BocesListening&Speaking

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  • Games for Using English  I’m Thinking of Something: A student describes an object in the room without looking at it. The other students look around the room and try to guess what it is. They ask questions of the first students, i.e. “Is it made of glass?” “Is it round?” I’m Going on a Trip: The first person in the circle says, “I’m going on a trip and I’m going to take with me...a suitcase. The second person says, “I’m going on a trip and I’m going to take with me a suitcase and my toothbrush. Each student repeats the items around the circle and adds his own. I Went Shopping Yesterday: This game begins with “I went shopping yesterday and I bought___________ and continues in the same way as the game above. How? When? Where? Why?: The first person thinks of an object. Then the others ask questions, using only these information questions, to discover what the object is. Numbers on the Board: Write various numbers on the board, not in order. Divide the class into two teams. Give each team a different color of chalk. Call out a number, or select a student to call out a number. The first student to circle the number gets a point for his team. Another way of playing this game is to put the numbers on the board in the following way and teach the students to say: left, right, center, middle, right corner, top row, etc. 5 45 39 63 29 9008 89 44 30 21 5503 99 57 20 33 669 New Years Eve Predictions: Each player has three small pieces of paper. Tell them to write 1)their names on one piece of paper, 2)an unusual action on the second piece of paper and 3) a place on the third piece of paper. Have them put their papers into three separate containers. Then have three students hold a box and take out a piece of paper from it. Reading the three pieces of paper in sequence will produce funny sentences like: “Next year at this time Xiao Fang will be swimming in the mountains.” or “Next year at this time Xiao Pan will be dancing on the Great Wall in London.” Treasure Hunt: Leave notes which give clues as to where the next notes are...in sequence. The last note should give clues as to where the treasure is.  Guess What or Who I Am: Tape to the back of each student the name of an object, person or place. Each person then asks information questions of the other students until he finds out his identityAlibi: (advanced) Two players make up a detailed story as to where they were and what they were doing the night a crime was committed. They make up a perfect alibi because they are accused of the crime. Their story must include exactly where they were, who they were with, what they were doing and saying.  The class is then instructed as to what types of questions to ask each suspect, i.e., “Where did you meet your friend?” “At what time did you leave your house? “How much did you pay for your tickets?” “In what section of the theater did you sit?” The first suspect leaves and the same questions are asked of the other suspect.  Both suspects are then questioned again as contradictions become apparent in their stories. Then the class decides if the two suspects are guilty or innocent. Vocabulary BINGO Use the new words in your lesson and other words that you want them to practice. But, don’t write the words in columns; write them in no order all over the board. Use fewer than 24 words. Have the students draw a BINGO game card in their notebooks with 5 squares across and 5 squares down. Tell them to write BINGO in the middle square. Then tell them to copy the words into the squares on their game card. They can write the same word in more than one square, but only one word in each square. Then read sentences using those words. When the students hear each word on their card game, they mark an X on top of it. They get a BINGO when they have marked an X over all the words in a row - horizontally, vertically or diagonally. ‘To Be’ BINGO: Have the students write all the forms of ‘to be’ in all tenses in the squares on their game cards. Then read sentences using all forms and tenses of ‘to be’. Past Tense BINGO: You can play the same game to practice the past tense of irregular verbs. You can play BINGO to practice vowel sounds, the pronunciation of the -ed ending of regular verbs (/d/, /t/ and /id/) or anything else you want to practice. Simon Says: (low level) This game is good for practicing parts of the body, prepositions and commands. The teacher (later a student) says, “Simon says put your hands on your knees.” “Simon says put your hands together above your head.” The students do whatever Simon says for them to do. But when the teacher just says, “Put your right foot on top of your left foot” and doesn’t say Simon says, the students are supposed to sit at their seats and do nothing. All those students who do the action have to drop out of the game. If you are standing or sitting in a circle, they have to move out of the circle. Continue playing the game until everyone has dropped out except one. That student is the winner.Spelling Contest: Have each row of students stand in the aisles behind each other. Each row is a team. From your list of words which you want the students to practice, read the first one. Then the first person in each row writes that word on the blackboard. The first one to write it correctly gets a point for her team. Continue until all words have been written. Then say which team got the most points and was the winner. Two Truths and a Lie: Ask a group of students to stand in front of the class. One by one they say two things true about themselves and one lie. The class has to guess which is the lie. Telephone: Seat the students in a circle or let them stay in their classroom seats. Say a sentence in the ear of the first student in the circle or in each row. That student then whispers (says it in a soft voice so no one else can hear) the same sentence into the ear of the next student. Each student then, in turn, says the sentence in the ear of the next student. The last student says the sentence out loud. Usually that sentence is not the same as the first student and probably is very funny. Advanced Telephone: Tell a very short story to the first student. Then the story is repeated around the circle or down the row. The last student then has to tell the story as he heard it. Probably the story will have changed a lot! Parts of Speech: (advanced) Make a list of 20 words which are various parts of speech, 5 in each category. Then on the board write adjectives, nouns, verbs and adverbs. Call out the words and have the students write them under the correct parts of speech. For a lower level class, use only adjectives and nouns or nouns and verbs. Categories: On the board write categories of words, such as: furniture, kinds of stores, clothes, jobs, classroom things. Then read a list of words and students write them under the correct category. Hangman: Think of a word (i.e. with 9 letters) and draw 9 horizontal spaces on the board. For example, if the word is important, draw _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. On the side, draw a hangman’s scaffold. The students then ask if different letters are in the word. They cannot try to guess the word immediately. They can only ask if certain letters are in the word. If the letter is in the word, you write it on the correct line. For example a student asks, “Is ‘t’ in the word?” Then you write: _ _ _ _ _ t _ _ t. “Is ‘s’ in the word?” “Is ‘o’ in the word?” Then you write: _ _ _ o _ t _ _ t and keep adding the letters as the students guess them. When a student guesses a letter which is not in the word, draw one part of a person’s body hanging from the rope. Each time a wrong letter is guessed, add another part of the body. The students have to guess the entire word before the whole body has been drawn. If they fail to do so, the person is hanged and the students lose! Then ask a student to direct the game. Eventually students can play the game in pairs or small groups.   Twenty Questions: A student holds an object behind her back. The other students haven’t seen it. They ask questions about the object until they guess what it is. They can’t justguess “Is it an eraser?” or “Is it a notebook?” They have to ask questions such as “Is it round?” “Is it used on paper?” “Do all students have one?” If they haven’t guessed the object by the time the 20th question has been asked, the student has to show the object. Word Order: Write the words of a sentence on pieces of paper. Put the pieces of paper into a small plastic bag. Put the words of other sentences (having the same number of words as the first sentence) into other small plastic bags. Divide the students into teams. If there are 10 words in each sentence, there should be 10 students on each team. Each student takes a word out of his teams’ bag. Then each team has to hold the words in front of them in a line. Then the team members have to move until they have put the words of their sentence in the correct order. The team who does it first is the winner Add Adjectives and Adverbs: As in the game above, line up several students in front of the class. Each student hold a word in front of himself. All the words make a simple sentence. Then give other students adjectives and adverbs and have them stand in the line of students making a sentence. They have to stand in the correct place for the correct word order. Rhyming Words: Write on the board several words, for instance: day, map, red and hit.Have the students write under those words other words which rhyme with them, such asdaysayplaymapcap redheadbedhitbitsit Word Chain: This game can be played orally or on the blackboard. One student says/writes a word. The next student says/writes a word which begins with the last letter of the previous word, such as: “computer - rug - girl - lady -yellow- walk. Pass Along Story: This game can be played orally or written in a notebook or on the blackboard. The teacher or a student says/writes one sentence to begin a story. The next students adds a sentence. Then, in turn, the other students add one sentence each until the story has been finished. Password: A student thinks of a word and says to his group or to the class something to help the others guess what the word is. For instance, the student thinks of week and says, “There are 7 days in it.” or the student thinks of book and says, “There are many pages in it.” Number Words in a Box: On the blackboard, draw the following sxtyIurffomehdznTell the students that there are 11 math and number words which can be made from the words in the box: four, sixty, sum, dozen, forty, more, fourteen, six, zero, hour and sixteen.Changing Clothes: Mrs. Williams has just bought some clothes for her son. Change a single letter in each word to make the name of the clothing.  packetjacketlockssocksgoatcanshortmeltcoatcapshirtbeltbeanscattinshowsjeanshattieshoes                             
  • BocesListening&Speaking

    1. 1. PEARSON LONGMAN ESL STRATEGIES AND CONVERSATIONAL ACTIVITIESTO IMPROVE SPOKEN LANGUAGE Conversation activities that can be adapted to Pearson’sSide by Side/Focus on Grammar/Reading Power/All about the USA CYNTHIA S. WISEMAN, EdD – PRESENTER SPONSORED BY PEARSON
    2. 2. AGENDA• Introductions• Communicative Language Learning• Strategies/activities to develop listening/speaking skills• Applications: Side by Side/Focus on Grammar/Reading Power/All about the USA• Reflections
    3. 3. INTRODUCTIONS“What was one of the best lessons that you have donein an ESL class? What was the activity? What made itgood?”Let‟s form 2 circles, the same number of people on theinside as the outside.Introduce yourself to your partner and describe the bestESL lesson that you have done. Explain what made thelesson good.
    4. 4. CONSIDERATIONS IN SPEAKING AND LISTENING INSTRUCTION• Communicative Competence• Interactive use of textbooks
    5. 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES OF SPEAKING INSTRUCTION• A working knowledge of language system for communicative competence, e.g, grammar, vocab, sounds• Able to use that knowledge of language system in real time to produce speech that is… • fluent – naturally flowing • intelligible -- understandable • interactive – serve communication with another person • contextually appropriate – „the right thing to do‟• Learn coping strategies for acceptable communicative competence, e.g., asking for clarification, asking someone to repeat
    6. 6. TECHNIQUES/STRATEGIES TODEVELOP SPEAKING/LISTENING SKILLS • Brainstorm: Techniques for developing communicative competence? • Using the textbook interactively
    7. 7. •What is the focus of •How learners can learn teaching/learning for this language knowledge & lesson? how to use the language? •Active Reading •Response Writing, e.g., Reflections •Communicative activities Txtbk: Readings? Topic Exercises? Functions Scope and Sequence Grammar Table of Contents Vocabulary Teachers Guide Before opening the Pre-reading/pre-writing textbook: exercises Engage Ss with topic Pair/group: personal experiences Build on Ss‟ language Vocabulary: Scaffold presentation presentation/practice of new knowledge Dictations•How can I structure •How can I assess what has dynamic activities that been learned? require engagement with •Assessment the language, with the •Evaluation topic, with other students, •Reflection and with the teacher?
    8. 8. LISTENING/SPEAKING ACTIVITIES FOR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE• Vocabulary• Total physical response, e.g., giving/acting on commands, Simon says, interview & fill out applications• Dictations (cloze, s-s, keyword)• Group/pair work• Describe and draw/build• Information gap/jigsaw activities• Problem-solving activities• Games (scavenger hunt, bingo, concentration, jeopardy, Hangman, etc.)
    9. 9. SIDE BY SIDE, UNIT 13• Topic: occupations• Related topics: help wanted signs/ads• Functions: expressing ability, looking for a job, asking and answering questions• Grammar: can/have to
    10. 10. VOCABULARY• Brainstorm – use students‟ linguistic knowledge • Question forms: e.g., Can you type? • Modals: can & have to • Names of occupations• Authentic materials • Language in want ads & job descriptions (internet/newspaper)• Internet sites: games, handouts, flashcardshttp://www.mes-english.com/flashcards/files/people2_cards.pdf
    11. 11. Actor
    12. 12. Actress
    13. 13. Astronaut
    14. 14. Carpenter
    15. 15. Cashier
    16. 16. Constructionworker
    17. 17. Dentist
    18. 18. Engineer
    19. 19. Plumber
    20. 20. Reporter
    21. 21. Secretary
    22. 22. Securityguard
    23. 23. Soldier
    24. 24. Veterinarian(Vet)
    25. 25. Waitress
    26. 26. Optician(Eye doctor)
    27. 27. Dancer
    28. 28. Farmer
    29. 29. A DAY IN THE LIFE OF…• Describe what this worker does every day.• 6:30• 8:00• 9:00• 12:00• 3:00• 5:00• 7:00• 10:00
    30. 30. A DAY IN THE LIFE OF …• Find large magazine photos of people at work (housekeeper, nurse, homemaker, farmer, mechanic, cashier, teacher, waitress, etc.) (Mount these pix or laminate them for repeated use.)• Model for the class by selecting a photo and describing the routine daily activities of that person.• Let each learner select the photo of the person they want to describe.• Give learners a simple daily timeline, e.g., 6:30 am, 7:00, 8:30, 10:00, 12:00 pm, 3:30, 5:00, 6:00.• Give learners time to prepare to describe what this person‟s daily routine.• In pairs, each partner orally describes the daily life of the worker they chose.• For additional practice, create new pairs or select certain learners to describe the worker‟s routine to the entire class.
    31. 31. REALIA• Application form• Telephone• Answering machine/tape recorder• Want ads• Resumes
    32. 32. ROLE PLAYS• Responding to want ads• Making an appointment for interview• Researching for a job/position• Interviewing: employer gets card with job description & asks “Can you…?” & applicant answers• Filling out an application
    33. 33. GAMES• 20 questions: “I‟m thinking of an occupation.”• Jeopardy: This job requires carrying a gun to stop crime.• Concentration: matching word with picture or responsibilities with job• Categorization/classification: jobs by field (e.g. healthcare or law or classify responsibilities by job)
    34. 34. MATCHING EXERCISESA. • 1. Eye _______ • 2. Arm ______B. • 3. Hand ______C.
    35. 35. Game Show: Jeopardy: Parts of thebody, ailments, actions Ailment Actions Body Parts 10 This is a pain What we dollars in my head. have to do for the dentist 20 A rise in my What we dollars body cannot do temperature in soccer . 30 I go to the What we dollars dentist when do in the I have this shower pain.
    36. 36. PRACTICING USING THE VOCABULARY• Total Physical Response (TPR) Act out the vocabulary. Give students commands using parts of the body. – Raise your hand. – Touch your toes. – Scratch your arm. – Put your hands on your hips. – Clap your hands. – Put your hands on your head. – Cross your arms.
    37. 37. SPEAKING ACTIVITIES• Describing a picture• Class story using language experience• A day in the life of my friend• How did you learn to do that?• 20 Questions: My favorite gift• In the News• Picture story sequence• Dictations for discussion• Dialogue Dictation• Dictogloss
    38. 38. PICTURE DESCRIPTION• Put students in pairs sitting back-to-back• Give Student A a picture• Instruct Student B to draw the picture that Student A is holding without looking at it.• Student B must ask questions about the picture• Students compare the 2 pictures after the activity and explain how they are alike and different• Side by Side, 2, map on p. 80• Side by Side, 1, pp. 64/65 – Amy‟s and Edward‟s Apt
    39. 39. CLASS STORY USING LANGUAGE EXPERIENCEHas anyone been to the doctor lately? Would you tell uswhat happened?• One student volunteers to tell a story related to the topic of focus, e.g., getting sick and going to the doctor (Side by side, 1, unit 15, p. 141).• Another student (or the teacher) writes the story, word by word, sentence by sentence as the student tells the story.• Teacher aids student(s) in reading the story aloud.• Teacher/students ask/answer questions about the story.
    40. 40. HOW DID YOU LEARN TO DO THAT?• Create a grid of skills/activities that adults are likely to do. Teach the vocabulary to students beforehand.• Prepare index cards, each listing one skill/ability: • use a computer • Operate a cash register • operate a sewing machine • repair cars • decorate a cake • iron clothes • drive a car • Change a tire • change a diaper• Model describing how you learned a particular skill/activity.• Distribute a card to each student. Give students time to construct their answer.• Distribute the grid of skills/activities, one to each student.• Ask students to stand and circulate around the room, asking each partner they interview “Can you …..?”• When the answer is yes, the interviewer asks, “How did you learn to do that?” And writes that person‟s name in the box with that activity/skill.• Encourage students to use follow-up questions.• Students can talk about what classmates are able to do.
    41. 41. Can you….?use a computer Drive a car Bake a cakeOperate a cash Change a diaper Speak anotherregister languageoperate a sewing Change a tire Wash dishesmachinerepair cars Iron clothes Do the laundrydecorate a cake Cook a pizza Ride a bicycle
    42. 42. 20 QUESTIONS: MY FAVORITE GIFT, ANIMAL, OCCUPATION,…• Explain that you once received a gift that has become your favorite. Say that you would like learners to ask you questions in order to get details about the gift. The questions must be yes/no questions.• Answer each question and write the question on the board. Provide additional questions and your answers as needed.• When finished, describe the favorite gift in full, including all the answers to the questions as a demonstration of organized, elaborated speech. Then put learners in pairs. The first member of the pair thinks of a favorite gift. The second member of the pair asks questions about the gift using the questions on the board as necessary. The first member answers each question one by one and finishes by describing the favorite gift in full.• Members of the pair switch roles so each person has a chance to ask and answer questions about a favorite gift.• For additional practice, conclude by asking certain learners to describe their favorite gifts to the entire class.• Additional themes Pairs can speak about their favorite house, teacher, birthday celebration, trip, etc.
    43. 43. DIALOGUE DICTATION• Select a short, level-appropriate dialogue from a textbook that is pertinent to the life skill topic or subject matter currently being studied. (What‟s the Forecast? Or What Time is It?, Side by Side p. 133/4)• Separate the lines of the dialogue into Student A and Student B parts, putting the lines on separate sheets of paper, leaving blank lines between.• Put learners in pairs, sitting across the table.• Learners alternately dictate their lines of the conversation until both members of the pair have the entire dialogue.• Remind learners to use clarification strategies during the dictation (Could you please repeat that? Please speak slowly. How do you spell that? Is this right?)• Learners then practice the dialogue together.
    44. 44. IN THE NEWS• Read aloud a short news story. (“The Present,” True Stories, pp. 70-71)• Ask students to generate questions about the story, using the WH-question words. Write the questions on the board.• Put students in pairs or groups.• Read the story aloud again.• Ask the students to ask and answer the questions orally from the board.• To give students practice understanding non-face- to- face speech, record the article on cassette and play the cassette rather than reading the article aloud.
    45. 45. PICTURE STORY SEQUENCE• Copy the picture story sequence from the textbook (True• Cut the pictures apart and mount (True Stories, p. 38-39). Make enough sets for each pair of students in the class.• Shuffle each set so the pictures are out of sequence.• Before handing out the picture sets, read aloud the complete text.• Distribute the sets of the pictures. Read the text aloud a second time while learners arrange the pictures in order. Read the text aloud a third time so learners can check their work and make any revisions.• Ask learners to check their work by looking at the picture sequence in the textbook and reading the captions under each picture. (Gather the cut sets for reuse.)• Learners can write the story sequence for homework and retell the story the next day in pairs using only the pictures.
    46. 46. TRUE STORIES
    47. 47. DICTOGLOSS1. Choose a short passage or dialogue. The passage might only be 5-10sentences long.2. Before reading the passage to students, set the scene. If the passage is adialogue.)3. Before the first two readings, instruct students to listen and try to remember.Then read the passage twice at fairly normal speed, not pausing betweensentences.4. Before the third reading, tell students they may jot down key words andphrases (not every word). Then read the dialogue a third time, slightly moreslowly.5. Have students try to reconstruct and write down the passage as best theyremember it. Tell students they need not use exactly the same words as theoriginal, but the meaning should not be different and the English should begrammatically correct. (This can be done either individually or in groups.Individually takes less time; groups provide opportunity for speaking practiceand mutual assistance.)6. To check students work, one option is to write the original on the board andhave students check their own work. As they check you can circulate andanswer questions, particularly on the grammatical accuracy of what theywrote. A general question-and-answer time may also be helpful. Another optionfor checking is to have groups write their passages on the board, but this canbe slow.
    48. 48. INTERNET RESOURCEShttp://iteslj.org/v/ei/clothes2.htmlhttp://visual.merriam-webster.com/astronomy/celestial-bodies.phpwww.wordle.com
    49. 49. Wordle•Create colorful graphicrepresentations of texts based http://www.wordlon word occurrence from any e.net/given text.•Feed in the text either bycopy and paste or byspecifying a URL•Analyze text and creates acolorful representation withmore frequently occurringwords appearing much largerthan less frequent words.•Adjust colors and designs tosuit your taste.
    50. 50. READING POWER 2
    51. 51. SOCIAL ISOLATION ADVANCED READING POWER, P. 80 For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot subject humanbeings to experimental isolation. But research on the effects of socialisolation has been conducted on nonhuman primates. Research with monkeys. Psychologists Harry and Margaret Harlow(1962) observed rhesus monkeys whose behavior is in some ways surprisinglysimilar to that of human beings in various conditions of social isolation. Theysound that complete isolation (with adequate nutrition) for a period ofeven six months was sufficient to cause developmental disturbances.When reintroduced to others of their kind, these monkeys were anxious,fearful and defenseless against aggression. The Harlows also placed infant rhesus monkeys in cages with anartificial mother constructed of wire mesh and a wooden head and thenipple of a feeding tube where the breast would be. These monkeys, too,were subsequently unable to interact with others. But when they coveredthe artificial mother with soft terry cloth, the infant monkeys clung to it,thereby deriving some emotional benefit, which reduced developmentalharm. The experiment revealed the profound importance of the simple actof cradling as part of parent-infant interaction.
    52. 52. How to use this with students •Review/Summarize/Retell text •Prediction •Dialogue reconstruction •Short poems / Haiku •Text comparison •Personal information •Topic research tasks •Learner training
    53. 53. CREATE A CROSSWORD USINGWWW.ECLIPSECROSSWORD.COM • Across • 1. I have a bad _____ so I need to go to the dentist. • 3. The doctor looks at our ____ to check our health. • 4. I stand on my ______ all day long so they hurt. • 6. She wears her ____ in a ponytail. • 8. Use your _____ all the time to figure out a problem -- think it through! • 10. Close your ______ and go to sleep. • 12. The witch had an ugly ____ with a hair growing out of it on the tip of her nose. • 14. Students must raise their ____ before they speak. • 15. She has a beautiful gold watch on her ____. • Down • 1. Bend over and touch your ______ • 2. Open your _____ and eat your food. • 5. She crossed her _____ for good luck. • 7. PEOPLE GET ON THEIR TO PRAY • 9. Cross your ____. • 11. She used her ____ to get in front of the line. • 13. Open your _____ and listen carefully to the directions.
    54. 54. APPLICATION•Side by Side•FOG•True Stories•Reading Power•All about the USA
    55. 55. SCOPE & SEQUENCE: SIDE BY SIDE• Topics, Vocabulary• Grammar• Functional Communication• Listening/pronunciation• Writing• Life skills, Civics, Test preparation
    56. 56. SIDE BY SIDE PLUSBOOK 1, CHAPTER 1 “INTRODUCTIONS”• Pairwork: • Interviewing partner sitting back-to-back • Introducing the partner to the class, w/ or w/out script • Registration Form (p. 6a) – one student fills it out for another• Group Work • Introductions in groups of 3• Games • Scavenger hunt (Q&A to get to know classmates) • Hangman (to practice the alphabet)
    57. 57. INTRODUCTIONS (CONT’D)• Visual Aids • Map: Where are you from? I am from ___. (Find the country on the map). Where is he/she from? He is from____.• Brainstorm (vocabulary/questions)
    58. 58. BRAINSTORM FOR INTRODUCTIONS• Whats your name? • What do you like to do in your free time?• Where are you from? What country • What was the last book you read? are you from? • Do you like to cook?• Where were you born? • Do you like baseball?• Where do you live? Whats your • Whats your favorite food? address? How long have you lived there? Do you live in a house or an • Are you good at cooking/swimming/etc? apartment? • How old are you?• Whats your telephone/phone • How tall are you? number? • What are your hobbies?• What languages do you speak? • What do you do on Sundays?• When did you start to study English? • What is the nearest bus stop or train station• How long have you been studying English? to your house?• Why do you want to learn English? • What kind of food/music do you like?• Do you live alone? • What countries have you visited?• Are you married or single? • Which sports do you like?• Whats your father/mother like? • What is your goal in life?• Do you have brothers and sisters? • What jobs have you done? Are they older or younger than • Whats something you do well? you?• What do you do? Whats your job? • Do you have any pets?
    59. 59. • Focus on•GRAMMAR• Fourth Edition
    60. 60. FOCUSED PRACTICE • Check answers with a partner. • Read aloud with a partner.
    61. 61. STEP 4COMMUNICATIONPRACTICE EXPANDED Listening activities provide natural contexts and help students’ practice listening skills
    62. 62. NEWPronunciation Noteand exerciseprepare students forspeaking activities
    63. 63. NEWSpeaking activitiesprovide morepractice fordeveloping fluency
    64. 64. REFLECTIONS• Am I satisfied with the listening/speaking activities in my class?• How might I incorporate more listening/speaking instruction in my classes?
    65. 65. Q&A
    66. 66. THANK YOUfor your participation!

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