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Neoliberalism in the Higher Education: the Case of Russia

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The goal of this presentation is to explain the main features of neoliberalism in the context of Russia’s higher education.
The period of neoliberal impact on Russia’s higher education can be roughly divided on two decades: “negative” (1990s - 2000s) and “positive” (2000s - 2010s). The first ten years were characterized by transformation of HEIs as a result of marketization (so called “academic capitalism” with certain criteria of HEIs efficiency), transformation of knowledge (downsizing in the humanities, prestige of the “ideological” disciplines), transformation of teaching practices (rise of corruption in education). The development of Russia’s higher education during the next ten years took relatively positive directions: increase of the role of administrators in the HEIs (“managerial revolution”), expansion and advancement of e-learning (using of e-learning in all forms of education is provided by Russian legislation), new reforms (Unitary national state examination, new ‘federal’ status of the most large universities, status of ‘National Universities’ with a large institutional and financial autonomy) and ratification of Bologna declaration (introcuction of 2-cycles educational system, etc.).

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Neoliberalism in the Higher Education: the Case of Russia

  1. 1. Neoliberal ism in the Higher Edu cation: A: the Case o r MP and the ce nan ector f RussiaGove blic S Pu By Darya R eshetnikov 2 a 10 .12.1
  2. 2. Structure of presentation Slides What is the Neoliberalism……………………………………….…3 The context of Russian neoliberal policies………………….4 The state of higher education in Russia………...…………5-6 Neoliberalism in the Russia’s Higher Education………….7 1990s-2000s……………………………………………...…..8-10 2000s-2010s………………………………………………...11-14 Conclusions………………………………………………………..15-18 References……………………………………………….……...…19-2010.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 2
  3. 3. What is the Neoliberalism?…human well-being can best be advanced by liberating individualentrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutionalframework characterized by strong private property rights, freemarkets, and free tradeHarvey, 2005The ‘neo’ of ‘neoliberalism’ consists in‘extending and disseminating marketvalues to all institutions and social action,even as the market itself remains adistinctive player’Brown, 2005 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 3
  4. 4. The context of Russian neoliberal policies 1980s -1990so autarchic Soviet economyo resource basedo dependent position in the international division of labor,o but a world military powero highly educated population!The neoliberal reforms in Russia have been impure Magun, 2011 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 4
  5. 5. The state of higher education in RussiaFederal State Statistics Service [Online] Available at: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat/rosstatsite/main/population/education/# MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 5 10.12.12
  6. 6. The dynamics of public and private universities in the Russian Federation The structure of the students, depending on the type of financing education from 1985 to 2008, %Khristoforova et al., 2009, p. 186 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 6
  7. 7. Neoliberalism in the Russia’s Higher EducationMagun, 2011 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 7
  8. 8. 1990s-2000s Transformation of HEIs ‘Efficient’ under some criteria: othe number of publications and citations othe number of alumni in high positionsEssential characteristics:oattractive for potential donorsocompetition for students, etc.oautonomy of research and teachingoreduction of funding for the ‘unpractical’ disciplinesocareer as a task of selling oneself on the ‘market’10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 8
  9. 9. 1990s-2000s Transformation of knowledge10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 9
  10. 10. 1990s-2000s Transformation of teaching practices10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 10
  11. 11. 2000s – 2010s: managerial revolutionMagun, 201110.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 11
  12. 12. 2000s – 2010s: New ReformsE-learning in the state and municipal educational institutions(at the beginning of the school year) Russian Statistical Yearbook, 2011 (Education) 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 12
  13. 13. 2000s – 2010s: New Reforms10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 13
  14. 14. 2000s-2010s: Bologna process (2003)apart from the B.A./M.A. system, still introducedonly partially Tempus IV. EACEA N° 25/201114.11.12 MPA: Comparative public policy 14
  15. 15. Discussions and Conclusions o The 1st ten years of neoliberalism in Russia’s higher education reflected the negative impact of rapid reforms towards the market economy. The collapse of Soviet Union entailed the destruction of industry, the impoverishment of population and increase of anarchy. It impacted on the sphere of higher education significantly. o The 2nd 10 years demonstrated the positive influence of growth in several key sectors of the economy, which brought wealth to the state and allowed it to raise living standards, improving the level of higher education in Russia. The directions of educational sphere’s development made a considerable contribution to the modernization of current system of higher education in Russia.10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 15
  16. 16. Education index expected and mean years of schoolingOne of the three indices on which the HDIInternational Human Development Indicators [Online] Available at:http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/tables/ 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 16
  17. 17. Population that has attained tertiary education (2010) Percentage, by age group Education at a Glance © OECD 2012, p.26.10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 17
  18. 18. Discussions and Conclusionso The neoliberal and managerial measures are not independent and self-sustained. It should be considered in the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of the country. However, in 1990s neoliberal adjustments were supposed to accomplish a reform in the system without the context (e.g. in education: needs of students and employers)o The service economy does not demand high-quality education, which creates the problem of graduates’ employability and decreases the motivation of teachers10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 18
  19. 19. Referenceso Brown, W. (2005) Neoliberalism and the End of Liberal Democracy. Edgework: Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 37–59.o Carter, L. (2005) Globalisation and Science Education: Rethinking Science Education Reforms, Journal Of Research In Science Teaching, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 561–580.o Education at a Glance 2012 OECD indicators, 563 p.o Educational System in Russia: The National Report of the Russian Federation (2004) International Conference on Education: Quality Education for All Young People: Challenges, Trends and Priorities. Geneva: UNESCO, 8-11 September 2004, 31 p.o Gaidar, E. and Chubais, A. (2011) The fork of the modern history of Russia, Moscow: OGI, 168 p. [in Russian]o Gulson, K.N. (2009) Wither the Neighborhood? Education Policy, Neoliberal Globalization and Gentrification, Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Vol. 108, Issue 2, pp. 148–159.o Harvey, D. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, OUP: USA, 2005, 247 p.o Harvey, D. (2007) Neoliberalism as creative destruction, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 610, pp. 22-44.o Levidow, L. (2002) Marketizing higher education: neoliberal strategies and counter- strategies. In: Robins, Kevin and Webster, Frank eds. The Virtual University? Knowledge, Markets and Management. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 227–248. 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 19
  20. 20. Referenceso Marginson, S. (2006) Engaging Democratic Education In The Neoliberal Age, Educational theory, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 205-219.o Magun, A. (2011) Higher Education in Russia: Is There a Way out of a Neoliberal Impasse? in Rehbein, B. Globalization and Inequality in Emerging Societies, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 148-175.o Rozina M. (2005) About the implementation of the Bologna declaration in higher education system of the Russian Federation/ Materials of methodological Seminar “Russia in the Bologna process: problems, problems, outlook” [online] Available at: http://www.nntu.sci- nnov.ru/RUS/otd_sl/analiz/sistema_kach/sxema/norm_doc/bol_dek.pdfo Russian education system (2012), [online] Available at: http://www.hse.ru/en/rus- ed.htmlo Russian Statistical Yearbook (2011), [online] Available at: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat/rosstatsite/main/publishing/catalog/st atisticCollections/doc_1135087342078o The Concept of the Modernization of the Russian Education for Period until 2010 approved Government In 2001.o Tempus IV. Reform of Higher Education through International University Cooperation. Fifth call application guidelines EACEA N° 25/2011 10.12.12 MPA: Governance and the Public Sector 20

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