SK Some interesting stories: Savita has been mistaken to be Mexicans Al has been mistaken for being Native Americans
Al: In 1492, a Spanish expedition headed by Christopher Columbus reached the Americas, after which European exploration and colonization rapidly expanded, first through much of the Caribbean Sea region (including the islands of Inspired by the Spanish riches from colonies founded upon the conquest of the Aztecs , Incas , and other large Native American populations in the sixteenth century, the first Englishmen to settle permanently in America hoped for some of the same rich discoveries when they established their first permanent settlement in Jamestown, Virginia . They were sponsored by common stock companies such as the chartered Virginia Company (and its off-shoot, the Somers Isles Company ) financed by wealthy Englishmen who understood the economic potential of this new land. The main purpose of this colony was the hope of finding gold or the possibility (or impossibility) of finding a passage through the Americas to the Indies. It took strong leaders, like John Smith , to convince the colonists of Jamestown that searching for gold was not taking care of their immediate needs for food and shelter and that &quot;he who shall not work shall not eat.&quot; (A direction based on text from the New Testament .) The extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. Tobacco later became a cash crop, with the work of John Rolfe and others, for export and the sustaining economic driver of Virginia and nearby colonies like Maryland.
SK: The Mayflower was the famous ship that transported the English Separatists, better known as the Pilgrims , from Southampton , England , to Plymouth , Massachusetts (which would become the capital of Plymouth Colony ), in 1620. 
Many institutions are named after presidents. In Rochester there is a John Adams middle school. About Washington: 1 st president of the U. S. He was from the state of Virginia and a farmer. General Washington was the commander of the U. S. Continental Army during the war and against all odds defeated the British army. A famous battle was the Crossing of the Deleware The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, already wealthy, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. Washington attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts. To that end, he preferred the title &quot;Mr. President&quot; to the more majestic names suggested. John Adams: 2 nd President, his son John Quincy Adam became the 4 th president of the United States. He was a graduate from Harvard. He hailed from a line of famers. He himself became a lawyer. He was a member of the Continental Congress that voted to start the war of independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson famous for being the principle author of the declaration of independence and the construction of the united states. A scientist, great thinker, and a gifted writer
Al first and followed by SK on 1920 &quot;All men are created equal ....&quot; its founding principle and its idealism and vision to expand the real definition of &quot;men&quot; from a time when only &quot;white men&quot; had the rights to voteSeptember 22, 1962 Emancipation of slaves According to Wikipedia: The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War . The first one, issued September 22, 1862, declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. The second order, issued January 1, 1863, named ten specific states where it would apply. Lincoln issued the Executive Order by his authority as &quot; Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy&quot; under Article II, section 2 of the United States Constitution .  1920 women can vote During the beginning of the twentieth century, as women's suffrage gained in popularity, suffragists were subject to arrests and many were jailed. Finally, President Woodrow Wilson urged Congress to pass what became, when it was ratified in 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment which prohibited state and federal agencies from gender-based restrictions on voting. Civil rights movement
Civil rights The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of Kennedy's era. The United States Supreme Court had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. However, many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's judgment. Segregation on buses, in restaurants, movie theaters, bathrooms, and other public places remained. Kennedy supported racial integration and civil rights, and during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King , wife of the jailed Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. , which perhaps drew some additional black support to his candidacy. John and Robert Kennedy's intervention secured the early release of King from jail.  In 1962, James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi , but he was prevented from doing so by white students. Kennedy responded by sending some 400 federal marshals and 3,000 troops to ensure that Meredith could enroll in his first class. Kennedy also assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Riders . As President, Kennedy initially believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would only anger many Southern whites and make it even more difficult to pass civil rights laws through Congress, which was dominated by conservative Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it. As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as unsupportive of their efforts. On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood , from enrolling. George Wallace moved aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard . That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio.  Kennedy proposed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .  Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women in 1961.  Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination. Their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963, a month before Kennedy's assassination.
SK: 1 st bullet AL: Second bullet Many large corporations like IBM were the early pioneers in diversity. And IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Jr. published the company's first equal opportunity policy letter -- September 21, 1953 -- one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education.
AL A personal experience of the places that we have been to illustrate the key points of God Bless America. Tell the story of Al’s trip to West Coast and East Coast and remind folks.
SK 50 States Lower 48, and Washington, District of Columbia. the nation's capital Alaska, Hawaii From coast-to-coast: bordered by Canada, Mexico Third or forth largest by total area
AL: God Bless America &quot; is an American patriotic song originally written by Irving Berlin in 1918 and revised by him in 1938, as sung by Kate Smith (becoming her signature song ). Key Points: Number of states? Why is America called from coast to coast? What is meant by Mason-Dixon line? Where are the Rockies? Where is Disneyland? Where is Rochester, MN? What is the Continental divide? The lyrics of God Bless America is key to the understanding of what defines the geography of America: I am going to approach this topic also from my own experience of the places that I have been. From the mountains, to the prairies, To the oceans, white with foam
The park is located at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River , from which it takes its historical name. Near the end of the 18th century , French trappers named the river &quot;Roche Jaune,&quot; which is probably a translation of the Minnetaree name &quot; Mi tsi a-da-zi &quot; (Rock Yellow River).  Later, American trappers rendered the French name in English as &quot;Yellow Stone.&quot; Although it is commonly believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone , the Native American name source is not clear.  The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when aboriginal Americans first began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana , in the 1950s , an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from approximately 11,000 years ago.  These Paleo-Indians , of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make such cutting tools and weapons . Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley , indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east.  By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce , Crow and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members were informed of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. 
Lands typically referred to as &quot;prairie&quot; tend to be in North America .The term encompasses much of the area referred to as the Great Plains of the United States and Canada .Most or all of the states of North Dakota , South Dakota , Nebraska , Kansas , Oklahoma , Texas , Colorado , Wyoming and Montana , and sizable parts of the states of Indiana , Illinois , Iowa , Wisconsin , Missouri , and Minnesota . The Central Valley of California is also prairie. American Buffalos (bison) Almost went extinct from over hunting Give me a home, where the buffalos roam … a popular folk song by Historically, bison numbered an estimated 20-30 million. Unregulated shooting of bison, which culminated in mass slaughters during the 1870s, reduced the population to 1,091 in 1889. Today, approximately 500,000 bison live across North America. Most are not pure bison but rather have been cross-bred with cattle in the past and are raised as livestock on ranches. Fewer than 30,000 bison are in conservation herds, and fewer than 5,000 are free-ranging and disease-free.
The Rocky Mountains , often called the Rockies , are a major mountain range in western North America . The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometres (2,980 mi) from the northernmost part of British Columbia , in Canada , to New Mexico , in the United States . The range's highest peak is Mount Elbert in Colorado at 14,440 feet (4,401 m) above sea level . Though part of North America's Pacific Cordillera , the Rockies are distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges (as named in Canada) or Pacific Mountain System (as known in the United States), which are located immediately adjacent to the Pacific coast .
NC: Raleigh OR Beave Beaverton, OR
Icebox of the Nation International Falls long promoted itself as the &quot;Icebox of the Nation&quot;, however the trademark for the slogan has been challenged on several occasions by the small town of Fraser , Colorado . Officials from Fraser claimed usage since 1956, International Falls since 1948. The two towns came to an agreement in 1986, when International Falls paid Fraser $2,000 to relinquish its &quot;official&quot; claim Minnesota endures temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate ; with cold winters and hot summers. The record high and low span is 174 degrees (from -60 to 114 degrees) Fahrenheit (span of 96C°; from -51°C to 45°C). 
Al: Legislative 435 voting members in the House. State has congressional districts and is apportioned based on population size. Each state sends two senators Pass laws, pass the budgets and provide oversights to executive branch Executive Branch - President, head of state and head of government
Non-Americans are familiar with the major states and cities of the United States. They know about New York, LA, San Francisco, Chicago, etc. I have encountered international colleagues in conferences in Orlando, eg, not knowing where Minnesota is. I usually tell them it is near Chicago. Even though they still don't quite know where Chicago is at least they have a reference point.
2 history -geog021510
Module 2: United States of America Presented by: Al Lun, Savita Katarya A brief overview of its history, geography, government and economy 1
History Topics• Land of immigrants• Experiment to form a more perfect union – As engraved in a plaque at the bottom of the Statue of Liberty Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free …….. 2
Native Americans• Migration from Asia ... 12 to 40 thousand years ago• Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies 3
Early European Settlements• 1492, a Spanish expedition headed by Christopher Columbus reached the Americas• In 1606, the Virginian Company of London sent an expedition to establish a settlement in Jamestown, Virginia 4
MayflowerSeptember, 1620Transport the pilgrims from Southampton, England toPlymouth, MassachusettsA symbol of early European colonization of the future US. 5
American Revolutionary War• July 4, 1776: Thirteen colonies of Great Britain declared independence – Declaration of Independence• September 17, 1787, United States Constitution was adopted at the Philadelphia Convention – Bill of Rights, comprising ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing many fundamental civil rights and freedoms, was ratified in 1791 6
Some famous founding fathers• George Washington• John Adams• Thomas Jefferson 7
George Washington (April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797)• A part-time military man, Washington was a wealthy famer (planter) from Virginia (Mount Vernon)• Commander of the Continental Army during the War of Independence• Crossing of the Delaware was the turning point of the war• First President of the United States – 25,000 dollars a year salary 8
John Adams (March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801)• A lawyer from Braintree, Massachusetts, outside Boston• Came from a line of English farmers• A graduate of Harvard College, a lawyer• Member of the Continental Congress which voted to declare independence from Britain in 1766• Served in emissary roles in Europe – In 1777, and again in 1779• His son, John Quincy Adam became the 6th President of the United States 9
Thomas Jefferson (March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809)• Author, scientist, horticulturalist, great thinker• Graduate of College of William & Mary• Founder of the University of Virginia• Principal author of the Declaration of Independence• Delegate from Virginia to the Congress of the Confederation (Continental Congress)• Ambassador to France• 3rd President of the United States 10
United States Idealism--A Journey• 1776 Declaration of Independence – “All men are created equal …” is the founding principle and idealism• 1862 Emancipation of Slaves by Abraham Lincoln after the Civil War between North and South• 1920 Women’s suffrage movement and women were finally allowed to vote as a result of the 19th Amendment of the U. S. 11
Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)• Born and raised in a one-room log cabinet in Hardin County, Kentucky – “Honest Abe”• Self-educated, became a lawyer, and a Congressman in 1846• 16th President• Led U. S. through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery – Gettysburg address • Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. • “…government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth” 12
Civil Rights Movement• John F. Kennedy – James Meredith enrollment at the University of Mississippi• Martin Luther King – “I have a dream speech” • delivered 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C.• Robert F. Kennedy – "Some men see things as they are and ask why? I dream dreams that never were and ask why not?" 13
Cultural diversity and inclusivity• IBM was among the earliest U. S. corporations that implemented equal opportunity employment under founder Tom Watson, Sr• IBM’s diversity and inclusivity emphasis – An official HR program – Groups include: • African American, Hispanics, • Asians, Women, GLBT, Veterans 14
USA Size • Total 3,717,813 sq mi Third largest 9,629,091 km² country in the • Land 3,536,294 sq mi world 9,158,960 km² • Borders 50 States – Canada 5,526 miles Lower 48, and Washington, District 8,893 km of Columbia, the nations capital, – Mexico 2,067 miles Alaska, Hawaii 3,326 km • Coastlines 12,380 miles 16
Mountains, Oceans and Prairies From the Mountains, To the prairies, To the Oceans, white with foam Lyrics from “God Bless America” – an American patriotic song often sung in many service organizations’ opening ceremony Celien Dion 17
From Rochester To West Coast and Back I-90W 1600 Miles 18
Yellow Stone Park 3,468 square miles Wyoming Montana Idaho 19
Prairies and the Great Plains of the United States The Great Plans of United States: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansa, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, Minnesota … American bison (buffalo)Prairie – tall grass 20
Atlantic Ocean (East Coast) Massachusetts Coast Boston Hyannis Port Florida Coast – Daytona Beach 24
God Bless America – Song by Irwin Berlin• From the Mountains• To the prairies,• To the Oceans, white with foam 25
Weather Map of IBM Locations OR: Beaverton MN: New York Rochester Poughkeepsie White Plains YorktownCA:AlmadenSan JoseSanta Teresa NC: Raleigh Texas: Austin 26
Average Seasonal TemperatureAverage January Min to Average July Max• San Jose California: 41O -- 84.3O• Austin Texas: 40.5O -- 95.2O• Rochester, Minnesota: 3.2O F -- 80O F• White Plains, New York: 22O F -- 82.5o F• Raleigh, North Carolina: 29.6O F -- 89.1O F 27
Coldest Spot• International Falls, MN – - Record Low -60Fo F -51Co 28
United States Federal Government• Three branches of government – Legislative Branch • House of Representatives • Senate – Executive Branch • President • Vice President • Cabinet, executive departments and agencies – Judiciary • Supreme Court • Courts of Appeal • District Court 30
State Government• Same concept as the federal government• Executive, legislative, judiciary 31
Economic Statistics• Third by population at around 300 million• GDP 14.3 Trillion 23% of world 32
Where is Minnesota?• Many Non U. S. colleagues may only know the major U. S. cities or states• Good idea to where your U. S. colleague’s location is – For example, where Rochester is, where Minnesota is 34