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Instructor:
Cynthia Bee, Outreach Coordinator,
Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District
Localscapes.com
ConservationGardenPark.org
Conservation, new water supplies, and
new infrastructure
Source:
Governor’s Office
of Management
and Budget
-
1,000,000
2,000,000
3,000,000
4,000,000
5,000,000
6,000,000
Utah’s population growth
Conservation Progress and Approaches
2%
10% 15% 16% 19%
11%
2%
9% 16% 16% 20%
4% 11% 15%
0%
10%
20%
30%
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Situational Conservation
• Example:
Structural Conservation
• Example:
The Epiphany:
Landscapes should
be designed to fit
irrigation rather
than trying to force
irrigation to fit
landscapes.
Utah needs its own landscaping style
Homeowner Concerns:
• 82% want more Utah
specific landscape
information
• 43% experienced
frustration when selecting
the “right” plants
• ONLY 2% were fully
satisfied with their
landscapes
What does the public want?
PROS
• Lush and colorful all season
• High curb appeal
CONS
• Difficult to water efficiently
• High water use
• Many high-maintenance edges
and shapes to maintain
English-Style Landscape
Low-Density Xeriscape
PROS:
• Conserves Water
• Lower Maintenance
• Simple Irrigation
Cons:
• Low curb appeal
• Landscape is not useful
Landscape Spectrum
Traditional
Lawn-Dominant
Landscape “Zeroscape”
Localscapes Range
Yard typical to many Utahns
Yard type many Utahns are
afraid they’ll be told to have
Moderate approach advocated by Localscapes
The Localscapes House
Drawings & Design by Shaun Moser, Conservation Garden Park
2. Gathering Areas
3. Activity Zones
1. Central Open Shape
4. Paths
5. Plantings
Localscape House- Plan View
• Sea of Green rests the
eye between busier
plantings.
• Conveys calm.
• Visually demonstrates
the power of positive/
negative space.
• Organizes space. When
lawn is a defined shape,
everything else APPEARS
“cleaner”.
Reason We Love Lawn
(That you may not realize)
Landscape installation by Aposhian Landscaping
Design by Conservation Garden Park staff
The New Lawn
Epiphany
• Lawn is a single,
central shape that is
a PLANNED element
in the landscape.
• Lawns are for active
recreation or serve as
an accent, they are
not a full-surface
groundcover.
What’s Wrong with This Design?
Obstacles in lawn make
mowing and edging
more time consuming.
Trees compete with lawn for
water = shallow roots/ stress.
Unfriendly front walk
= low curb appeal
Narrow bits of lawn are
impossible to water efficiently
+ high maintenance while
providing no useful benefit.
Lawn serves no purpose in
this location except to create
work with no reward.
Trees block yard view from
front door = safety concernThe whole yard is
boring = no reason to
be out here!
Overhead sprinklers in
planting beds = WAYYY
more weeds than drip-
irrigated + mulched beds.
Heat from foundation and
walkway bakes non-Utah
happy plants.
Lots of edges to maintain
next to concrete walk,
driveway etc. = more work
Lawn adjacent to concrete requires
more water to stay green =
overwatering rest of yard.
Illustration by Cynthia Bee
Why is This Design Better?
Portion of lawn
available for
recreational use =
ALL of it!
NO obstacles in lawn make
mowing and edging LESS
time consuming.
Trees do NOT compete with lawn
for water = happy trees.
Walkway enters from
sidewalk instead of the
driveway = increased safety
+ curb appeal
Narrow bits of lawn are
eliminated. All lawn is
functional. Strong central
shape organizes the space.
Front yard seating sends a
VERY warm and friendly vibe
= reduced maintenance +
curb appeal
Open view of yard from front
door = increased safety
Stepping stone path
creates sense of interest +
improves function.
Drip irrigation in planting
beds + 3-4” of mulch
reduces weeds 85% vs.
overhead watering- only
water the plants you want!
Utah-Happy plants can take
the heat from foundations
and walkways.
Very few lawn edges to maintain
next to concrete = time + water
savings.
Planted park strips with drip
irrigation keep overspray from
damaging roads + curb appeal.Illustration by Cynthia Bee
Drip Irrigation
Inefficient use
of lawn leads
to many areas
of overspray
Efficient
use of lawn
reduces
overspray
Irrigation cannot make an inefficiently designed landscape, efficient
Requires 17 sprinkler heads, 3 zones.
Requires 7 sprinkler heads, 1 sprinkler
zone and 1-2 drip irrigation zones.
Obstacles in
lawn reduce
efficiency and
create dry
spots.
• Lots of edges to maintain
• Grass is NOT useful
• Visually disorganized
• ONE edge to maintain
• ALL grass is useful
• Well organized, “clean” look
Island in Lawn VS. Lawn as Island
Localscapes for New
Landscapes
Step 1: Central Open Space – Front Yard
Step 1: Central Open Space-- Backyard
Common Residential Lot Shapes
Cul-De-Sac Rectangular Corner
Flexible Shapes Fit Any Landscape
• Rectangular Lot • Corner Lot • Cul-De-Sac Lot
Central Open Space design technique can be applied to ANY lot shape.
Central Open Spaces Can Fit Any Size Lot
• Large Lot
• Moderate Lot• Small Lot
• 20,000 sq. ft. or more
10,000- 20,000 sq. ft.5,000- 10,000 sq. ft.
Scale the shape to the size of the lot
A Lawnless Yard STILL Orients Around Central Open Space
Park Strip Lawn Removal
Lawn in parkstrips and side yards is removed
Follow us on Facebook for free design ideas you can copy! http://Facebook.com/ConservationGardenPark
Side Yard Solutions
Remove lawn from narrow spaces and instead create an inviting pass-through experience.
Step 2:
Gathering Spaces
“Hardscape” elements
including:
• Patios
• Informal Seating Areas
• Covered Seating
• Decks
• Storage/ Sheds
• Overflow Parking
Step 2: Gathering Spaces
• Rectangular Lot • Corner Lot • Cul De Sac Lot
Gathering Area Examples
Front yard gathering spaces Rear yard gathering spaces
Landscape Design by R. Michael Kelly Consultants
Installation by Rollins Landscaping
Creates a front porch for those without a front porch
Backyard seating areas extend the living space of the home
STEP 2: Gathering Area- Front Yard
Front Yard
Seating
Area
Step 2: Gathering Areas- Back Yard
Private
Seating
Area
Patio
Step 3:
Activity Zones
• Vegetable Gardens
• Children’s Play Area
• Storage
• Sport Courts
• Horseshoe Pit
• Trampoline
• Hot Tub
• Other active outdoor
recreation
Step 3: Activity Zones
Passive Activity Zones Play Spaces Vegetable Gardens & More
Designed Activities
Activity zones are intentionally created for a specific use- without lawn as surfacing.
Activity Zone Examples
Ornamental,
Un-Mowed
Meadow Grass
around
Trampoline
Faux Lawn
Putting Green
Step 3: Activity Zone- Back Yard
Children’s Play Area
Playground Bark Surfacing
Vegetable Garden
Raised Beds on Bark Mulch
Step 4- Paths
Connect the previous
elements with pathways.
• Use hard surfacing for
public paths.
• Soft surfacing, such as
gravel, can be used on
secondary paths.
Installation by Aposhian Landscaping
Step 4: Paths
Rectangular Lot Corner Lot Cul De Sac Lot
Primary
Path
Secondary Path
Primary Path
Secondary
Path
Primary
Paths
Secondary Path
Secondary
Path
Path Examples
Primary paths are those which serve as a
main artery to the home.
Pathway Surface Materials
Secondary Paths are those which provide
alternative routes or access to non-critical
spaces.
Primary Paths
Secondary Paths
Step 4: Paths- Front Yard
Primary Path
Continuous Hard SurfaceSecondary Path
Gravel, Stepping Stones etc.
Step 4: Paths- Back Yard
Step 5- Planting Beds
• Remaining space becomes planting
beds.
• Planting beds are ALWAYS irrigated
with drip or bubblers- saves water and
dramatically decreases weeds.
• Unlike lawn, efficiency of planting beds
is not dependent on shape.
Planting Beds
1. Trees 2. Shrubs & Grasses 3. Perennials & Groundcover
Add plantings, layer by layer
www.company.com
Standard Lot
Design complete
with the 5 steps.
50
www.company.com
Corner Lot
Functional +
Family Friendly
51
www.company.com
Cul-De-
Sac Lot
52
Very Low Water
+ Veggie &
Herb Gardens
Completed front yard design
Completed backyard design
Converting an Existing Yard
to a Localscape
Reverse the 5 steps to convert an existing yard to a Localscape.
BEFORE
AFTER
Do-it-yourself homeowner conversion to
a Localscape over a several year period.
Localscapes Hydrozoning
1)Lawn
Watered with spray
heads. Uses the
most water in the
landscape.
2) Planter Beds
Watered with drip
irrigation. Watered once
a week on average.
Typical Utah Front Yard
Phase 1: Flip Your Strip
Park strip sprinklers are usually on the same zone.
Overspray on road
= Spray Zone 1
= Spray Pattern
Park Strip Lawn Removal
Lawn in parkstrips and side yards is removed
Follow us on Facebook for free design ideas you can copy! http://Facebook.com/ConservationGardenPark
Retrofit some heads to drip, cap unused heads
= RETROFITTED Sprinker Head
= CAPPED Sprinker Head
= Drip Irrigation Tubing
TIP: No need to dig up all old pipe, cap off unnecessary spray heads.
Use a drip retrofit kit from your sprinkler brand.
BEFORE
AFTER
Remove Inefficient + high maintenance lawn park strip
Replace with water-efficient plants, mulch, and drip irrigation
Side Yard Solutions
Remove lawn from narrow spaces and instead create an inviting pass-through experience.
Side yard lawn before
needed here
Typical Utah Side Yard
Lawn often struggles in
side yards because
conditions are more
extreme. Too hot, too
shady, too much foot
traffic etc.
Phase 2: Switch the Side Yard
= RETROFITTED Sprinker Head
= CAPPED Sprinker Head
= Drip Irrigation Tubing
Existing sprinkler layout for front yard
Phase 2: Side Yard Switch + Anchor Island
= Spray Zone 1
= Spray Zone 2
= Spray Zone 3
Side Yard Plantings/ No Landscape Islands
Odd bits of lawn
removed, drip
irrigation installed.
Landscape island is anchored to side yard
= Capped
Heads
= Spray Zone 1 converted to drip
= Spray Zone 2, add 2 heads from Zone 1
= Spray Zone 3, remove 3 heads
Front yard layout before Phase 2
Phase 2- Change out side yards and anchor landscape island
BEFORE
AFTER
Phase 3- Lawn Becomes a Central Shape
= Spray Zone 2 add new drip lines/ emitters as needed
= Spray Zone 3, cap 4 heads, adjust spray pattern
= Spray Zone 4, cap remaining heads, convert to drip
Phase 2 Front Yard Layout
Completed Phase 3 Front Yard Layout
Front Yard Central Open Shape Example
Creeping Thyme Groundcover
No obstacles in lawn = easy maintenance
Typical Backyard
Side Yard Lawn Removed
Lawn removed
around existing
evergreen.
Localscaped Backyard
Swing set
Relocated
outside of lawn
Lawn reconfigured
Lawn removed under
existing tree
Patio enlarged
Localscaped Backyard
3. Activity
Zone
2. Gathering Space
1. Central Open Shape
4. Path
5. Plantings
Localscaped Backyard Example
Where to Begin?
The average GRASS parkstrip requires 10,000 + gallons of water per season.
Localscape Management
How to KEEP Your Localscape Low-Maintenance
What About Weeds?
Plants (including weeds)
need:
1. Soil
2. Nutrients
3. Air
4. Sunlight
5. Water
If the 5 conditions are provided, weeds grow anywhere!
To Control Weeds,
Control Water
• ONLY use drip irrigation to water
planting beds. Apply water just to
the plants you wish to keep.
• Prevent overspray in beds from lawn
sprinklers.
• Localscapes are designed to make it
easier to apply water just where you
want it– the major reason why lawn
is a central open shape.
Much Ado About Mulching
• 3-4” coat of mulch keeps sunlight from
reaching weed seed.
• Weed barrier fabric is only
recommended under inorganic mulch.
It degrades over time, decreases soil
quality and becomes a weed itself.
• If high winds are an issue, use rock
mulch.
• Fine mulches, thickly applied, prevent
more sunlight from reaching the soil
than larger mulches.
Sugarhouse, Utah
EXAMPLE HOMES
Sugarhouse, Utah
Sandy, Utah
Midvale, Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah
West Valley, Utah
Holladay, Utah
Creeping Thyme Lawn
Herriman, Utah
Taylorsville, Utah

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Utah Landscape Transformation: A 5-Step Localscapes Approach

  • 1.
  • 2. Instructor: Cynthia Bee, Outreach Coordinator, Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District
  • 5. Conservation, new water supplies, and new infrastructure Source: Governor’s Office of Management and Budget - 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 Utah’s population growth
  • 6. Conservation Progress and Approaches 2% 10% 15% 16% 19% 11% 2% 9% 16% 16% 20% 4% 11% 15% 0% 10% 20% 30% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Situational Conservation • Example: Structural Conservation • Example:
  • 7. The Epiphany: Landscapes should be designed to fit irrigation rather than trying to force irrigation to fit landscapes. Utah needs its own landscaping style
  • 8. Homeowner Concerns: • 82% want more Utah specific landscape information • 43% experienced frustration when selecting the “right” plants • ONLY 2% were fully satisfied with their landscapes
  • 9. What does the public want?
  • 10. PROS • Lush and colorful all season • High curb appeal CONS • Difficult to water efficiently • High water use • Many high-maintenance edges and shapes to maintain English-Style Landscape
  • 11. Low-Density Xeriscape PROS: • Conserves Water • Lower Maintenance • Simple Irrigation Cons: • Low curb appeal • Landscape is not useful
  • 12. Landscape Spectrum Traditional Lawn-Dominant Landscape “Zeroscape” Localscapes Range Yard typical to many Utahns Yard type many Utahns are afraid they’ll be told to have Moderate approach advocated by Localscapes
  • 13. The Localscapes House Drawings & Design by Shaun Moser, Conservation Garden Park
  • 14. 2. Gathering Areas 3. Activity Zones 1. Central Open Shape 4. Paths 5. Plantings Localscape House- Plan View
  • 15.
  • 16. • Sea of Green rests the eye between busier plantings. • Conveys calm. • Visually demonstrates the power of positive/ negative space. • Organizes space. When lawn is a defined shape, everything else APPEARS “cleaner”. Reason We Love Lawn (That you may not realize) Landscape installation by Aposhian Landscaping Design by Conservation Garden Park staff
  • 17. The New Lawn Epiphany • Lawn is a single, central shape that is a PLANNED element in the landscape. • Lawns are for active recreation or serve as an accent, they are not a full-surface groundcover.
  • 18. What’s Wrong with This Design? Obstacles in lawn make mowing and edging more time consuming. Trees compete with lawn for water = shallow roots/ stress. Unfriendly front walk = low curb appeal Narrow bits of lawn are impossible to water efficiently + high maintenance while providing no useful benefit. Lawn serves no purpose in this location except to create work with no reward. Trees block yard view from front door = safety concernThe whole yard is boring = no reason to be out here! Overhead sprinklers in planting beds = WAYYY more weeds than drip- irrigated + mulched beds. Heat from foundation and walkway bakes non-Utah happy plants. Lots of edges to maintain next to concrete walk, driveway etc. = more work Lawn adjacent to concrete requires more water to stay green = overwatering rest of yard. Illustration by Cynthia Bee
  • 19. Why is This Design Better? Portion of lawn available for recreational use = ALL of it! NO obstacles in lawn make mowing and edging LESS time consuming. Trees do NOT compete with lawn for water = happy trees. Walkway enters from sidewalk instead of the driveway = increased safety + curb appeal Narrow bits of lawn are eliminated. All lawn is functional. Strong central shape organizes the space. Front yard seating sends a VERY warm and friendly vibe = reduced maintenance + curb appeal Open view of yard from front door = increased safety Stepping stone path creates sense of interest + improves function. Drip irrigation in planting beds + 3-4” of mulch reduces weeds 85% vs. overhead watering- only water the plants you want! Utah-Happy plants can take the heat from foundations and walkways. Very few lawn edges to maintain next to concrete = time + water savings. Planted park strips with drip irrigation keep overspray from damaging roads + curb appeal.Illustration by Cynthia Bee
  • 20. Drip Irrigation Inefficient use of lawn leads to many areas of overspray Efficient use of lawn reduces overspray Irrigation cannot make an inefficiently designed landscape, efficient Requires 17 sprinkler heads, 3 zones. Requires 7 sprinkler heads, 1 sprinkler zone and 1-2 drip irrigation zones. Obstacles in lawn reduce efficiency and create dry spots.
  • 21. • Lots of edges to maintain • Grass is NOT useful • Visually disorganized • ONE edge to maintain • ALL grass is useful • Well organized, “clean” look Island in Lawn VS. Lawn as Island
  • 23. Step 1: Central Open Space – Front Yard
  • 24. Step 1: Central Open Space-- Backyard
  • 25. Common Residential Lot Shapes Cul-De-Sac Rectangular Corner
  • 26. Flexible Shapes Fit Any Landscape • Rectangular Lot • Corner Lot • Cul-De-Sac Lot Central Open Space design technique can be applied to ANY lot shape.
  • 27. Central Open Spaces Can Fit Any Size Lot • Large Lot • Moderate Lot• Small Lot • 20,000 sq. ft. or more 10,000- 20,000 sq. ft.5,000- 10,000 sq. ft. Scale the shape to the size of the lot
  • 28. A Lawnless Yard STILL Orients Around Central Open Space
  • 29. Park Strip Lawn Removal Lawn in parkstrips and side yards is removed Follow us on Facebook for free design ideas you can copy! http://Facebook.com/ConservationGardenPark
  • 30. Side Yard Solutions Remove lawn from narrow spaces and instead create an inviting pass-through experience.
  • 31. Step 2: Gathering Spaces “Hardscape” elements including: • Patios • Informal Seating Areas • Covered Seating • Decks • Storage/ Sheds • Overflow Parking
  • 32. Step 2: Gathering Spaces • Rectangular Lot • Corner Lot • Cul De Sac Lot
  • 33. Gathering Area Examples Front yard gathering spaces Rear yard gathering spaces Landscape Design by R. Michael Kelly Consultants Installation by Rollins Landscaping
  • 34. Creates a front porch for those without a front porch
  • 35. Backyard seating areas extend the living space of the home
  • 36. STEP 2: Gathering Area- Front Yard Front Yard Seating Area
  • 37. Step 2: Gathering Areas- Back Yard Private Seating Area Patio
  • 38. Step 3: Activity Zones • Vegetable Gardens • Children’s Play Area • Storage • Sport Courts • Horseshoe Pit • Trampoline • Hot Tub • Other active outdoor recreation
  • 39. Step 3: Activity Zones Passive Activity Zones Play Spaces Vegetable Gardens & More
  • 40. Designed Activities Activity zones are intentionally created for a specific use- without lawn as surfacing.
  • 41. Activity Zone Examples Ornamental, Un-Mowed Meadow Grass around Trampoline Faux Lawn Putting Green
  • 42. Step 3: Activity Zone- Back Yard Children’s Play Area Playground Bark Surfacing Vegetable Garden Raised Beds on Bark Mulch
  • 43. Step 4- Paths Connect the previous elements with pathways. • Use hard surfacing for public paths. • Soft surfacing, such as gravel, can be used on secondary paths. Installation by Aposhian Landscaping
  • 44. Step 4: Paths Rectangular Lot Corner Lot Cul De Sac Lot Primary Path Secondary Path Primary Path Secondary Path Primary Paths Secondary Path Secondary Path
  • 45. Path Examples Primary paths are those which serve as a main artery to the home. Pathway Surface Materials Secondary Paths are those which provide alternative routes or access to non-critical spaces. Primary Paths Secondary Paths
  • 46. Step 4: Paths- Front Yard Primary Path Continuous Hard SurfaceSecondary Path Gravel, Stepping Stones etc.
  • 47. Step 4: Paths- Back Yard
  • 48. Step 5- Planting Beds • Remaining space becomes planting beds. • Planting beds are ALWAYS irrigated with drip or bubblers- saves water and dramatically decreases weeds. • Unlike lawn, efficiency of planting beds is not dependent on shape.
  • 49. Planting Beds 1. Trees 2. Shrubs & Grasses 3. Perennials & Groundcover Add plantings, layer by layer
  • 52. www.company.com Cul-De- Sac Lot 52 Very Low Water + Veggie & Herb Gardens
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57. Converting an Existing Yard to a Localscape
  • 58. Reverse the 5 steps to convert an existing yard to a Localscape. BEFORE AFTER Do-it-yourself homeowner conversion to a Localscape over a several year period.
  • 59. Localscapes Hydrozoning 1)Lawn Watered with spray heads. Uses the most water in the landscape. 2) Planter Beds Watered with drip irrigation. Watered once a week on average.
  • 61. Phase 1: Flip Your Strip Park strip sprinklers are usually on the same zone. Overspray on road = Spray Zone 1 = Spray Pattern
  • 62. Park Strip Lawn Removal Lawn in parkstrips and side yards is removed Follow us on Facebook for free design ideas you can copy! http://Facebook.com/ConservationGardenPark
  • 63. Retrofit some heads to drip, cap unused heads = RETROFITTED Sprinker Head = CAPPED Sprinker Head = Drip Irrigation Tubing TIP: No need to dig up all old pipe, cap off unnecessary spray heads.
  • 64. Use a drip retrofit kit from your sprinkler brand.
  • 65. BEFORE AFTER Remove Inefficient + high maintenance lawn park strip Replace with water-efficient plants, mulch, and drip irrigation
  • 66. Side Yard Solutions Remove lawn from narrow spaces and instead create an inviting pass-through experience.
  • 67. Side yard lawn before needed here Typical Utah Side Yard Lawn often struggles in side yards because conditions are more extreme. Too hot, too shady, too much foot traffic etc.
  • 68. Phase 2: Switch the Side Yard = RETROFITTED Sprinker Head = CAPPED Sprinker Head = Drip Irrigation Tubing
  • 69. Existing sprinkler layout for front yard Phase 2: Side Yard Switch + Anchor Island = Spray Zone 1 = Spray Zone 2 = Spray Zone 3
  • 70. Side Yard Plantings/ No Landscape Islands Odd bits of lawn removed, drip irrigation installed. Landscape island is anchored to side yard = Capped Heads = Spray Zone 1 converted to drip = Spray Zone 2, add 2 heads from Zone 1 = Spray Zone 3, remove 3 heads
  • 71. Front yard layout before Phase 2 Phase 2- Change out side yards and anchor landscape island BEFORE AFTER
  • 72. Phase 3- Lawn Becomes a Central Shape = Spray Zone 2 add new drip lines/ emitters as needed = Spray Zone 3, cap 4 heads, adjust spray pattern = Spray Zone 4, cap remaining heads, convert to drip
  • 73. Phase 2 Front Yard Layout Completed Phase 3 Front Yard Layout
  • 74. Front Yard Central Open Shape Example Creeping Thyme Groundcover No obstacles in lawn = easy maintenance
  • 76. Side Yard Lawn Removed Lawn removed around existing evergreen.
  • 77. Localscaped Backyard Swing set Relocated outside of lawn Lawn reconfigured Lawn removed under existing tree Patio enlarged
  • 78. Localscaped Backyard 3. Activity Zone 2. Gathering Space 1. Central Open Shape 4. Path 5. Plantings
  • 80. Where to Begin? The average GRASS parkstrip requires 10,000 + gallons of water per season.
  • 81. Localscape Management How to KEEP Your Localscape Low-Maintenance
  • 82. What About Weeds? Plants (including weeds) need: 1. Soil 2. Nutrients 3. Air 4. Sunlight 5. Water If the 5 conditions are provided, weeds grow anywhere!
  • 83. To Control Weeds, Control Water • ONLY use drip irrigation to water planting beds. Apply water just to the plants you wish to keep. • Prevent overspray in beds from lawn sprinklers. • Localscapes are designed to make it easier to apply water just where you want it– the major reason why lawn is a central open shape.
  • 84. Much Ado About Mulching • 3-4” coat of mulch keeps sunlight from reaching weed seed. • Weed barrier fabric is only recommended under inorganic mulch. It degrades over time, decreases soil quality and becomes a weed itself. • If high winds are an issue, use rock mulch. • Fine mulches, thickly applied, prevent more sunlight from reaching the soil than larger mulches.
  • 85.
  • 86.
  • 87.