.’ God will thus show worship. 173 He has forbiddenthem their actions as a cause of you only carrion, blood, and thebitter regret and remorse. They flesh of swine; also any fleshshall never emerge from the Fire. that is consecrated other than in 168 O mankind, eat whatever is the name of God. But for onelawful and wholesome on the who is driven by necessity,earth; and do not follow in the neither craving nor transgressing,footsteps of Satan; for he is it is no sin. For God is forgivingindeed your avowed enemy. and merciful. 174 Those who169 He bids you only to do evil conceal any part of the Scripturesand to commit deeds of which God has revealed in orderabomination and to attribute to to gain some paltry end, simplyGod something of which you fill their bellies with Fire. On thehave no knowledge. 170 But when Day of Resurrection, God willthey are told, ‘Follow what God neither speak to them nor purifyhas sent down,’ they answer, them. They will have a painful‘We will follow the ways of our punishment. 175 Those are thefathers,’ even though their fathers ones who have taken error in
  43. 43. 2:182 The Heifer 19exchange for guidance and female for the female. If thepunishment for forgiveness. How offender is granted somelittle do they seem to fear the remission by the heir of the slainFire! 176 That is because God has person, the agreed penalty shouldsent down the Book with the be equitably exacted and shouldtruth. And those who pursue be discharged in a handsomedifferences in the Scriptures go manner. This is an alleviationmuch too far in dissension. from your Lord and an act of 177 Virtue does not consist in grace. He who transgresses afterwhether you face towards the this shall have a painfulEast or the West; virtue means punishment. 179 In [this law of]believing in God, the Last Day, retribution there is life for you,the angels, the Book and the O people of understanding, soprophets; the virtuous are those that perhaps you will be mindfulwho, despite their love for it, of God. 180 It is prescribed thatgive away their wealth to their when death approaches any ofrelatives and to orphans and the you and he is leaving behindvery poor, and to travellers and wealth, he shall make a will inthose who ask [for charity], and favour of his parents and relativesto set slaves free, and who attend equitably. This is a duty for allto their prayers and pay the alms, who fear God. 181 Anyone whoand who keep their pledges when alters it once he has heard it shallthey make them, and show be accountable for his crime.patience in hardship and Surely, God is all hearing and alladversity, and in times of distress. knowing. 182 But if anyoneSuch are the true believers; and apprehends partiality or ansuch are the God-fearing. injustice on the part of a testator, 178 Believers, retribution is it shall be no sin for him to bringprescribed for you in cases of about a settlement between themurder: the free man for the free parties. God is forgiving andman, the slave for the slave, the merciful.
  44. 44. 20 The Quran 2:183 183 Believers, fasting has been and so that you may be gratefulprescribed for you, just as it was to Him.prescribed for those before you, 186 When My servants ask youso that you may guard yourselves about Me, say that I am near. Iagainst evil. 184 Fast for a respond to the call of one whospecified number of days, but if calls, whenever he calls to Me:any one among you is ill or on a let them, then, respond to Me,journey, let him fast the same and believe in Me, so that theynumber of days later. For those may be rightly guided. 187 It haswho can fast only with extreme been made lawful for you to godifficulty, there is a way to to your wives on the night of thecompensate—the feeding of a fast: they are like a garment forneedy person. But he who does you, and you are like a garmentgood of his own accord shall be for them. God is aware that youwell rewarded; but to fast is were deceiving yourselves andbetter for you, if you only knew. He has turned in mercy towards185 The month of Ramadan is the you and pardoned you. So youmonth when the Quran was sent may now consort with them anddown as guidance for mankind seek what God has ordained forwith clear proofs of guidance you. Eat and drink until theand the criterion by which to white thread of dawn becomesdistinguish right from wrong. distinct from the black. ThenTherefore, whoever of you is resume the fast until nightfall,present in that month, let him and do not approach them duringfast; but he who is ill or on a the nights of your devotionaljourney shall fast a similar retreat in the mosques. These arenumber of days later on. God the limits set by God, so do notdesires ease for you, not hardship. approach them. Thus He makesHe desires you to fast the whole clear His commandments tomonth, so that you may glorify mankind, so that they may guardHim for His having guided you themselves [against evil]. 188 Do
  45. 45. 2:196 The Heifer 21not consume one another’s unless they fight you there. Ifproperty by unjust means, they do fight you, slay them—nor offer it as a bribe to the such is the reward for those whoauthorities, so that you may deny the truth—192 but if theydeliberately and wrongfully desist, then surely God is mostdevour a part of other people’s forgiving and merciful. 193 Fightwealth. them until there is no more fitna 189 They ask you about the [religious persecution] andphases of the moon. Say, ‘They religion belongs to God alone. Ifare a means of determining time they desist, then let there befor the regulation of people’s no hostility, except towardsaffairs and for the pilgrimage.’ aggressors.Piety does not consist in entering 194 A sacred month for a sacredyour houses from the rear. Indeed, month: violation of sanctity callsone who guards himself against for fair retribution. Thus youevil out of fear of God is the may exact retribution fromtruly righteous one. Enter your whoever transgresses againsthouses by their doors and be you, in proportion to hismindful of God, so that you may transgression. Fear God andprosper. 190 And fight in God’s know that God is with those whocause against those who wage are mindful of Him. 195 Spendwar against you, but do not for God’s cause: but do not castcommit aggression—for surely, yourselves into destruction byGod does not love aggressors. your own hands. Do good, God191 Slay them wherever you find loves the doers of good.them [those who fight against 196 Perform the Hajj and theyou]; a drive them out of the minor pilgrimage [umrah] forplaces from which they drove the sake of God. If you areyou, for [religious] persecutionis worse than killing. Do not a See pages xiv to xvii of thefight them at the Sacred Mosque Introduction.
  46. 46. 22 The Quran 2:197prevented from doing so, then best of all provision is God-make whatever offering you can consciousness. Always beafford and do not shave your mindful of Me, you that areheads until the offering has endowed with understanding.reached the place of sacrifice. 198 You will be committing noBut if any of you is ill, or has an sin if [during the pilgrimage]ailment of the head, he should you seek to obtain any bountycompensate by fasting or from your Lord. When you returnalmsgiving or sacrifice. In times from Arafat, remember God atof peace, if any of you combines the sacred place, and rememberthe minor pilgrimage with the Him as He has guided you.Hajj, he should make whatever Before this you were surelyoffering he can afford, but if he astray. 199 Then press on fromlacks the means, then let him fast where the pilgrims stream forththree days during the pilgrimage and ask God’s forgiveness. Godand for seven days after his is ever forgiving and mostreturn; that is, ten days in all. merciful. 200 When you haveThat is incumbent upon anyone performed the acts of worshipwhose family does not live near prescribed for you, celebrate thethe Sacred Mosque. Fear God praises of God as you celebratedand know that God is severe in the praises of your fathers, orpunishment. 197 The pilgrimage even more fervently than that.is in the appointed months. There are some who say, ‘OurWhoever intends to perform it Lord, give us abundance in thisduring them must abstain from world.’ These shall have no shareindecent speech, from all wicked in the world to come. 201 Butconduct, and from quarrelling there are others who pray, ‘Ourwhile on the pilgrimage. Lord, grant us good in this worldWhatever good you may do, God as well as good in the world tois aware of it. Make provision come, and protect us from thefor yourselves—but surely, the torment of the Fire.’ 202 They
  47. 47. 2:213 The Heifer 23shall have a good share from 208 Believers, surrenderwhat they have earned. God yourselves totally to God, andis swift in His reckoning. do not follow in the footsteps of203 Remember God during the Satan; surely, he is your swornappointed days; for one who enemy. 209 But if you lapse afterhastens to leave in two days, it the clear signs that have come toshall be no sin; and for one who you, then know that God isstays on, it shall be no sin for mighty and wise. 210 Are theyhim either. This is for one who only waiting for God as well asfears God. Have fear of God, the angels to come down to themand know that you shall all be under canopies of clouds, so thatgathered before Him. the matter will be settled? All 204 There are some men whose things return to God. 211 Ask theviews on the affairs of this life Children of Israel how manymay please you. They even call clear signs We have given them.on God to witness whatever is in Anyone who changes God’stheir heart, yet they are the most blessing once it has come to himcontentious of quarrellers. will find God is stern in205 When he turns away, he sets punishment. 212 The life of thisout to spread corruption in the world is made to appear attractiveland, destroying crops and cattle. for those who deny the truth andGod does not love corruption. they scoff at those who believe.206 When he is told, ‘Have fear But those who fear God shall beof God,’ he is seized by pride above them on the Day ofwhich drives him to wrongdoing. Resurrection: God bestows HisHell shall be enough for him. A bounties on whoever He pleasesdreadful resting place. 207 But without stinting.there are others who would 213 Mankind was once a singlededicate themselves to seeking community, [but then peoplethe pleasure of God. God is developed differences], so Godcompassionate to His servants. sent prophets to them as bearers
  48. 48. 24 The Quran 2:214of good tidings and warning, 216 Fighting [in defence] isand sent down with them the ordained for you, abhorent as itBook containing the truth, so may be to you. You may dislikethat He might judge between something although it is goodtheir disputes. It was only those for you, or like somethingto whom it [the scripture] was although it is bad for you: Godgiven who disagreed about it knows but you do not.after clear signs had come to 217 They ask you about fightingthem, because of rivalry between in the sacred month. Say, ‘Tothem. God by His will guided fight [in a sacred month] is athe believers to the truth about grave matter; but barring peoplewhich the others had disputed. from the path of God, to denyGod guides whom He will to a Him, and expelling people fromstraight path. 214 Do you think the Sacred Mosque are far graverthat you will enter Paradise in His sight; and persecution iswithout having suffered like worse than killing.’ They willthose who passed away before not stop fighting you until theyyou? Affliction and hardship make you renounce your faith, ifbefell them and so shaken were they can. Whoever of you turnsthey that the Messenger and the back from his faith and dies as abelievers with him would denier of the truth will have hisexclaim, ‘When will God’s help deeds come to nothing in thiscome?’ Surely the help of God world and the Hereafter, and heis near. will be an inhabitant of the Fire, 215 They will ask you what to abide therein forever. 218 Butthey should spend on others. those who have believed,Say, ‘Whatever you give should migrated, and striven for God’sbe for parents, close relatives, cause, can look forward to God’sorphans, the needy, and mercy: God is forgiving andtravellers. God is well aware of merciful.whatever good you do.’ 219 They ask you [Prophet]
  49. 49. 2:224 The Heifer 25about intoxicants and gambling. God, till they have believed; aSay, ‘There is great sin in both, believing bondman is certainlyalthough they have some benefit better than a man who associatesfor people: but their harm is partners with God, even thoughgreater than their benefit.’ They he may please you. Such peopleask you what they should spend call you to Hell-fire; but God[in God’s cause]. Say, ‘Whatever calls you to Paradise and tois surplus to your needs.’ Thus forgiveness. He makes HisGod makes His commandments messages clear to people, so thatclear to you so that you may they might bear them inreflect 220 upon this world and mind. 222 They ask you aboutthe Hereafter. They ask you about menstruation. Say, ‘It is anorphans. Say, ‘Promotion of their impurity, so keep away fromwelfare is an act of great women during it and do notgoodness. There is no harm in approach them until they areyour living together with them, cleansed; when they are cleansedfor they are your brothers. God you may approach them as Godknows the mischief-maker from has ordained. God loves thosethe reformer. If God had so who turn to Him in penitencewilled, He would have afflicted and He loves those who keepyou with hardship. Surely, God themselves clean. 223 Your wivesis mighty and wise.’ are your fields. Go, then, into 221 Do not marry women who your fields as you will. Do goodassociate partners with God until deeds, and fear God, and knowthey believe. A believing that you shall meet Him.’ Givebondwoman is better than a good tidings to the believers.woman who associates partners 224 Do not make God a pretext,with God, however pleasing she when you swear by Him, tomay appear to you. Nor give avoid doing good, beingbelieving women in marriage to righteous and making peacemen who associate partners with between people. God is all
  50. 50. 26 The Quran 2:225hearing and all knowing. 225 God twice, and then a woman mustwill not call you to account for be retained honourably orany oaths you uttered released with kindness. It is notunintentionally, but He will take lawful for you to take awayyou to task for what is intended anything of what you have givenin your hearts. God is most your wives, unless both fear thatforgiving and forbearing. 226 For they would not be able to observethose who swear that they will the bounds set by God. In such anot approach their wives, there case it shall be no sin for eithershall be a waiting period of four of them if the woman opts tomonths: if they revert to give something for her release.conciliation, surely, God is most These are the bounds set by God;forgiving and ever merciful; do not transgress them. Those227 but if they decide upon who transgress the bounds ofdivorce, God is all hearing and God are wrongdoers. 230 And ifall knowing. 228 Divorced women man finally divorces his wife, heshould wait for three menstrual cannot remarry her until she hascycles; it is unlawful for them, if married another man. Then if thethey believe in God and the Last next husband divorces her, thereDay, to hide what God has created will be no blame on either ofin their wombs. Their husbands them if the former husband andhave the right to take them back wife return to one another,within that time, if they desire to provided they think that they canbe reconciled. The wives have keep within the bounds set byrights corresponding to those God. These are the boundswhich the husbands have, prescribed by God, whichaccording to what is recognized He makes clear to men ofto be fair, but men have a rank understanding. 231 Once youabove them. God is almighty divorce women, and they haveand all wise. reached the end of their waiting 229 Divorce may be pronounced period, then either retain them in
  51. 51. 2:235 The Heifer 27all decency or part from them bear. No mother should be madedecently. Do not retain them in to suffer on account of her child,order to harm them or to wrong and no father should be made tothem. Whoever does this, wrongs suffer on account of his child.his own soul. Do not make a The same duties devolve uponmockery of God’s revelations. the father’s heir [in case of theRemember the favours God has death of the father]. But if, afterbestowed upon you, and the Book consultation, they choose byand the wisdom He has revealed mutual agreement to wean theto exhort you. Fear God and know child, there shall be no blame onthat God is aware of everything. them. Nor shall it be any offence 232 When you divorce women for you if you desire to engage aand they reach the end of their wet-nurse for your children,waiting period, do not prevent provided you hand over whatthem from marrying other men, you have agreed to pay, in aif they have come to an reasonable manner. Have fear ofhonourable agreement. This is God and know that God isenjoined on every one of you observant of all your actions.who believes in God and the 234 If any of you die and leaveLast Day; it is more wholesome widows, the widows should waitand purer for you. God knows, for four months and ten days.but you do not know. 233 And the When they have reached the end[divorced] mothers should nurse of their waiting period you willtheir children for two whole not be blamed for what they mayyears, if they wish to complete reasonably choose to do withthe period of nursing; and during themselves: God is aware ofthat period the father of the child what you do. 235 It shall be noshall be responsible for the offence for you to hint at amaintenance of the mother in a proposal of marriage [to divorcedreasonable manner. No soul is or widowed women] or to cherishcharged with more than it can them in your hearts. God knows
  52. 52. 28 The Quran 2:236that you will bear them in mind. nearer to righteousness. Do notBut do not enter into any secret neglect any chance of behavingarrangement with them, beyond benevolently towards each other.conveying some indication to God is observant of whateverthem of your inclination. Do not you do.proceed with tying the marriage- 238 Be ever mindful of prayers,knot before the end of their especially the middle prayer; andwaiting period. Know that God stand up before God inhas knowledge of all your submissive devotion. 239 Whenthoughts. Therefore, take heed you are exposed to danger, prayand bear in mind that God is on foot or while riding; whenforgiving and forbearing. 236 You you are safe again, rememberwill not be blamed [for not paying God, for He has taught you whatthe dower money] if you divorce you did not know. 240 If any ofwomen when you have not yet you die and leave widows, makeconsummated the marriage or a bequest for them of a year’sfixed a dower money upon them, maintenance without causingbut make fair provision for them, them to leave their homes; but ifthe affluent according to his they leave of their own accord,means and the straitened you will not be blamed for whataccording to his means; this is they may reasonably choose tobinding on righteous men. 237 If do with themselves. God isyou divorce them before the almighty and wise. 241 Formarriage is consummated, but divorced women a provisionafter their dower money has been according to what is fair shallsettled, give them the half of also be made. This is antheir dower money, unless they obligation binding on the[the women] agree to forego it, righteous. 242 Thus God makesor the man [the husband] in His commandments clear to you,whose hand lies the marriage so that you may understand.knot foregoes it. To forego is 243 Have you not seen those
  53. 53. 2:249 The Heifer 29who fled their homes in their God knows the wrongdoers.thousands for fear of death, 247 Their prophet said to them,whereupon God said to them, ‘God has now appointed Talut to‘Die!’ and later brought them be your king.’ But they replied,back to life? Surely God is ‘How can he be king over usbountiful to mankind, but most when we are worthier of kingshipof them are ungrateful. 244 Fight than he and he has not even been[in defence] in God’s cause and granted an abundance of wealth?’remember that He is all hearing He said, ‘God has chosen himand all knowing. 245 Who will over you, and has given himgive God a generous loan? He great knowledge and physique.will multiply it many times over. God grants kingship to whoeverIt is God who withholds, and He pleases: God is magnanimousGod who gives abundantly, and and all knowing.’ 248 Theirit is to Him that you shall all be prophet also said to them, ‘Thereturned. sign of his kingship is that the 246 Have you not heard of what Ark [of the Covenant] shall comethe chiefs of the Children of to you. Therein shall beIsrael demanded of one of their tranquillity from your Lord, andprophets after Moses? They said, the relics which the House of‘Appoint for us a king, and we Moses and the House of Aaronwill fight for the cause of God.’ left behind. It will be borne byHe replied, ‘What if you refuse the angels. There is a sign in thisto fight, when ordered to do so?’ for you, if you believe.’‘Why should we not fight for the 249 When Talut set out with hiscause of God,’ they replied, forces, he said to them, ‘God‘when we have been driven forth will test you with a river: whoeverfrom our homes and our drinks from it is not with me andchildren?’ But when at last they whoever does not drink is withwere commanded to fight, they me. There will, however, be noall refused, except a few of them. blame upon one who sips only a

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