Norm-referenced Grading System
The performance of the student is evaluated relative to the
performance of other students within a group.
The performance of the student depends on the
performance of the other student in the class.
It is very easy to use
It works well for the courses with retention policies and it
limits only few students to advance to the next level of the
It is useful if the focus is the individual achievement of the
It is appropriate to a large group of students that is, more than
It does not encourage cooperation among the students
The teacher easily identifies learning criteria – the percentage
of students who receive highest grade or lowest grade.
The performance of a student is not only determined by
his achievement, but also the achievement of the other
It promotes competition among the students rather than
It cannot be used when the class size is smaller than 40.
Not all the student can pass the given subject or course.
Criterion-referenced Grading System
The students performance is evaluated against a
certain criteria or standard.
The criteria or standard is absolute in this grading
system and it is also possible that all the student may
receive the highest possible grade or all of them may
pass the said test.
It is also possible that all students may receive a failing
grade if they will not reach the standard set by the
The performance of the students will not be affected
by the performance of the whole class.
It promotes cooperation among the students
All students may pass the subject or course when they
meet the standard set by the teacher
It is difficult to set a reasonable standard if it is not
stated in the grading policies of the institution
All students may not pass the subject or course when
they do not meet the standard set by the teacher or the
Types of Reporting System
Different colleges and universities utilize symbols to
describe and report the level of performance or
achievement of their students.
This can be numbers, percentages, letter grade
equivalents and descriptions.
Example of Reporting Grades for Tertiary level
98 - 100
95 - 97
92 – 94
89 – 91
86 – 88
83 – 85
80 – 82
77 – 79
75 – 76
Grading System of Public Elementary and
The Grading System that is being used is based on
DepEd Order Number 33, series 2004, replacing the
DECS Order No. 70, series 1998.
The new grading system of DepEd is about giving
grades that are mainly based on the students
Features Of the New Grading System
1. The lowest grade or the minimum performance
standard for the students in public elementary and
secondary schools is set at 75%. The lowest failing
grade that may appear in the report card is 65%.
The same standard shall apply to students in the Bridge
In assessing the learning outcomes, the construction of test
items consist of basic terms 60%, moderately difficult or more
advanced questions 30%, and higher order thinking skills 10%.
Question in each category should have different weights. The
test and non-test items should cover only materials actually
taken up in the class.
Grading System by subject shall follow the guidelines in
Enclosure 1 and Enclosure 2 of DepEd Order 33, series 2004
The transmutation tables shall not be used in the computation
of grades. Test scores shall be recorded as raw scores, totaled at
the end of each grading period, and then computed as
percentage. This is also known as the table of equivalence.
The final grades shall be determined by averaging the marks
for the four quarters. In the case of secondary level averaging
across quarters shall be by subject only
Promotion at secondary levels shall be by subject. A
student shall be retained in the year level if he/she
incurs failures of three units or more during the
regular school year and is unable to make up for the
failed subjects during the summer sessions. Retained
students need to repeat only those subjects that they