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CASE STUDY ON AS
     RUN BOILER ENERGY
     AUDIT AND REPORTING

 D PAWAN KUMAR & R VIRENDRA
NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL,
              INDIA
        (16 January 2012)
OBJECTIVES
Efficiency of Boiler

   As run Boiler efficiency, at three representative load
    setting over 9 trials
   Assessment of Boiler Loss Profile and Heat rate during
    trial conditions
   Assessment of Heat Exchangers Effectiveness of Heat
    Exchangers such as Air Preheaters, Economisers,
    Condensers etc
INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED
   Flue gas analysers
   Portable temperature indicator
   On-line instruments of boiler control room.
   Facilities of the chemistry lab or outside lab for coal /
    ash / water analysis. (coal proximate or ultimate
    analysis, un-burnt in bottom and fly ash, TDS, pH of
    feed water / blow-down / condensate.
   Power analyser for power measurement of ID fan, FD
    fan, ESP, crushers, BFP (boiler feed water pump) cool
    handling plant/ash handling plant, etc.
METHODOLOGY
   Boiler Efficiency trials are normally conducted at three
    representative typical load ranges namely, 100% of NCR, 80% of
    NCR and 60% of NCR

   Performance assessment chosen is the indirect method of heat
    loss and Boiler Efficiency calculation, drawn from Indian Standard
    (IS-8753/1977) and the deployed relations are presented as follows

   During the Boiler trials, following key parameters are monitored as
    Power Generation, Coal Consumption, GCV of Coal, Total Air Flow,
    Mill rejects, GCV of Mill rejects, Combustibles in bottom ash,
    Bottom ash Quantity, Combustibles in ECO/APH ash, ECO/APH
    ash Quantity, Combustibles in Fly ash, Fly ash Quantity, Flue gas
    analysis APH outlet for %CO2, %O2 and temperature, Ambient air
    dbt, wbt and RH%, P.A. (Proximate Analysis) of coal, V.A. (Ultimate
    Analysis) of coal, various flows, pressure and temperature in
    steam, water, air, flue gas path, power measurement at key
    auxiliaries.
BASIS FOR HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS:
Boiler ea case study  16 jan 2012 varanasi
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Boiler ea case study 16 jan 2012 varanasi

  • 1. CASE STUDY ON AS RUN BOILER ENERGY AUDIT AND REPORTING D PAWAN KUMAR & R VIRENDRA NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL, INDIA (16 January 2012)
  • 2. OBJECTIVES Efficiency of Boiler  As run Boiler efficiency, at three representative load setting over 9 trials  Assessment of Boiler Loss Profile and Heat rate during trial conditions  Assessment of Heat Exchangers Effectiveness of Heat Exchangers such as Air Preheaters, Economisers, Condensers etc
  • 3. INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED  Flue gas analysers  Portable temperature indicator  On-line instruments of boiler control room.  Facilities of the chemistry lab or outside lab for coal / ash / water analysis. (coal proximate or ultimate analysis, un-burnt in bottom and fly ash, TDS, pH of feed water / blow-down / condensate.  Power analyser for power measurement of ID fan, FD fan, ESP, crushers, BFP (boiler feed water pump) cool handling plant/ash handling plant, etc.
  • 4. METHODOLOGY  Boiler Efficiency trials are normally conducted at three representative typical load ranges namely, 100% of NCR, 80% of NCR and 60% of NCR  Performance assessment chosen is the indirect method of heat loss and Boiler Efficiency calculation, drawn from Indian Standard (IS-8753/1977) and the deployed relations are presented as follows  During the Boiler trials, following key parameters are monitored as Power Generation, Coal Consumption, GCV of Coal, Total Air Flow, Mill rejects, GCV of Mill rejects, Combustibles in bottom ash, Bottom ash Quantity, Combustibles in ECO/APH ash, ECO/APH ash Quantity, Combustibles in Fly ash, Fly ash Quantity, Flue gas analysis APH outlet for %CO2, %O2 and temperature, Ambient air dbt, wbt and RH%, P.A. (Proximate Analysis) of coal, V.A. (Ultimate Analysis) of coal, various flows, pressure and temperature in steam, water, air, flue gas path, power measurement at key auxiliaries.
  • 5. BASIS FOR HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS:
  • 7. BOILER PARAMETERS  THE LIST OF NEARLY 136 BOILER PARAMETERS MONITORED AND THE CORRESPONDING TRASNDUCER REFERENCES VIS-À-VIS THE DAS SYSTEM ARE ALSO TO BE REPORTED. DESIGN OPERATING PARAMETERS (Reference values) are also to be reported  Design Flow, Temperatures and Pressures for Steam, Water, Fuel & air and Flue gas along with Pressure drops as relevant are also reported. Design heat balance is also reported as reference basis.
  • 8. Present case is of a 200 MW boiler  AS RUN AUDIT FINDINGS  PLANT ROAD Available data is for 100%, 80%, 60% NCR.  The three typical load ranges at which the Boiler Performance could be assessed was Load Setting No of Trials a) > 90% of NCR 6 b) > 80% of NCR 1 c) > 70% of NCR 2 Total: 9
  • 9. KEY BOILER TRIAL FINDINGS  The Key Boiler trial findings in respect of Auxiliary Consumption, Feeder wise Coal Consumption, Coal GCV, DM Water Consumption, Power Generation, Specific Coal Consumption and Overall Heat Rate are presented in the following tables.
  • 10. SUMMARY OF KEY BOILER TRIAL FINDINGS S.N O PARAMETERS UNITS TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2 TRIAL 3 TRIAL 4 TRIAL 5 TRIAL 6 TRIAL 7 TRIAL 8 TRIAL 9 . 1 DATE 1445- 0915- 1015- 1500- 1915- 1430- 1430- 1430- 2 DURATION HRS 0900-1300 18 13 14 19 13 18 18 18 45 15 15 00 15 30 30 30 3 TORAL DURATION HRS 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.75 3.00 3.00 3.00 TOTAL 4 MWH 776.40 779.70 768.00 570.50 531.00 701.00 499.00 545.00 542.00 GENERATION TOTAL AUXILIARY 5 MWH 26.15 26.23 26.04 18.35 16.75 26.75 16.70 17.40 18.40 CONSUMN.-1 TOTAL AUXILIARY 6 MWH 27.05 27.07 27.21 24.50 22.60 25.27 16.30 16.80 17.60 CONSUMN.-2 TOTAL AUXILIARY CONSUMN. 7 MWH 53.20 53.30 53.25 42.85 39.35 52.02 33.00 34.20 36.00 (ITEM5+ITEM6 ) COAL FEEDER-A 8 MT 81.70 97.90 87.80 97.50 91.20 - 63.90 68.80 67. 50 CONSUMN.
  • 11. COAL FEEDER-B 9 MT 96.30 95.90 97.80 94.60 88.10 91.60 65.50 66.90 65.'00 CONSUMN. COAL FEEDER-C 10 MT - - 95.40 - - 93.50 66.50 70.90 73.20 CONSUMN. COAL FEEDER-D 11 MT 89.00 90.90 89.90 94.60 85.40 88.80 60.00 56.70 59.80 CONSUMN. COAL FEEDER-E 12 MT 89.40 90.90 - - - 85.80 - - - CONSUMN. COAL FEEDER-F 13 MT 90.20 93.30 91.60 95.40 87.60 91.30 66.10 72.50 72:50 CONSUMN. OM WATER 14 MT 40.85 35.80 40.85 30.80 28.55 37.05 37.35 33.05 29.30 CONSUMN. 4597.0 4090.0 4450.0 3986.0 4018.0 3863.0 3502.0 3955.0 3973.0 15 G CVOFCOAL KCAUKG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUMMARY :
  • 12. AVERAGE POWER 151 186 166 181 180 16 MW 194.10 194.93 192.00 152.13 GENERATION .71 .93 .33 .67 .67 75. 93. 83. 90. 90. 17 % OF NCR % 97.05 97.46 96.00 76.07 86 47 17 83 33 AUXILIARY 11. 13. 11. 11. 12. 18 MW 13.30 13.33 13.31 11.43 CONSUMN. 24 87 00 40 00 % AUXILIARY 7.4 7.4 6.6 6.2 6.6 19 % 6.85 6.84 6.93 7.51 CONSUMN. 1 2 1 8 4 COAL 100 120 107 111 112 20 MT/HR 11.65 117.23 115.63 101.89 CONSUMN.RATE .66 .27 .33 .93 .67 OM WATER 8.1 9.8 12. 11. 9.7 21 MTIHR 10.21 8.95 10.21 8.21 CONSUMN. RATE 6 8 45 02 7 OM WATER 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22 KGIKWH 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 CONSUMN. 5 5 7 6 5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0,6 23 SP. COAL CONSUMN. KGIKWH 0.58 0.60 0.60 0.67 6 4 5 2 2 266 248 225 243 247 OV ERALL HEAT 24 KCAUKWH 2644.28 2549.67 9.85 2669.68 5.8 5.3 9.8 6.8 7.6 RATE 0 3 1 6 3
  • 13. KEY PARAMETERS DURING TRIALS VIS-A-VIS DESIGN  The key Boiler parameters, pertinent to Thermal Efficiency, namely the MW Generation (Load), Coal Consumption, GCV of Coal, Total Air Flow, Mill Rejects, GCV of Mill Rejects, Combustibles in Bottom Ash, Fly Ash, Flue Gas Anal1ysis at APH Out, Ambient conditions, Proximate Analysis of Coal, alongside the design values, are reported as under.
  • 14. BOILER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: SUMMARY OF KEY PARAMETERS DURING BOILER TRIALS S Trial . Operating Parameters U nit Design Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Trial 6 Trial 7 Trial 8 9 N o 1. POWER GENERATION MW 200.00 194.07 194.95 191.98 153.33 153.15 185.92 166.30 181.67 180.67 2. % OF NCR % 100.00 97.04 97.48 95.99 76.67 76.58 92.96 83.15 90.84 90.34 3. COAL CONSUMPTION TPH 103.00 117.94 116.55 118.18 104.11 103.11 123.04 107.26 111 .90 112.67 16795. 16607. 4. G C V OF COAL KJ/KG 17974.00 19215.46 17096.20 18601.00 16661.48 16147.34 14638.36 16531.90 24 14 5. TOTAL AIR FLOW TPH 725.40 773.92 769.30 738.56 706.29 691.94 743.79 598.50 615.40 703.00 6 MILL REJECTS KG/HR 339.90 389.20 384.62 389.99 343.56 340.26 406.03 353.96 369.27 371.81 2500.0 1800.0 7. G C V OF MILL REJECTS KCAUKG 1800.00 2610.00 2660.00 2550.00 2420.00 2150.00 1860.00 1880.00 0 0 8. COMB. IN BOTTOM ASH % 2.01 5.10 5.00 4.10 3.70 2.59 3.60 2.50 2.65 2.25 33766. 33766. 9. C V OF CARBON KJ/KG 33766.04 33766.04 33766.04 33766.04 33766.04 33766.04 33766.04 33766.04 04 04 1 BOTTOM ASH QTY. (Dry basis) KG/KG 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.
  • 15. 1 1 COMB. IN ECO/APH ASH % 0.23 5.00 4.00 2.10 1.00 1.22 2.35 1.38 1.70 1.20 . 1 2 ECO/APH ASH QTY. (Dry basis) KG/KG 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.04 . 1 3 COMB. IN FLY ASH % 0.46 3.45 2.00 3.30 1.30 1.49 2.40 1.04 1.20 0.70 . 1 4 FLY ASH QTY. (Dry basis) KG/KG 0.23 0.17 0.21 0.19 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.29 0.24 0.24 . 1 5 FLUE GAS ANAL YSIS (APH OUT) . CARBON DIOX!DE (CO2) % 15.00 15.20 14.79 15.00 13.18 12.68 14.26 15.70 16.10 15.97 OXYGEN (02) % 4.00 3.80 4.21 4.00 5.82 6:32 4.74 3.30 2.90 3.03 147.0 152.5 TEMPERATURE DEGC 138.00 132.50 148.06 142.00 133.65 135.50 144.60 151:80 0 0
  • 16. 1 6 AMBIENT CONDITIONS . DRY BULB TEMP DEGC 28.00 34.00 34.00 34.00 34.00 34.00 34.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 WET BULB TEMP DEGC 0.00 RELATIVE HUMIDITY % 0.00 52.00 52.00 61.50 MOISTURE LOAD (/100)# KG/KG 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 1 7 PROXIMA TE ANAL YSIS OF COAL . FIXED. CARBON % 32.54 8.14 33.29 37.12 32.11 32.44 30.71 24.17 30.57 30.85 VOLATILE MATTER % 21.46 24.05 24.10 23.11 22.34 22.43 22.53 24.21 24.84 24.35 TOTAL MOISTURE % 10.00 13.'60 13.85 12.70 12:65 12.40 13.00 11.66 10.68 11.25 ASH % 32.00 24.21 28.76 27.00 32.90 32.73 33.76 39.96 33.91 33.51 3973. KCAUK 4018.0 G C V OF COAL 4300.00 4597.00 4090.00 4450.00 3986.00 3863.00 3502.00 3955.00 0 G 0 0
  • 17. 1 8 ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF COAL . CARBON (C) % 45.00 49.08 44.07 47.71 42.81 43.16 41.53 37.16 42.45 42.60 HYDROGEN (H) % 2.82 3.18 2.99 3.09 2.91 2.93 2.88 2.91 3.03 3.02 MINERAL MATTER % 32.00 24.21 28.76 27.00 32.90 32.73 33.76 39.96 33.91 33.51 NITROGEN (N) % 0.95 1.81 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.81 1.80 1.81 SULPHUR (S) % 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 MOISTURE (H2O) % 10.00 13.60 13.85 12.70 12.65 12.40 13.00 11.66 10.68 11.25 OXYGEN (02) [Balance] % 8.85 7.74 8.13 7.31 6.51 6.57 6.62 6.12 7.74 7.44
  • 18. BOILER HEAT LOSSES PROFILE S. Operating Parameters Unit Design Trial1 Trial2 Trial3 Trial4 Trial5 Trial6 Trial7 Trial8 Trial9 N o 5411.5 5249.0 4141.5 4134.4 4744.3 3749.6 4418.7 4469. A. HEAT INPUT TO BOILER KCal/Hr 4422.88 4756.66 4 7 1 5 1 6 0 69 HEAT LOSSES IN THE B. SYSTEM : i) UNBURNTS IN ASH BOTTOM ASH % 0.19 0.33 0.44 0.31 0.38 0.26 0.39 0.35 0.28 0.24 ECO/APH ASH % 0.02 0.27 0.28 0.13 0.08 0.10 0.21 0.16 0.15 0.10 FLY ASH % 0.20 1.06 0.82 1.17 0.62 0.71 1.22 0.69 0.60 0.34 ii) SENSIBLE HEAT IN % 4.67 4.15 5.00 4.64 4.91 5.79 4.59 4.27 4.51 4.59 FLUE GAS iii) MOISTURE IN FLUE % 5.20 5.73 6.28 5.71 6.09 6.08 6.29 6.74 6.01 6.06 GAS
  • 19. iv) MOISTURE IN % 0.20 0.16 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.17 0.20 COMB. AIR v) RADIATION & & 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.95 0.95 0.85 1.25 1.25 1.25 UNACCOUNT 12.7 TOTAL LOSSES % 11.33 12.54 13.88 12.97 13.22 14.10 13.73 13.65 12.98 7 BOILER EFFICIENCY C 87.2 (100 - TOTAL % 88.67 87.46 86.12 87.03 86.78 85.90 86.27 86.35 87.02 . 3 LOSSES) D 16.8 EXCESS AIR % 23.53 22.09 25.07 23.53 38.34 43.05 29.15 18.64 16.02 . 6 2473 KCal/k 2788. 2734. 2701. 2551. 2254. 2432. 2211.4 2439.9 2699.6 . E. OVERALL HEAT RATE W 4 1 0 8 7 2 4 4 1 9 h 5 7 4 0 6 7 5
  • 20. STATEMENT OF BOILER EFFICIENCY  A Comprehensive Statement of as run Boiler Thermal Efficiency presenting the Boiler Load, Heat Balance, Thermal Efficiency and Overall Heat Rate for the nine trials conducted is presented in following tables:'
  • 21. SUMMARY STATEMENT OF BOILER EFFICIENCY Desi S.N Parameters Units Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Trial 6 Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 9 gn o 1 DATE 0900- 1445- 0915- 1015- 1500- 1915- 1430- 1430- 1430- 2 DURATION HRS 1300 1845 1315 1415 1900 1315 1830 1830 1830 3 POWER GENERATION MW 200 194.07 194.95 191.98 153.33 153.15 185.92 166.3 181.67 180.67 4 % LOAD % 100 97.04 97.48 95.99 76.67 76.58 92.96 83.15 90.84 90.34 KCAUK 5 G C V OF COAL 4300 4597 4090 4450 3986 4018 3863 3502 3955 3973 G 6 FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER APH DEGC 138 132.5 148.06 142 133.65 147 135.5 144.6 151.8 152.5 23.5 7 % EXCESS AIR % 22.09 25.07 23.53 38.34 43.05 29.15 18.64 16.02 16.86 3
  • 22. 8 HEAT LOSSES IN THE SYSTEM i) UNBURNTS IN ASH BOTTOM ASH % 0.19 0.33 0.44 0.31 0.38 0.26 0.39 0.35 0.28 0.24 ECO/APH ASH % 0.02 0.27 0.28 0.13 0.08 0.1 0.21 0.16 0.15 0.1 FLY ASH % 0.2 1.06 0.82 1.17 0.62 0.71 1.22 0.69 0.6 0.34 ii) SENSIBLE HEAT IN FLUE GAS % 4.67 4.15 5.00 4.64 4.91 5.79 4.59 4.27 4.51 4.59 iii) MOISTURE & HYDROGEN IN % 5.2 5.73 6.28 5.71 6.09 6.08 6.29 6.74 6.01 6.06 FUEL iv) MOISTURE IN COMB. AIR % 0.2 0.16 0.21 0.17 O 19 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.17 0.2 v) RADIATION & UNACCOUNTED % 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 1.25 1.25 1.25 11.3 TOTAL LOSSES % 12.54 13.88 12.97 13.22 14.10 13.73 13.65 12.98 12.77 3 88.6 9 BOILER EFFICIENCY % 87.46 86.12 87.03 86.78 85.90 86.27 86.35 87.02 87.23 7 2211 KCal/k . 2254.7 10 OVERALL HEAT RATE W 2788.45 2439.94 2734.17 2701.04 2699.61 2551.80 2432.27 2473.95 4 6 h 4
  • 23. DISCUSSION:  The Controllable losses, include Sensible heat lost in Dry flue gases & Unburnts in Carbon (in Fly ash, Bottom ash and Economiser / APH hopper ash) account for 5.08% of Overall Input heat to Boiler or 44.80% of the Total Heat losses. The losses due to Radiation, Moisture & Hydrogen in Coal and Moisture in Combustion air account for the uncontrollable losses.
  • 24. Trial findings indicate the range of total losses to be as under Total losses in Boiler   Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 12.54 to 14.1 13.32 Design 11.33 Share of controllable losses in total Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 5.27 to 6.86 6.00 Design 5.08
  • 25. SENSIBLE HEAT LOSS IN DRY FLUE GASES Heat losses in Dry flue gases, are characteristically influenced by Excess Air Quantity and Exit Flue Gas Temperature, which in turn, are variant with, Coal Quality (GCV, Fineness, Ash content) and Air In leaks. The profile of Sensible heat in Dry flue gases during trials is summarized as under. % loss due to sensible heat in dry flue gases   Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 4.15 to 5.79 4.74 Design 4.67
  • 26. VARIATION OF SENSIBLE HEAT LOSSES IN DRY FLUE GAS S . Item Reference Unit Design T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 N o. 1 G C V of Coal Kcal Kg 4300 4597 4090 4450 3986 4018 3563 3502 3955 3973 % of excess air 2 % 23.5 22.1 25.1 23.5 38.3 43.1 29.1 18.6 16 16.9 level FGT at APH 3 outlet °C 138 132.5 148 142 133.6 147 135.5 144.6 151.8 152.5 % loss due to S.H. 4 % 4.67 4.15 5 4.64 4.91 5.79 4.59 4.27 4.51 4.59 in DFG
  • 27. EXCESS AIR  Excess air is crucial factor in Boiler Thermal efficiency. Excess Air levels depends to a large extent on variants like, GCV of Coal, Ash Content, Fineness of Pulverized Coal, Moisture in Coal and Air In leaks especially before and after APH. The Excess Air quantity admitted to Boiler during the trials was seen to vary as under.   Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 16.00 to 43.10 25.90 Design 23.50
  • 28. EXIT FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE  The flue gas temperature after Air pre heater is a key Factor affecting Boiler Efficiency Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 132.5 to 152.5 143.1 Design 138.0
  • 29. INLEAK AIR  In leak Air, especially in the Air Preheated Flue gas path, has the detrimental effects of reducing heat Transfer Effectiveness of APH, shifting the draft levels in the Flue gas path and increasing ID Fan duty in terms of Capacity % In leak Range Across  % In leak Range from  APH to ID Fan in APH  Unit data 4.73 to 16.94 9.41 to 21.40 Continuous upkeep of APH Seals, Monitoring and Strict control of Inleak Air is recommended, to minimize the Inleak Air quantities and losses thereof
  • 30. AIR PROFILE IN FLUE GAS PATH AND AIR INLEAK ASSESSMENT S. Item Reference Unit T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 N o. 1 O2 APH-A in % 2.68 3.50 3.55 5.50 6.18 3.05 2.25 2.96 3.00 2 O2 APH-B in % 2.08 2.18 2.28 4.58 4.95 2.10 2.85 2.83 3.06 3 O2 APH-A out % 4.18 4.85 4.53 6.20 688 5.65 327 3.96 4.10 4 O2 APH-B out % 3.43 3.58 3.48 5.45 5.78 3.93 4.12 3.76 4.03 5 O2 ID Fan-A in % 5.65 6.25 5.83 7.48 7.45 6.25 5.47 5.96 5.83 6 O2 ID Fan-B in % 5.10 4.75 4.98 6.65 6.73 5.20 6.05 5.80 5.66 116. 116.6 7 Total air level at APH-A in (Theoretical +Inleak) % 114.60 120.00 120.34 135.48 141.65 116.99 112.00 41 7 115. 117.0 8 Total air level at APH -B in (Theoretical +Inleak) % 110.96 111.55 112.15 127.85 130.84 111.11 115.70 58 6 123. 124.2 9 Total air level at APH-A in (Theoretical +Inleak) % 124.81 130.03 127.47 141.89 148.67 136.81 118.44 24 6 121. 123.7 10 Total air level at APH-B in (Theoretical +Inleak) % 119.49 120.52 119.83 135.05 137.93 122.99 124.41 81 5 139. 138.4 11 Total air level at ID Fan-A in (Theoretical +Inleak) % 136.81 142.37 138.39 155.27 154.98 142.37 135.22 63 3 138. 136.9 12 Total air level at ID Fan-A in (Theoretical +Inleak) % 132.08 129.23 131.05 146.34 147.11 132.91 140.47 16 0 13 Inleak Across APH-A (wrt APH-A in) % 8.92 8.36 5.92 4.73 4.96 16.94 5.75 5.87 6.51 14 Inleak Across APH-B (wrt APH-B in) % 7.68 8.03 6.85 5.63 5.42 10.69 7.52 5.39 5.72 19.9 15 Inleak After APH-A (wrt APH-A in) % 19.38 18.64 14.99 14.60 9.41 21.69 20.73 18.66 5 19.5 16 Inleak After APH-B (wrt. APH-B in) % 19.03 15.85 16.85 14.46 12.43 19.62 21.40 16.95 4
  • 32. COAL QUALITY  The GCV of Coal, against the design requirement of 4300 Kcal/Kg was seen to range from 3502 to 4597Kcal/Kg as under, during the trial period Range (%) Unit data 3502 to 4597 Design 4300
  • 33. Ash % in Coal  Increase of Ash Content leads to Increased un burnts, Loss due to Sensible heat in ash, Increased Soot blowing frequency, Increased mill load for same useful output % Ash in Coal Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 24.21 to 39.96 31.90 Design 32.00
  • 34. M & H LOSSES IN FLUE GASES S. N o Item Reference Unit Design T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 . 144.0 151. 152. 1 FGT APH out O C 138 132.5 148.06 142 133.65 147 135.5 6 8 5 240. Heat loss in flue 242.9 2 KCal/Kg 223.6 263.4 256.85 254.1 242.74 244.29 236.0 237. 7 gases due to M&H 8 6 11.2 3 M in Coal % 10 13.6 13.85 12.7 12.65 12.4 13 11.66 10.6 5 4 H in Coal % 2.82 3.18 2.99 3.09 2.91 2.93 2.88 2.91 3.03 3.02 395 5 GCV of Coal KCal/Kg 4300 45.97 4090 4450 3986 4018 3863 3502 3973 5 Loss due to 6 M & H in Coal % 5.2 5.73 6.28 5.71 6.09 6.08 6.29 6.74 6.01 6.06 Corrected loss due to 7 M & H in Coal % Ref (5.20) 5.48 5.83 5.49 5.62 5.73 5.84 6.13 5.66 5.71
  • 35. COAL FINENESS  Against the design Coal Fineness requirement of 70% passing through 200 mesh, the decreased fineness is known to affect the Boiler Efficiency detrimentally through Increased Excess Air requirements as well as Higher percent Unburnts in Ash. Unit data Fineness rejects  48 to 63 % across 200 mesh It is our considered opinion that improvements in Mill operations towards achieving rated Coal Fineness should be a prime area of concern. The results would be manifest as reduced Excess Air Losses and Reduced Unburned in Ash Loss.
  • 36. HEAT LOSS DUE TO UNBURNTS IN ASH  Heat loss due to un burnts in ash is a manifestation of fuel Combustion efficiency and is known to depend upon operational factors like % Ash, Fineness of Coal, Excess Air level, Wind box Pressure, Primary & Secondary Air Distribution and Hot Air temperature, condition of burners, as also Ash fusion temperatures   Percentage Loss Due to Unburnts in Ash   Range (%) Average (%)  Unit data 0.68 to 1.82 1.29 Design 0.41
  • 37. FD AIR FLOW & PA/SA DISTRIBUTION FD Air constitutes one of the influencing factors on Combustion Efficiency. The FD Air flow, Air to Coal ratio, Primary Air flow, Primary Air to Secondary Air ratios and Primary Air to Coal ratio during all the Boiler trials are assessed, vis-a-vis the design values for the Boiler and the findings indicate satisfactory performance levels in all these respects. The findings are presented in following tables. F.D. AIR FLOW INDICATORS S . Desi N Item Reference Unit T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 gn o . 725. 1 Total Air Flow TPH 4 773.9 769.3 738.5 726.3 691.4 743.8 598.5 615.4 703 Total Air to Coal 2 Ration Kg/Kg 7 6.56 6.6 6.25 6.78 6.7 6 5.58 5.5 6.24
  • 38. A,B,D, ABC A,B, A.B A,B,D, A,B.C A,B,C, E D AB,D D BC,D,E C, 3 Mills Run 5 E 0 D , , F , ,F D, ,F F F F F F F 246.3 4 Primary Air Flow TPH 216.2 232.9 233.5 241 198 201 229 222 229.3 5 508. 490. 5 Secondary Air Flow TPH 509.2 541 535.8 497.5 497.5 369.4 393.4 473.7 3 4 6 Primary Air Flow % 29.8 30.1 30.4 32.6 28.1 29.1 33 38 36 32.6 7 Secondary Air Flow % 70.2 69.9 69.6 . 67.4 "71.9 70.9 67 62 64 67.4 Primary Air to Coal 8 Ratio Kg/Kg 2.09 1.97 2 2.04 1.9 1.95 2 2.13 1.98 2.03
  • 39. WIND BOX PRESSURE  Wind Box pressure is known to be one of the key factors affecting Combustion Efficiency. Trial findings indicate the actual Wind Box pressure to be less than 50 mmWC as against 160 mmWC design value.  Significant power savings potential exists in FD Fans by incorporating Variable speed drives, etc
  • 40. SECONDARY AIR TEMPERATURE  Combustion Efficiency is closely linked with temperature of Secondary Air and effects of temperature drop (Secondary Combustion Air) are normally manifest as commensurate rise in % Unburnts in Ash.   Range (OC) Average (OC)  Unit data 210.9 to 240.0 225.0 Design 263.0
  • 41. The Secondary Air temperature being lower from design value is expected to effect  Mill performance in terms of Moisture removal and final Coal Output Fineness  Unburnts in Ash The main influencing factor for low Secondary Air temperature is felt to be the lower Flue Gas temperature at APH inlet as shown below   Range (OC) Average (OC)  Data 241.0 to 290.0 270.0 Design 337.0
  • 42. Focus areas for improvement are felt to be  Wind Box pressure  APH Effectiveness (Inleak Air at APH inlet)  Coal Mill performance