Stop TalkingAbout 21stCentury Skills...and What To Do InsteadJon Tanner, Oregon Schools Technology DirectorWiscNet Third T...
Filter checkWho am I and whatare my biases?
About me(my POV)
My Goals Today
Inform
ProvokeThought
Entertain
ProvideUseful Stuff
So Why StopTalking About21st Century   Skills?
Google Image Result for http://education.apple.com/acot2/global/images/diagram_6_principles.jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3,...
Google Image Result for http://education.apple.com/acot2/global/images/diagram_6_principles.jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3,...
Oregon“For technology to havelasting positive results onlearning, professionaldevelopment must result inteachers being abl...
Why stoptalking about21st Century   Skills?
1. We can’t  know theskills neededfor an entire   century
100 yearpredictions =    crazy
The greatmanure crisis of 1894...
“By 1950, every street in Londonburied in 9 feet of     manure.”     -London Times
Lord Kelvin’s Predictions           1890-95•Radio has no future•X-Rays will prove to be a hoax•Heaver-than-air flying mach...
“I expect that within the nextfive years more than one in tenpeople will wear head-mountedcomputer displays whiletraveling ...
Prediction                          The Future         Death          Taxes                100Accuracy Rate               ...
PerspectiveWhat were "20thCentury Skills?"
2. The highschool class of2013 has spent their ENTIRE school life in   the 21st   Century!
The 12 yearperspective
2000   2012
2000                          2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowlyloses Presidential race
2000                                      2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly   Al Gore is award-winningloses Presi...
2000                                      2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly   Al Gore is award-winningloses Presi...
2000                                      2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly   Al Gore is award-winningloses Presi...
2000                                      2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly   Al Gore is award-winningloses Presi...
2000                                      2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly   Al Gore is award-winningloses Presi...
2000                                       2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly     Al Gore is award-winningloses Pr...
2000                                       2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly     Al Gore is award-winningloses Pr...
2000                                       2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly     Al Gore is award-winningloses Pr...
2000                                        2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly     Al Gore is award-winningloses P...
2000                                        2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly     Al Gore is award-winningloses P...
2000                                        2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly     Al Gore is award-winningloses P...
2000   2012
2000                  2012PowerMac G4400 MHz CPU128 MB RAM2 USB ports (+ 3 Firewire)10/100 EthernetSXGA video (1600 x 1200...
2000                           2012PowerMac G4                  Raspberry Pi (Model B)400 MHz CPU                  700 MHz...
2000                           2012PowerMac G4                  Raspberry Pi (Model B)400 MHz CPU                  700 MHz...
2000                           2012PowerMac G4                  Raspberry Pi (Model B)400 MHz CPU                  700 MHz...
2000   2012
2000               2012  1.44 MB  Cost ~$1  cost/GB = $694
2000                     2012            1.44 MB            Cost ~$1            cost/GB = $694    2003128 MBCost: $60Price...
2000                         2012            1.44 MB            Cost ~$1            cost/GB = $694    2003                ...
2000                              2012            1.44 MB            Cost ~$1            cost/GB = $694    2003           ...
2000   2010
2000   2012
2000   2012
These changes happened whiletoday’s graduating class wasin school.Don’t even bother predictingmore than a few years.Let’s ...
3. Focusing too much on “21st Century” skillscan make us losesight of timeless     values.
Think about whathas NOT changed   since 2000
What to do?1.Focus on the next  1-5 years.2.Maximize what you do  best.3.Become a linchpin.4.Connect with  People.
Horizon report• 1-5 year scope• Key trends that will impact  teaching and learning• Significant Challenges• http://www.nmc...
Horizon reportTime to Adoption:One Year or Less•Mobile devices and apps•Tablet computing
Horizon reportTime to Adoption:Two to Three Years•Game-Based Learning•PersonalizedLearningEnvironments
Trend #1Mobile Devices
Trend #1Mobile Devices
“2015 is the year in which each and everystudent in America’s K12 public schoolsystem will have a mobile device to usefor ...
“The total number of Macs soldis 122 million. In 2011 alone, ifyou tally up all the iOS devicesincluding iPods and iPads, ...
Let’send the mobile  wars
3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids- Will Richardson, on his blog: Weblogg-ed » “I lost something very important to ...
3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids1. It teaches them that theydon’t deserve to be empoweredwith technology the same...
3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids1. It teaches them that theydon’t deserve to be empoweredwith technology the same...
3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids1. It teaches them that theydon’t deserve to be empoweredwith technology the same...
2000   2012
2000   2012       $199
TI-84 Plus Silver Edition$149 direct from TI (2011)
No smartphone? No problem! Send an SMS text message to 466453              (GOOGLE)
Trend #2Personalized LearningEnvironments
“A key step toward making schoolintrinsically motivating is to customizeeducation to match the way each child bestlearns.”
DeFour, M. (2012, June 20). UW to offer ‘flexible degree’. Wisconsin State Journal, pp. A1.
DeFour, M. (2012, June 20). UW to offer ‘flexible degree’. Wisconsin State Journal, pp. A1.
DeFour, M. (2012, June 20). UW to offer ‘flexible degree’. Wisconsin State Journal, pp. A1.
Starts in fall of 2012courses from MIT and Harvardvideo lessonsembedded testingreal-time feedbackstudent-ranked questions ...
Badges    andcredentials
Trend #3Game-Based learning
Gamification“Gamification is the practice oftaking techniques andpsychological aspects used tocreate games and applyingthe...
What games do  1. Combine learning and assessment  2. Give tutorials  3. Failure is not permanent- you learn from    failu...
“This site is dedicated to the thought thatsomething as simple as fun is the easiestway to change people’s behaviour forth...
$25 reward ismore motivatingthan a $150ticket
“In their personal time [students] are active  participants with the information they consume;  whether it be video games ...
http://labyrinth.thinkport.org
http://icivics.org
Stuff You Can Use
Google Knowledge Graph
http://www.gapminder.org/world/
http://labyrinth.thinkport.org
arisgames.org
arisgames.org
arisgames.org
http://scratch.mit.edu
The MostImportant   Thing
Relationships     areIndispensible
“The only way to getwhat you’re worth is tostand out, to exertemotional labor, to beseen as indispensable, andto produce i...
“Everyone is a person,and people craveconnection and respect.”
“We don’t need a human being                       standing next to us to lecture us                       on how to find t...
thank you!
Questions?   comments?disagreements?  Discussion?
Continue theconversation@jontannerjon.tanner@gmail.comjontanner.wikispaces.comtannervision.blogspot.com
Bibliography1216_05_54---Stop-Sign--Beatty--Nevada--USA_web.jpg (JPEG Image, 400 × 600 pixels) - Scaled (98%). (n.d.). Ret...
BibliographyApple 2000 vs. 2010: iMac iPhone Evolution | Obama Pacman. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://obamap...
BibliographyDemo - ARIS - Mobile Learning Experiences. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://arisgames.org/demo/Dis...
BibliographyGoogle SMS applications. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://www.google.com/mobile/sms/Hoover Institu...
BibliographyLord Kelvin biography - Science Hall of Fame - National Library of Scotland. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, ...
BibliographyPower Macintosh G4 Dual (Mystic). (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://lowendmac.com/ppc/mystic-powerm...
BibliographyTI-84 Plus series - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 15, 2012, from https://en.wikiped...
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)
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Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)

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Commentary on why focusing too much on "21st Century Skills" may not be useful or practical, followed by suggestions of how we can look at emerging trends in the very near future to help prepare students for their near future.

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  • \n
  • If I were famous, I might not need to do this part. But, I know you didn't look at the conference website and say, "Oooh, Jon Tanner is the keynote, I think I'll go!"\nWhenever we listen to somebody, we need to keep in mind their perspective. This is that critical thinking skill we say we want our children to have.\n\n
  • Don’t fall into this trap. I have some things to share that I hope are interesting, but please be a critical evaluator of what I say so that you can apply them the best possible way in your situation. \n
  • As a kid, I played around with computers like these.\n
  • After college I got a job in Illinois as a 4th grade teacher, and then became the district’s first technology coordinator.\nFrom there, my wife and I moved to northern Wisconsin to start up an environmental boarding high school, where we wore a lot of hats. \nWe realized we like the Madison area, and wanted to raise our children in southern Wisconsin, so we moved back. \n\n
  • I am the Technology Director for the Oregon School District since 2005.\n
  • I prefer Mac computers, but our district uses Windows as a standard. I’m also a fan of Linux, and Chromebooks are becoming a really attractive option. \n
  • But these are the reasons I am so committed to education. My wife and I have three sons, ages 10, 8, and 5, who keep us on our toes. I have learned more, and become more invested in education because of my relationships with these three boys. We enjoy Legos, fishing, biking, and reading.\n
  • Now that you know a bit about who I am, you’ll be able to think critically about what I say. So let’s move on- here are my goals for today.\nTo INFORM\n
  • INFORM \nPROVOKE THOUGHT\n
  • ENTERTAIN\n
  • and PROVIDE USEFUL THINGS\n
  • Now, a little bit about you- since you are near the Illinois border, I thought I’d do a little poll on who the best football team is...\n
  • So, let’s move start with, “Why are you saying we should stop talking about 21st Century Skills”?!?\n
  • Apparently, rainbow colors and circles are a valuable 21st century skill- these people have mastered it. \n
  • Apparently, rainbow colors and circles are a valuable 21st century skill- these people have mastered it. \n
  • Apparently, rainbow colors and circles are a valuable 21st century skill- these people have mastered it. \n
  • Apparently, rainbow colors and circles are a valuable 21st century skill- these people have mastered it. \n
  • Apparently, rainbow colors and circles are a valuable 21st century skill- these people have mastered it. \n
  • Apparently, rainbow colors and circles are a valuable 21st century skill- these people have mastered it. \n
  • I said the same thing in Oregon’s tech plan.\n
  • Given all this attention, why would I say we should stop talking about 21st century skills? Well, first, it’s too BIG to be meaningful and useful. \n
  • It made sense in the 1990s, when we were talking about something 5-10 years out. But to keep talking about it now is just silly. \n
  • It made sense in the 1990s, when we were talking about something 5-10 years out. But to keep talking about it now is just silly. \n
  • For example, let’s take “the great manure crisis of 1894”: In the London Times, one writer estimated that in 50 years every street in London would be buried under nine feet of manure\n
  • The great manure crisis of 1894: In the London Times, one writer estimated that in 50 years every street in London would be buried under nine feet of manure.\nObviously, this did not account for the invention of the automobile. \n
  • These probably made a lot of sense for about 5-10 years, but then got dashed. \n
  • Some predictions are mathematically accurate, but not really practical, like this prediction for the number of razor blades. Others might make sense, but don’t take into account some social factors.\n
  • So, by 1998, we should have seen ten percent of people in mass transit using head-mounted computer displays. If we had asked Negroponte for his prediction by 2012, I expect he would have extrapolated that to a majority of people.\n
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  • Let’s get some perspective- what were “20th Century Skills” back in the 1890s?\nDiscuss with a friend next to you, or just shout out an answer. \n
  • Things have changed so much in just 12 years- think of the work-place skills that we thought were needed in 2000, compared to today!\n
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  • The PowerMac G4 was “the first personal computer classified as munitions and under export restriction because of its power.” 3 x faster than the Pentium 3. The Raspberry Pi is geared for hobbyists and students. Granted, you get a keyboard, ZIP drive, DVD, and hard drive with the G4, but that doesn’t account for the extra $2,464.\n\n
  • The PowerMac G4 was “the first personal computer classified as munitions and under export restriction because of its power.” 3 x faster than the Pentium 3. The Raspberry Pi is geared for hobbyists and students. Granted, you get a keyboard, ZIP drive, DVD, and hard drive with the G4, but that doesn’t account for the extra $2,464.\n\n
  • The PowerMac G4 was “the first personal computer classified as munitions and under export restriction because of its power.” 3 x faster than the Pentium 3. The Raspberry Pi is geared for hobbyists and students. Granted, you get a keyboard, ZIP drive, DVD, and hard drive with the G4, but that doesn’t account for the extra $2,464.\n\n
  • The PowerMac G4 was “the first personal computer classified as munitions and under export restriction because of its power.” 3 x faster than the Pentium 3. The Raspberry Pi is geared for hobbyists and students. Granted, you get a keyboard, ZIP drive, DVD, and hard drive with the G4, but that doesn’t account for the extra $2,464.\n\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • In 2000, when we saved or transferred files, we used a floppy disk. This was okay, except when files got large. Or the drive went bad. But they were cheap and effective, because all computers had floppy drives, and they cost about a buck. \nFirst commercial USB flash drive released in December 2000. Before that, we had to use floppies or CDs. The iMac made USB take off, and by 2003, USB thumb drives were popular. They were available in a variety of sizes. They cost around the same per Gigabyte as floppies, but were more reliable and way faster. \nFast forward to today. Not only has the price dropped by several orders of magnitude, but you can now get them in all sorts of shapes, including sushi.\n
  • And the pixels on the screen are roughly the same, so you can see the same amount on each of them.\n
  • Instead of large textbook publishers and media producers giving us one massive publication of the same curriculum for the entire nation, we have individualized curricula delivered online, created by small teams, crowdsourced and adaptible.\n
  • CU-SeeMe video conferencing from Madison Middle School 2000. Low bandwidth, low quality, and hard to set up. Currently, we have a ton of options for video conferencing, in high definition, full color, and on mobile devices like the iPod touch.\n
  • All within the 21st Century. So predicting any farther is not useful.\nAnd if we haven’t figured out what 21st Century Skills are yet, we’re doing a pretty bad job. In case you haven’t noticed, we’re 12 years into the 21st Century.\n
  • Things have changed so much in just 12 years- think of the work-place skills that we thought were needed in 2000, compared to today!\n
  • Things have changed so much in just 12 years- think of the work-place skills that we thought were needed in 2000, compared to today!\n
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  • Let’s analyze this prediction. First, who are Cathleen and Elliot? (Go ahead- look them up on your phones or whatever you have.)\nAre they qualified? Are they biased? Do they have a good track record?\n
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  • I might add a fourth skills- it teaches them how to send text messages with the phone in their pocket. They would not have learned that without phones being treated as contraband. \n
  • I might add a fourth skills- it teaches them how to send text messages with the phone in their pocket. They would not have learned that without phones being treated as contraband. \n
  • I might add a fourth skills- it teaches them how to send text messages with the phone in their pocket. They would not have learned that without phones being treated as contraband. \n
  • Hey, look! It’s like they have a computer in their pocket! Let’s use that! Of course, the equity issue is always there, but more low-income students have mobile phones and smartphones than have computers with Internet at home.\n
  • Hey, look! It’s like they have a computer in their pocket! Let’s use that! Of course, the equity issue is always there, but more low-income students have mobile phones and smartphones than have computers with Internet at home.\n
  • It’s not as if we’ve never mandated technology purchases for students before. The TI 84+ Silver Edition retailed for $149 in 2011. For $50 more, you get an iPod Touch. You can then buy the TI-84 App and 100,000 other apps.\n
  • Regular “dumb” phones with text message capabilities can use a wide variety of Google services, so you don’t need a smart phone.\n
  • \n
  • Highly recommend this book.\n
  • Knewton adapts to each student. It creates the modular learning system that Disrupting Class recommends. \n
  • The S-curve of disruptive innovation is tricky, because at the beginning, it looks like it will never catch on. When it reaches the “tipping point,” it accelerates quickly until it reaches a saturation point and takes over. \n
  • Here is the S-Curve of online learning predicted in Disrupting Class. We are right at the inflection point of the S-curve, on the uptick. By 2019, 50% of all high school courses will be taken online.\n
  • Not just limited to the K12 schools. \n
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  • Take any MIT course- for free. Uses open-source technology to deliver lectures, hands-on activities, lessons, etc. All for free.\nHarvard now involved. EdX just announced- allows anybody to learn. MITx now allows you to be “credentialed” in a certain content area or skill. You don’t get a degree, but you get a badge that says you are capable. In other words, it’s an authentic assessment.\n
  • Take any MIT course- for free. Uses open-source technology to deliver lectures, hands-on activities, lessons, etc. All for free.\nHarvard now involved. EdX just announced- allows anybody to learn AND get credentials based on what they can do. Not a degree, but a badging system based on competency.\n
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  • Mozilla corporation, a non-profit, it becoming a credentialing provider as well.\n
  • Uses Mozilla’s Open Badging Initiative platform. Gives you end-to-end services to create your own badging community. So, you could have a custom badge program for your own local programs, learning goals, or skills.\n
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  • James Gee, Presidential Chair in Literacy Studies in the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education at Arizona State University.\nRewards for success are especially true in multi-player gaming, where you have a rank compared to others. Just like “badging”.\n
  • \n
  • In the study, 50 drivers were loaned specially equipped cars that used GPS technology to determine speed limit coordinates.  Each driver drove the loaner car for one week. Much like a fare meter in a taxi, each driver started the week with a $25 credit that they could keep at the end of the week if they drove within the posted speed limit. If the driver drove 5 to 8 miles over the speed limit the meter would click down 3 cents, and if they drove 9 or more miles over the speed limit, the meter would tick down 6 cents.\nResults from the tracking system as well as the driver’s self-report suggested that the drivers dramatically altered the way they typically drove.  Furthermore, drivers reported “pleasure” from engaging in the game and trying to keep all of the $25.\nThink about it, the fear of a $150 speeding ticket was less likely to affect behavior than the opportunity to “win the game” and save 3 or 6 seconds at a time.\n\n
  • What did you notice \n
  • Teaches math concepts up to functions.\n
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  • Teaches math concepts up to functions.\n
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  • Respect and connection are the things that people really crave. This is why social networks happen. Why people earn badges. Why people play games. Why people go to movies together, and cheer for sports teams at a bar instead of watching it at home.\nThis is what we give to our students. It’s why caring, skilled, compassionate teachers will never be replaced by technology. Now, the methods of “connection” may be changing- they may be technologically mediated. But they are connections, just the same.\n
  • If you haven’t read this Manifesto, you really should. It may anger you, but it will definitely provoke some good conversation.\n
  • Because every day, this is why we teach- we are making the world a better place for the children who matter most to us. So keep doing what you do best, and use technology to do it even better.\n
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  • Stop Talking About 21st Century Skills (and What to Do Instead)

    1. 1. Stop TalkingAbout 21stCentury Skills...and What To Do InsteadJon Tanner, Oregon Schools Technology DirectorWiscNet Third ThursdaySeptember 20, 2012
    2. 2. Filter checkWho am I and whatare my biases?
    3. 3. About me(my POV)
    4. 4. My Goals Today
    5. 5. Inform
    6. 6. ProvokeThought
    7. 7. Entertain
    8. 8. ProvideUseful Stuff
    9. 9. So Why StopTalking About21st Century Skills?
    10. 10. Google Image Result for http://education.apple.com/acot2/global/images/diagram_6_principles.jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012,from http://http://education.apple.com/acot2/principles/
    11. 11. Google Image Result for http://education.apple.com/acot2/global/images/diagram_6_principles.jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012,from http://http://education.apple.com/acot2/principles/
    12. 12. Oregon“For technology to havelasting positive results onlearning, professionaldevelopment must result inteachers being able to usetechnology to transforminstruction and incorporate21st Century Skills.”-Oregon School District
    13. 13. Why stoptalking about21st Century Skills?
    14. 14. 1. We can’t know theskills neededfor an entire century
    15. 15. 100 yearpredictions = crazy
    16. 16. The greatmanure crisis of 1894...
    17. 17. “By 1950, every street in Londonburied in 9 feet of manure.” -London Times
    18. 18. Lord Kelvin’s Predictions 1890-95•Radio has no future•X-Rays will prove to be a hoax•Heaver-than-air flying machines are impossible
    19. 19. “I expect that within the nextfive years more than one in tenpeople will wear head-mountedcomputer displays whiletraveling in buses, trains, andplanes.”-Nicholas Negroponte, Wired 1.06, Dec1993, p. 136
    20. 20. Prediction The Future Death Taxes 100Accuracy Rate 75 50 25 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Years into the future
    21. 21. PerspectiveWhat were "20thCentury Skills?"
    22. 22. 2. The highschool class of2013 has spent their ENTIRE school life in the 21st Century!
    23. 23. The 12 yearperspective
    24. 24. 2000 2012
    25. 25. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowlyloses Presidential race
    26. 26. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker
    27. 27. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmakerUSS Cole is bombed and nobody hasheard of Osama Bin Laden
    28. 28. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.
    29. 29. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases TimeWarner
    30. 30. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.
    31. 31. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.You could get on an airplane withoutremoving your shoes, and could evenbring food and drinks with you. There isno such thing as the department ofHomeland Security or the TSA.
    32. 32. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.You could get on an airplane withoutremoving your shoes, and could even Air travel is one step up from abring food and drinks with you. There is Greyhound bus, except you maintainno such thing as the department of some privacy on a bus.Homeland Security or the TSA.
    33. 33. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.You could get on an airplane withoutremoving your shoes, and could even Air travel is one step up from abring food and drinks with you. There is Greyhound bus, except you maintainno such thing as the department of some privacy on a bus.Homeland Security or the TSA.Vouchers and magnet schools are hottopics, as well as some idea of“cyber-schools.”
    34. 34. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.You could get on an airplane withoutremoving your shoes, and could even Air travel is one step up from abring food and drinks with you. There is Greyhound bus, except you maintainno such thing as the department of some privacy on a bus.Homeland Security or the TSA.Vouchers and magnet schools are hot Online learning is easily accessible,topics, as well as some idea of and is required by some states.“cyber-schools.”
    35. 35. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.You could get on an airplane withoutremoving your shoes, and could even Air travel is one step up from abring food and drinks with you. There is Greyhound bus, except you maintainno such thing as the department of some privacy on a bus.Homeland Security or the TSA.Vouchers and magnet schools are hot Online learning is easily accessible,topics, as well as some idea of and is required by some states.“cyber-schools.”New-fangled MP3s and Napster arebig. Nobody has ever heard of an iPod.
    36. 36. 2000 2012Al Gore is Vice President and narrowly Al Gore is award-winningloses Presidential race environmentalist and filmmaker Osama Bin Laden is the mostUSS Cole is bombed and nobody has infamous person on earth, evenheard of Osama Bin Laden while dead.Internet giant AOL purchases Time AOL has been sold off by Time WarnerWarner now, worth only 10% of what it was.You could get on an airplane withoutremoving your shoes, and could even Air travel is one step up from abring food and drinks with you. There is Greyhound bus, except you maintainno such thing as the department of some privacy on a bus.Homeland Security or the TSA.Vouchers and magnet schools are hot Online learning is easily accessible,topics, as well as some idea of and is required by some states.“cyber-schools.”New-fangled MP3s and Napster are 304 million iPods, 180 millionbig. Nobody has ever heard of an iPod. iPhones, 70 million iPads sold.
    37. 37. 2000 2012
    38. 38. 2000 2012PowerMac G4400 MHz CPU128 MB RAM2 USB ports (+ 3 Firewire)10/100 EthernetSXGA video (1600 x 1200)Weight: 29 lbs.
    39. 39. 2000 2012PowerMac G4 Raspberry Pi (Model B)400 MHz CPU 700 MHz CPU128 MB RAM 256 MB RAM2 USB ports (+ 3 Firewire) 2 USB ports10/100 Ethernet 10/100 EthernetSXGA video (1600 x 1200) HDMI video (1920 x 1200)Weight: 29 lbs. Weight: 8 oz.
    40. 40. 2000 2012PowerMac G4 Raspberry Pi (Model B)400 MHz CPU 700 MHz CPU128 MB RAM 256 MB RAM2 USB ports (+ 3 Firewire) 2 USB ports10/100 Ethernet 10/100 EthernetSXGA video (1600 x 1200) HDMI video (1920 x 1200)Weight: 29 lbs. Weight: 8 oz. $2,499
    41. 41. 2000 2012PowerMac G4 Raspberry Pi (Model B)400 MHz CPU 700 MHz CPU128 MB RAM 256 MB RAM2 USB ports (+ 3 Firewire) 2 USB ports10/100 Ethernet 10/100 EthernetSXGA video (1600 x 1200) HDMI video (1920 x 1200)Weight: 29 lbs. Weight: 8 oz. $2,499 $35
    42. 42. 2000 2012
    43. 43. 2000 2012 1.44 MB Cost ~$1 cost/GB = $694
    44. 44. 2000 2012 1.44 MB Cost ~$1 cost/GB = $694 2003128 MBCost: $60Price/GB = $468
    45. 45. 2000 2012 1.44 MB Cost ~$1 cost/GB = $694 2003 6,400 MB Cost: $37128 MB Price/GB = $0.57Cost: $60Price/GB = $468
    46. 46. 2000 2012 1.44 MB Cost ~$1 cost/GB = $694 2003 6,400 MB Cost: $37128 MB Price/GB = $0.57Cost: $60 In 2003, this was a $29,952Price/GB = $468 item
    47. 47. 2000 2010
    48. 48. 2000 2012
    49. 49. 2000 2012
    50. 50. These changes happened whiletoday’s graduating class wasin school.Don’t even bother predictingmore than a few years.Let’s stop calling them “21stCentury” Skills, and justcall them “Skills.”
    51. 51. 3. Focusing too much on “21st Century” skillscan make us losesight of timeless values.
    52. 52. Think about whathas NOT changed since 2000
    53. 53. What to do?1.Focus on the next 1-5 years.2.Maximize what you do best.3.Become a linchpin.4.Connect with People.
    54. 54. Horizon report• 1-5 year scope• Key trends that will impact teaching and learning• Significant Challenges• http://www.nmc.org/horizon- project
    55. 55. Horizon reportTime to Adoption:One Year or Less•Mobile devices and apps•Tablet computing
    56. 56. Horizon reportTime to Adoption:Two to Three Years•Game-Based Learning•PersonalizedLearningEnvironments
    57. 57. Trend #1Mobile Devices
    58. 58. Trend #1Mobile Devices
    59. 59. “2015 is the year in which each and everystudent in America’s K12 public schoolsystem will have a mobile device to usefor curricular purposes, 24/7.” -Cathleen Norris and Elliot Soloway. District Administration Magazine, July/August 2012
    60. 60. “The total number of Macs soldis 122 million. In 2011 alone, ifyou tally up all the iOS devicesincluding iPods and iPads, 156million were sold—more thanall Macs ever sold. In one year.”Source: Chart: In Four Years, Apple Sold More iPhones Than All Macs Ever |TechCrunch. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://techcrunch.com/2012/02/16/apple-sold-more-iphones-than-macs-ever/
    61. 61. Let’send the mobile wars
    62. 62. 3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids- Will Richardson, on his blog: Weblogg-ed » “I lost something very important to me.” (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://weblogg-ed.com/2007/i-lost-something-very-important-to-me/
    63. 63. 3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids1. It teaches them that theydon’t deserve to be empoweredwith technology the same wayadults are.- Will Richardson, on his blog: Weblogg-ed » “I lost something very important to me.” (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://weblogg-ed.com/2007/i-lost-something-very-important-to-me/
    64. 64. 3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids1. It teaches them that theydon’t deserve to be empoweredwith technology the same wayadults are.2. Schools are places whereyou don’t need to communicateor access information.- Will Richardson, on his blog: Weblogg-ed » “I lost something very important to me.” (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://weblogg-ed.com/2007/i-lost-something-very-important-to-me/
    65. 65. 3 Lessons Banning CellPhones Teaches Kids1. It teaches them that theydon’t deserve to be empoweredwith technology the same wayadults are.2. Schools are places whereyou don’t need to communicateor access information.3. They can’t be trusted (ortaught, for that matter) to usephones appropriately inschool.- Will Richardson, on his blog: Weblogg-ed » “I lost something very important to me.” (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://weblogg-ed.com/2007/i-lost-something-very-important-to-me/
    66. 66. 2000 2012
    67. 67. 2000 2012 $199
    68. 68. TI-84 Plus Silver Edition$149 direct from TI (2011)
    69. 69. No smartphone? No problem! Send an SMS text message to 466453 (GOOGLE)
    70. 70. Trend #2Personalized LearningEnvironments
    71. 71. “A key step toward making schoolintrinsically motivating is to customizeeducation to match the way each child bestlearns.”
    72. 72. DeFour, M. (2012, June 20). UW to offer ‘flexible degree’. Wisconsin State Journal, pp. A1.
    73. 73. DeFour, M. (2012, June 20). UW to offer ‘flexible degree’. Wisconsin State Journal, pp. A1.
    74. 74. DeFour, M. (2012, June 20). UW to offer ‘flexible degree’. Wisconsin State Journal, pp. A1.
    75. 75. Starts in fall of 2012courses from MIT and Harvardvideo lessonsembedded testingreal-time feedbackstudent-ranked questions and answerscollaborative web-based laboratoriesstudent paced learning
    76. 76. Badges andcredentials
    77. 77. Trend #3Game-Based learning
    78. 78. Gamification“Gamification is the practice oftaking techniques andpsychological aspects used tocreate games and applyingthem to address objectives innon-game settings.”Source: Can you “Gamify” your Customer Experience? Lessons from the Highway | CustomerThink. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012,from http://www.customerthink.com/blog/can_you_gamify_your_customer_experience_lessons_from_the_highway
    79. 79. What games do 1. Combine learning and assessment 2. Give tutorials 3. Failure is not permanent- you learn from failure and quickly try again 4. Provide information as it is needed, not all at the beginning 5. Maintain a “pleasantly frustrating” state in which players are challenged to do better, without being discouraged 6. Reward and recognize successSource: Computer games can teach schools some lessons | ASU News. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from https://asunews.asu.edu/20100222_videogameeducationJames Gee, Presidential Chair in Literacy Studies in the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education at Arizona StateUniversity
    80. 80. “This site is dedicated to the thought thatsomething as simple as fun is the easiestway to change people’s behaviour forthe better. Be it for yourself, for theenvironment, or for something entirelydifferent, the only thing that matters isthat it’s change for the better.”
    81. 81. $25 reward ismore motivatingthan a $150ticket
    82. 82. “In their personal time [students] are active participants with the information they consume; whether it be video games or working on their Facebook profile, students spend their free time contributing to, and feeling engaged by, a larger system. Yet in the classroom setting, the majority of teachers will still expect students to sit there and listen attentively, occasionally answering a question after quietly raising their hand. Is it any wonder that students don’t feel engaged by their classwork?”Source: The Gamified Classroom | Gamification Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://gamification.co/2011/09/28/the-gamified-classroom/
    83. 83. http://labyrinth.thinkport.org
    84. 84. http://icivics.org
    85. 85. Stuff You Can Use
    86. 86. Google Knowledge Graph
    87. 87. http://www.gapminder.org/world/
    88. 88. http://labyrinth.thinkport.org
    89. 89. arisgames.org
    90. 90. arisgames.org
    91. 91. arisgames.org
    92. 92. http://scratch.mit.edu
    93. 93. The MostImportant Thing
    94. 94. Relationships areIndispensible
    95. 95. “The only way to getwhat you’re worth is tostand out, to exertemotional labor, to beseen as indispensable, andto produce interactionsthat organizations andpeople deeply careabout.”
    96. 96. “Everyone is a person,and people craveconnection and respect.”
    97. 97. “We don’t need a human being standing next to us to lecture us on how to find the square root of a number or sharpen an axe. ... “What we do need is someone to persuade us that we want to learn those things, and someone to push us or encourage us or create a space where we want to learn to do them better.”Stop Stealing Dreams. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://www.squidoo.com/stop-stealing-dreams
    98. 98. thank you!
    99. 99. Questions? comments?disagreements? Discussion?
    100. 100. Continue theconversation@jontannerjon.tanner@gmail.comjontanner.wikispaces.comtannervision.blogspot.com
    101. 101. Bibliography1216_05_54---Stop-Sign--Beatty--Nevada--USA_web.jpg (JPEG Image, 400 × 600 pixels) - Scaled (98%). (n.d.). Retrieved July 13,2012, from http://www.freefoto.com/images/1216/05/1216_05_54---Stop-Sign--Beatty--Nevada--USA_web.jpg16GB USB Flash Drive, Promotional 4GB USB Drives: USB Flash Drive Price Trends 2011 | Premium USB Blog. (n.d.). RetrievedJuly 11, 2012, from http://blog.premiumusb.com/2011/04/usb-flash-drive-price-trends/1996.png (PNG Image, 740 × 211 pixels). (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/1996.png2000 iMac Compared to the iPhone 4. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.macstories.net/news/2000-imac-compared-to-the-iphone-4/21centeducationdisconnect.jpg (JPEG Image, 1152 × 864 pixels). (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012, from http://21stcenturylibrary.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/21centeducationdisconnect.jpg51LmIGTWdgL._BO2,204,203,200_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-click,TopRight,35,-76_AA300_SH20_OU01_.jpg (JPEG Image, 300 × 300pixels). (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012, from http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51LmIGTWdgL._BO2,204,203,200_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-click,TopRight,35,-76_AA300_SH20_OU01_.jpg6a00d834516aff69e20120a5a8f751970b-pi (JPEG Image, 500 × 419 pixels). (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012, from http://mikesansone.typepad.com/.a/6a00d834516aff69e20120a5a8f751970b-pi8MB USB Memory Key - Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://support.lenovo.com/en_US/detail.page?LegacyDocID=MIGR-4R3GWN
    102. 102. BibliographyApple 2000 vs. 2010: iMac iPhone Evolution | Obama Pacman. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://obamapacman.com/2010/09/apple-imac-iphone-evolution-2000-vs-2010/Are You Indispensable? An Interview with Seth Godin. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://personalmba.com/seth-godin-linchpin-indispensable/ARIS - Mobile Learning Experiences - Creating educational games on the iPhone. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://arisgames.org/Badges - MozillaWiki. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from https://wiki.mozilla.org/BadgesBadgeStack Project. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://badgestackproject.org/Can you “Gamify” your Customer Experience? Lessons from the Highway | CustomerThink. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, fromhttp://www.customerthink.com/blog/can_you_gamify_your_customer_experience_lessons_from_the_highwayChart: In Four Years, Apple Sold More iPhones Than All Macs Ever | TechCrunch. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://techcrunch.com/2012/02/16/apple-sold-more-iphones-than-macs-ever/Computer games can teach schools some lessons | ASU News. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from https://asunews.asu.edu/20100222_videogameeducationCurrix. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://www.currix.com/
    103. 103. BibliographyDemo - ARIS - Mobile Learning Experiences. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://arisgames.org/demo/District Information. (n.d.). Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.oregonsd.org/district.cfm?subpage=2228Game-Based Learning Units for the Everyday Teacher | Edutopia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/video-game-model-unit-andrew-millerGet Your Game On: How to Build Curriculum Units Using the Video Game Model | Edutopia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, fromhttp://www.edutopia.org/blog/gamification-game-based-learning-unit-andrew-millerGoogle Image Result for http://education.apple.com/acot2/global/images/diagram_6_principles.jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012,from http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=jEr&sa=X&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1021&bih=915&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsb&tbnid=2AX0_OrJcZO2oM:&imgrefurl=http://education.apple.com/acot2/principles/&docid=fIArLsBxs3ElrM&imgurl=http://education.apple.com/acot2/global/images/diagram_6_principles.jpg&w=340&h=340&ei=tGTzT57MCci_rQHnhvHmAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=331&vpy=181&dur=17&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=101&ty=93&sig=109484366286138581554&page=1&tbnh=157&tbnw=157&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:102
    104. 104. BibliographyGoogle SMS applications. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://www.google.com/mobile/sms/Hoover Institution - News Releases - Computer-Based Learning Could Transform Public Education within a Decade through“Disruptive Innovation,” Experts Say. (n.d.). Retrieved December 29, 2009, from http://www.hoover.org/pubaffairs/releases/18606339.htmlInbox - jst@oregonsd.net - Oregon School District Mail. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?shva=1#inboxInformation Please: 2000. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.infoplease.com/year/2000.htmlK12 | Online Public School, Online High School, Online Private School, Homeschooling, and Online Courses options. (n.d.).Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.k12.com/Khan Academy. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.khanacademy.org/Knewton | Knewton Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.knewton.com/blog/knewton/page/2/linchpin.jpg (JPEG Image, 397 × 600 pixels) - Scaled (98%). (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://www.businesspundit.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/linchpin.jpg
    105. 105. BibliographyLord Kelvin biography - Science Hall of Fame - National Library of Scotland. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://digital.nls.uk/scientists/biographies/lord-kelvin/index.htmlLure of the Labyrinth. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://labyrinth.thinkport.org/www/Napster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NapsterNewegg.com - Computer Hardware, Flash Memory & Readers, USB Flash Drives, 64GB. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, fromhttp://www.newegg.com/Product/ProductList.aspx?Submit=ENE&N=100007960%20600000447&IsNodeId=1&bop=And&Order=PRICE&PageSize=20NMC Horizon Project | The New Media Consortium. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://www.nmc.org/horizon-projectNMC Horizon Report :: 2012 K-12 Edition - YouTube. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8A_xMSCZ8SQOnline courses for middle and high school students | Aventa Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://aventalearning.com/
    106. 106. BibliographyPower Macintosh G4 Dual (Mystic). (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://lowendmac.com/ppc/mystic-powermac-g4-gigabit.htmlQuia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://www.quia.com/Raspberry Pi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi#SpecificationsSpread the Word | Center for Constitutional Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://ccrjustice.org/spread-wordStop Stealing Dreams. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://www.squidoo.com/stop-stealing-dreamsThe Floppy Disk is Not Dead - Chris Pirillo. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://chris.pirillo.com/the-floppy-disk-is-not-dead/The Fun Theory. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://www.thefuntheory.com/The Gamified Classroom | Gamification Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://gamification.co/2011/09/28/the-gamified-classroom/The Innovative Educator: The Three Important Lessons Banning Cell Phones Teaches Kids. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, fromhttp://theinnovativeeducator.blogspot.com/2010/02/three-important-lessons-banning-cell.html
    107. 107. BibliographyTI-84 Plus series - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 15, 2012, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TI-84_Plus_Silver_EditionTips for BYOD K12 Programs | District Administration Magazine. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://www.districtadministration.com/article/tips-byod-k12-programsTotal Number of iPods Sold All-Time. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://ipod.about.com/od/glossary/qt/number-of-ipods-sold.htmVideoconferencing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VideoconferencingWeblogg-ed » “I lost something very important to me.” (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2012, from http://weblogg-ed.com/2007/i-lost-something-very-important-to-me/

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