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  1. 1. Social <br />studies<br />Diego villamizar<br />Valentina serna<br />Melissa munera<br />Katherine cardenas<br />5b<br />
  2. 2. Concepts:<br />Catholic church: <br />The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian church in the world, governed by Pope and headquartered in Vatican City. It is known as Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church Roman Catholicism outside distinction is made by those who argue that the churches of the Anglican Communion and the Orthodox Churches recognize themselves as part of the "Church, one, holy , catholic and apostolic of the Creed and who are also Catholic. <br />Constitution:<br />A constitution is a set of rules for government—often codified as a written document—that enumerates the powers and functions of a political entity. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. In the case of countries and autonomous regions of federal countries the term refers specifically to a constitution defining the fundamental political principles,<br />
  3. 3. Political activities<br />The Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) provides a new regime for governing the political activities of public servants, recognizing the need to balance the rights of employees to engage in political activities with the principle of an impartial public service. The Public Service Commission (PSC) oversees the political impartiality of the public service.<br />Division of powers<br />The separation of powers and division of powers (Latin tries political) is a management and distribution functions of the state in which the ownership of each is entrusted to a separate public body or agency. Along with the constitutional entrenchment of fundamental rights is one of the principles that characterize the modern rule of law<br />
  4. 4. Chief executive<br />Executive Director, also known as executive officer, CEO, Executive Chairman, Chief Executive Officer or by the acronym CEO (chief executive officer of English) is the highest authority responsible for management and administrative leadership in an organization or institution.<br />Central goverment<br />Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation-state. Maintaining national security and exercising international diplomacy (including the right to sign binding treaties) are usually the responsibilities of this level of government. Basically, the central government has the power to make laws for the whole country. central government-within this structure are the government ministries and departments and agencies to which the ministers of government are assigned.<br />
  5. 5. federal system<br />A federal system of government is one that divides the powers of government between the national (federal) government and state and local governments. The Constitution of the United States established the federal system, also known as federalism. Under federalism, each level of government has sovereignty in some areas and shares powers in other areas. For example: both the federal and state governments have the power to tax. Only the federal government can declare war.<br />Civil liberties<br />Civil liberties are rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state. Civil liberties set limits on government so that its members cannot abuse their power and interfere unduly with the lives of private citizens.<br />Common civil liberties include the rights of people, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech, and additionally, the right to due process, to a trial, to own property, and to privacy.<br />
  6. 6. Public service<br />Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income. <br />Political rights<br />The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and in force from March 23, 1976. It commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals,<br />
  7. 7. Civil disorders<br />Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people. Civil disturbance is typically a symptom of, and a form of protest against, major socio-political problems; the severity of the action coincides with public expression(s) of displeasure.<br />Executive powers<br />Authority to enforce orders and to ensure they are carried out as intended.<br />
  8. 8. State of emergency<br />A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. It can also be used as a rationale for suspending civil liberties. Such declarations usually come during a time of natural disaster, during periods of civil disorder, or following a declaration of war (in democratic countries, it many call this martial law, mostly with non-critical intent). <br />State of siege<br />State of Siege (French title: État de Siège) is a 1972 French film directed by Costa Gavras and starred by Yves Montand and Renato Salvatori<br />
  9. 9. Freedom of religion<br />Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.<br />Religious bodies<br />A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. Practically, a state without a state religion is called a secular state<br />
  10. 10. National front<br />Keeping the peace<br />Peacekeeping is defined by the United Nations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict create the conditions for lasting peace" It is distinguished from both peace building and peacemaking<br />
  11. 11. Liberal and conservative leaders<br />The Conservative and Unionist Party, more commonly known as the Conservative Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. Founded in its present form during the early 19th century, it has since been the principal centre right party in the UK. <br />