Getting Started With Conversion Rate OptimisationWhat Is Conversion Rate Optimisation?.......................................
A Little Bit About Koozai:Koozai are a multi-award winning digital marketing agency.We’re one of the UK’s fastest growing ...
About The Author:Laura Phillips has experience of SEO, PPC and Social Media both in-house and within anagency environment....
What Is Conversion Rate Optimisation?A large number of websites spend a lot of time and energy focusing on their traffic. ...
Step 2: Decide On The Type Of TestA/B TestingA/B testing (aka split testing) is simply where you test two versions of one ...
Step 3: Set Quantitative GoalsWe now need to consider some of the fundamental aspects of our test to make sure goalsare re...
Step 4: Choose a Data SourceIn many cases, sites will roll out landing page tests on a live site and watch the results com...
Get Others to Test for YouYou could also use a full video service such as User Testing or What Users Do which allowyou to ...
Google Analytics TrackingWithin Google Analytics you can create goals that allow you to see when a user hascompleted a key...
Step 5: Advert TestingAlways keep your Ads in mind, making sure the landing page is closely tied to the Ad copy.This not o...
Step 6: Landing Page TestingOn any given page there are likely to be thousands of different variations of items that canbe...
Guide Your UserGuide your user’s eyes to where you want them to look with a logical, attractive design andcues such as col...
Initial ContentFollow the headline with short, to the point text or bullet points to keep reading easy andthe user engaged...
Main ContentThe first paragraph should contain a brief review of major points. You also need to revealthe deal clincher ea...
Social Proof / TestimonialsSocial proof can be very important in the conversion process. Testimonials from real peopleprov...
Step 7a: Shopping Cart TestingAnother vital part of a website to be tested often is your shopping cart, especially byanaly...
Step 7b: Form / Contact Page TestingIf you don’t have a shopping cart then you’ll need either a form or contact page to ga...
Step 8: Collect And Analyse Test ResultsOne of the better ways to test pages is to use Google Content Experiments which ca...
Next up, you will be asked to provide details of the first variation you want to run againstyour original. The variation d...
Code ImplementationIn order to get the test started, you will need to add a small piece of code onto each of yourtest page...
Checking The TestYou are now ready to start the test, so spend a couple of minutes reviewing what you areabout to launch b...
Step 9: Review and RefineAt this stage you should have created new pages to test with clear goals in mind. You’ll havelaun...
Conversion Rate Optimisation Guide
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Conversion Rate Optimisation Guide

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Conversion Rate Optimisation Guide

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Conversion Rate Optimisation Guide

  1. 1. Getting Started With Conversion Rate OptimisationWhat Is Conversion Rate Optimisation?........................................................................... 5Step 1: Review Your Existing Pages ................................................................................ 5 What Are You Trying To Achieve? ............................................................................... 5Step 2: Decide On The Type Of Test............................................................................... 6 A/B Testing ............................................................................................................... 6 Multivariate Testing ................................................................................................... 6Step 3: Set Quantitative Goals........................................................................................ 7 How Long To Test For ................................................................................................ 7 How To Check Your Results Will Be Accurate ............................................................... 7Step 4: Choose a Data Source ........................................................................................ 8 Test It Yourself.......................................................................................................... 8 Heat Maps................................................................................................................. 8 Get Others to Test for You.......................................................................................... 9 Surveys..................................................................................................................... 9 Google Analytics Tracking ..........................................................................................10 Google AdWords Tracking .........................................................................................10Step 5: Advert Testing ..................................................................................................11Step 6: Landing Page Testing........................................................................................12 Word and Content Tests ............................................................................................12 Guide Your User .......................................................................................................13 Headline ..................................................................................................................13 Initial Content ..........................................................................................................14 Images / Videos / Diagrams ......................................................................................14 Main Content ............................................................................................................15 The Offer Itself .........................................................................................................15 Social Proof / Testimonials.........................................................................................16 Make It Easy To Convert ...........................................................................................16Step 7a: Shopping Cart Testing .....................................................................................17Step 7b: Form / Contact Page Testing ...........................................................................18Step 8: Collect And Analyse Test Results ........................................................................19Step 9: Review and Refine ............................................................................................23
  2. 2. A Little Bit About Koozai:Koozai are a multi-award winning digital marketing agency.We’re one of the UK’s fastest growing technology companies having been ranked 23rd in theDeloitte Technology Fast50.We help businesses connect with their customers online – providing a range of industry-leading services from Organic Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and Pay Per Click (PPC)Management to Link Building, Social Media and Brand Management.We thrive on building long-lasting client relationships and delivering true value for money.We’re passionate about what we do - and that shows in our work.No lengthy contracts, just world class Digital Marketing. Koozai will help you build yourbrand online and achieve ROI that can be clearly measured against your bottom line.How To Get In Touch:If you would like to get in touch with us, please visit our website (www.koozai.com) or useone of the methods below:
  3. 3. About The Author:Laura Phillips has experience of SEO, PPC and Social Media both in-house and within anagency environment. Having worked across a variety of industries from travel to law, andretail to education she is always looking for new and innovative ways to improve the searchand social visibility of her clients across all platforms.Additional content provided by Samantha Noble and Dean Marsden.About This WhitepaperIf you are looking to get more conversions without necessarily gaining more traffic thenConversion Rate Optimisation is the best place to begin. This guide will give you the basicsof building a highly effective landing page, showing you how to find areas for improvement,and how to maximise their potential for conversion.
  4. 4. What Is Conversion Rate Optimisation?A large number of websites spend a lot of time and energy focusing on their traffic. There isa widely held belief that if you can get traffic to your site then conversions should naturallyfollow. Sadly for most, this is not the case. You may be getting vast amounts of traffic toyour site, but what can you do if conversion numbers do not meet expectations?Conversion rate is one of the most important statistics for any online business. It’s aboutgetting the most from your customers, maximising their understanding and desire toconvert, and countering any and every bump in the road that may stop them doing so.Step 1: Review Your Existing PagesThe easiest way to find potential improvements for your landing pages (or indeed any partof your site) is through analysing what you already have and testing it. Whether you arebuilding a brand new site or looking to improve on an established one, testing and re-testingis crucial.What Are You Trying To Achieve?Start by thinking about your objectives: Why am I testing this page? Who is my target audience and why? What is a good key performance indicator (KPI) for this page? What is this landing page trying to get users to do? What course of action is it trying to promote?Identify your goals for testing and give consideration to the expected outcome. It is easy toget caught up with passive goals which are easier to achieve but don’t actually createactions, for example, total traffic. High levels of traffic are good; but only if they areconverting. You also need to measure actions from those you are trying to influence.Try to aim for one goal per page. If an action is worthy of being a goal, it needs its ownlanding page to give maximum opportunity to convert and the least chance of distractionfrom the goal. For example Spotify focuses on having you try their premium service:
  5. 5. Step 2: Decide On The Type Of TestA/B TestingA/B testing (aka split testing) is simply where you test two versions of one page element.For example, you may wish to design a home page with a light blue background and a darkblue background alongside each other to see which performs the best. Once the test hasbeen run and the most successful page established, this may become the new default,which can then be tested against another, for example a grey background. A/B testinginvolves constantly testing two variations of one page element to find which is mostbeneficial to the site, giving very specific results.Multivariate TestingMultivariate testing allows you to compare a number of factors across a page or pages tofind the best possible combination. You may wish to test various headlines, colours, buttonlocations, images, price points or any other aggregations of elements to find which performsbest for your predetermined goals. Start by listing the elements you wish to test, forexample, headline includes/excludes the word ‘Free’, button size large/small, and imagetop/bottom.The versions and tests you can run are essentially infinite, providing broader results thanA/B testing. That’s why if you’re looking to run a test it’s often far better to use Multivariatetesting and to create a new page that meets your core goals rather than just a simplechange such as colour switches.
  6. 6. Step 3: Set Quantitative GoalsWe now need to consider some of the fundamental aspects of our test to make sure goalsare realistic and easy to track:How Long To Test ForConsider the timeframe you will need to run the test. If you fail to define clear parameters,your results will be hard to quantify. Think about how many conversions you get on adaily/weekly/monthly basis and how many you need to achieve conclusive results.Marketo have created a Landing Page Calculator to estimate the time period and/or numberof variations you could run based on the number of conversions the site achieves on a dailybasis.How To Check Your Results Will Be AccurateStatistical significance allows you to accurately distinguish between naturally occurringpatterns and those that happen by chance. This is hugely important, you need to know yourresults are accurate before implementing any changes or page performance may bedamaged instead of improved.Set a level of confidence that you are happy with (if you are unsure, 95% is a popular barfor confidence). Then choose one of a number of plug-ins available for Microsoft Excel (suchas the Data Analysis plugin) which will tell you the sample size you will need to gainaccurate results.
  7. 7. Step 4: Choose a Data SourceIn many cases, sites will roll out landing page tests on a live site and watch the results comein. In other cases, such as a site that has not been launched yet, user testing may becarried out by small samples of invited guests. They can then test a landing page within awebsite by using it and recording their thoughts.Test It YourselfFirstly, be the customer and test the page yourself. You may think you know your site insideout, but site owners often discover stumbling blocks they didn’t know of or had forgottenexisted by testing the site for themselves. Navigate the page testing your predefined goalsone by one. For example, if you were testing the BBC homepage you may wish to test howeasy it is to navigate to the news or TV listings. Are they easy to spot? Does anything blockyour path such as pop ups?Video yourself doing this and keep a running commentary of what you are doing and howyou are feeling. There are many products and services available for this such as ScreenFlowor Camtasia. You may hate the idea but you will have a record of your own user experiencethat you can refer back to.Heat MapsSecondly, have the page tested by anyone who can spare the time and see what issues theymight have. If the same issue keeps coming up, start improving by focusing on that elementof the page.You may also wish to employ a User Experience (UX) service such as Clicktale for heat-mapping, eye-tracking. This will show you the behaviours users use when they browse yourwebsite and build up an aggregate pattern so you can spot any issues.
  8. 8. Get Others to Test for YouYou could also use a full video service such as User Testing or What Users Do which allowyou to create a test and define what tasks testers should complete. Once completed you willreceive videos of participants with audio so you can see and hear what problems they mighthave found. It’s important to get third parties fitting the description of your target audienceto test your site. If your target audience is broad, you may wish to carry out tests using anumber of different audiences.SurveysFor ongoing feedback, you may wish to add a service such as Survey Monkey, Ethnio orQualaroo (previously KISS Metrics) to the site. These surveys can be added to any page,though most commonly they are added to the Thank You page. This creates a small pop upwhere you can ask for the user’s opinion. Because you are requesting this information fromthe Thank You page, you ensure that these users are fully qualified, having alreadyconverted. You may wish to ask if there was anything that confused them, or that theyfound hard to find on the landing page.
  9. 9. Google Analytics TrackingWithin Google Analytics you can create goals that allow you to see when a user hascompleted a key action. You can also analyse this data to see what they did beforecompleting the action, such as the pages they viewed. This is a great way of seeing whichparts of the conversion path need improving.This guide from Google explains how to create goals:http://support.google.com/analytics/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=1032415Google AdWords TrackingIf you are running paid search adverts on AdWords you should also enable conversiontracking: http://support.google.com/adwords/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=1722054. Thiswill identify which keywords and adverts led to conversions and is the ideal way to see ifyour pages are meeting user expectations.You should also run your new page through all of these tools one you’ve created it to seewhat people think.
  10. 10. Step 5: Advert TestingAlways keep your Ads in mind, making sure the landing page is closely tied to the Ad copy.This not only gives users the confidence that they have made the right decision by clicking,but also helps to minimise wasted clicks. If you aren’t using paid adverts then it’s alsoimportant to consider your Meta matches up to the pages people will land on.For example M&M Direct have adverts for running shoes that say they are cheap:The landing page then supports this by showing only running shoes, and how much theprice saving is on each one:
  11. 11. Step 6: Landing Page TestingOn any given page there are likely to be thousands of different variations of items that canbe tested to generate results. Below we’ve listed some of the most important changes toinvestigate and while you don’t need to change them all this should a great place to start ifyou need inspiration:Word and Content Tests Test the offer Long paragraphs vs short paragraphs Bullet points vs paragraphs Punctuation Test copy ordering on the page Columns – 1, 2 or 3 layout Test different words Informal / formal / attitude Font size Links – Blue and underlined CTA WordingOther Things To Test Headline Image Call to Action: Wording / Shape / Style / Position on page / Icon / Colour / Legibility Layout Testimonials Content Size Actual Copy Embedded Widgets Coupons Colours Fonts Sizes Sales Incentives Number of fields on a form Newsletter Subscriptions Reviews More Product Details Shipping Info Shipping PricingLet’s take a look at some of those key items in more detail:
  12. 12. Guide Your UserGuide your user’s eyes to where you want them to look with a logical, attractive design andcues such as colour contrast and arrows to take them to your call to action. The Crazy EggHome page does this really well:HeadlineStart with a headline that feels personalised; text visitors can identify with and that providesan answer to their search query. The headline has the job of drawing the user in andmaking them want to read more, so make it engaging, rouse their curiosity, and give them areason to continue. This will often be the place to include your unique selling point. Forexample ‘Plant bulbs delivered to your door – 10% off until 5pm today’. On the MailChimpwebsite their headline makes it really clear what they do:
  13. 13. Initial ContentFollow the headline with short, to the point text or bullet points to keep reading easy andthe user engaged. This text should include more details of the features and benefits youoffer, explaining how your product or service will benefit the user, and should be written inthe same style as the headline.Remember the Milk uses a “to do” list to explain their features, which is a clever way ofshowing how their product works:Images / Videos / DiagramsUse images to break up content and help reinforce the feel of the site. For example,technical, emotional, niche. This is the place to add your best promotional imagery or videoor your product or service in use. Video has been reported to directly increase conversionsby over 75% in some instances. Attractive diagrams can also be useful here, demonstratinghow your offering solves a problem.The Dropbox Homepage focuses on one big video to show their benefits.
  14. 14. Main ContentThe first paragraph should contain a brief review of major points. You also need to revealthe deal clincher early on so the user does not have time to lose interest. Think about whatyou would say if you were selling the product face to face. Your landing page copy shouldreflect this. Consider recording yourself making a pitch then compare it to your page andsee what elements might be missing.Some sites will be better off with short, easy to read pages, where others will require moreinformation, usually where larger purchasing decisions are involved. For an example of howlong pages can work to your advantage have a look at any Amazon product page. That said,if you don’t have anything to say, don’t say it. Endless waffle and fluff in your text will putusers off. Keep editing your content, every word must have a purpose, otherwise take it out.On our Whitepaper pages we try to quickly establish what the content is about:The Offer ItselfPlace your offer here with a clear call to action. Include a brief overview of the benefits,present your offer, and justify your pricing. You may also wish to include a limited time offeror other incentive to act quickly. This helps to create a sense of urgency which maymotivate more users to convert. Groupon do this well:
  15. 15. Social Proof / TestimonialsSocial proof can be very important in the conversion process. Testimonials from real peopleprovide evidence that you are a trustworthy and quality business. The reassurance of seeingyour offering be qualified by others helps users convert.Any positive press can also be used on your landing page to further cement your value inthe mind of the user, as can any guarantees or other ‘peace of mind’ propositions you mayhave associated with your product or service.If any recognisable companies or personalities use your product or service, combine thisselling point with more imagery such as their logo or photograph to provide furtherassurance. Firefox do a great job of showing off the number of downloads they have hadand using that to encourage downloads:Make It Easy To ConvertOverly lengthy or complicated forms are known to put users off. Focus on makingconversion as simple as possible with a quick and easy to use action, no distractions such aspop ups or adverts, and a Thank You page asking for their opinion to help you furtherimprove your landing page. We try to make the forms for our Whitepapers as simple aspossible and focus them on only the information we need:
  16. 16. Step 7a: Shopping Cart TestingAnother vital part of a website to be tested often is your shopping cart, especially byanalysing where people fall out of the process. Some of the key aspects to test are: Make it easy for people to pay using their preferred method (PayPal, Credit Card etc) Check the compatibility of payment gateways (e.g. Lloyds) on different browsers Test how the shopping cart renders on a mobile and tablet Include logos that add trust Gather email addresses at the start of the process, if users don’t complete an order then follow-up Consider testimonials and reviews Use key phrases such as ‘Fast Delivery’ and ‘Price Guarantee’ to encourage a sale Review competitor shopping carts to see what they do well Use progress indicators, pictures and links to product descriptions Eliminate unnecessary steps Monitor user journeys through the process with the tracking software discussed earlier Make error messages clear so the user understands any problems they have to fix List a phone number in case of any problems Make postage costs visible on the product page so there are no surprises Test user registration before and after the saleOne site that does many of these items very well is ASOS:
  17. 17. Step 7b: Form / Contact Page TestingIf you don’t have a shopping cart then you’ll need either a form or contact page to gathercustomer details. Like a shopping cart there are also factors to be considered: Keep reading to a minimum Only have “required” fields where absolutely necessary Have adequate shipping information and pricing information Ensure that the email privacy link is next to, or close by to the email request field Add alternative contact methods (Phone, Email, Address, Live Chat) Keep contact form as short as possible; the basic name, email and message fields should be enough Use a large, obvious submit button below your contact form Assure users that their contact details will not be passed on to a third party Include your phone number as HTML text so it can be used on Skype or easily copied Include your postal address as HTML text so it be easily copied Add Schema markup data to allow your address and phone numbers to appear as rich snippets in the search engines and elsewhere; more information at www.schema.org. Display a confirmation message when the page has been sent Test having the name, position and, if possible, a picture of the person they might be speaking to when they contact you Provide FAQ’s to answer common questions that may cause issuesSEOmoz do many of these things very well:
  18. 18. Step 8: Collect And Analyse Test ResultsOne of the better ways to test pages is to use Google Content Experiments which can beaccessed via Google Analytics:Getting StartedIt is very easy to get started with a new Content Experiment and you can be up and runningin five simple steps: Decide on which page you want to test Design the different variations (each one needs a separate URL) Choose which goal you want to improve Create the test Analyse the resultsContent Experiments can be found within the Content sectionof Google Analytics, just one click away from your mainreports.When visiting the area for the first time you will be displayeda screen explaining a little bit about the tool and how to useit. There are some helpful guides; so if you are unsure ofwhat to do, I would recommend checking these out first byclicking on ‘learn more’ in the bottom right-hand corner ofthe screen.The first thing you need to do to create a test is to tell thesystem what page of your site you want to start with.In this example I have added the Koozai Home page:
  19. 19. Next up, you will be asked to provide details of the first variation you want to run againstyour original. The variation does need to be on a different URL and I would suggest that youput all your test pages into one folder on your site called ‘tests’. This way you can block theentire folder within your robots.txt as you don’t want the search engines to be able to crawlthe pages due to duplicate content issues.If you want to test more than one page variation, you can do this from this stage too. Thereis a button that you can click to add another variation. If this is the first time you haveplayed about with testing, always start small and create one variation or things may get alittle confusing.Next you need to set up your first test and choose which goal you want to add. Afterselecting the goal you want to work with, you need to tell Google what percentage of yourvisitors you want to put through the test. The higher the percentage, the faster you will beable to see the results; however, if you are making a change you may not want to put allyour traffic through the test in case the change causes a negative drop in conversions ratherthan a positive. Basically, if you choose 100% of traffic and have your original page and onetest page then 50% will see the original and 50% will see the test.
  20. 20. Code ImplementationIn order to get the test started, you will need to add a small piece of code onto each of yourtest pages. Content Experiments makes it easy to either add the code yourself or send itonto your Web Developer.NOTE – all pages taking part in the test need to have Google Analytics installed.The code needs to be added immediately after the opening <head> tag on theoriginal page.Once you have added the code to the original page you will be taken to a new screen whichchecks to see that you have installed the code correctly. If you haven’t you will be displayedwith a message like the one below. If everything is OK and ready to go, you will see greenticks next to each page indicating that you can proceed.
  21. 21. Checking The TestYou are now ready to start the test, so spend a couple of minutes reviewing what you areabout to launch before hitting the go button. Depending on how much traffic your sitereceives and in particular the page that you are testing, this will determine how long youshould run the test for. In order to see fair results there should be a good amount of visitsand conversions put through the test.Once the test is running, you can look at the results as they come in by going back to theContent Experiments section in Google Analytics. When you select the section, you will bedisplayed with a list of all your experiments.You can go into each test to see the results received to date and it is wise to keep checkingback on your test to be confident that you are not losing out on goal conversions. When youselect an experiment from the list, a detailed report will open for that experiment. In thereport you can see exactly how the pages in your experiment are performing and whetherone of the pages is outperforming the other. You can also see the status of your experimentfrom this report and if you decide to stop the test early, you can do this from here too.
  22. 22. Step 9: Review and RefineAt this stage you should have created new pages to test with clear goals in mind. You’ll havelaunched the pages and tested them against each other to determine which worked best, oryou’ll use real user feedback to determine what they love and hate.Now you have a winning page the next step is to reassess what worked well and to try andtweak those aspects or introduce new elements to gain further improvement. CRO is aprocess that never truly ends and that’s what makes it so fascinating.Thank you for reading this whitepaper and happy testing!

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