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  1. 1. “We teach through a re-arrangement of the raw reality: a specimen, a manageable sample of a whole… when the direct experience cannot be used properly in its natural setting.” -Edgar Dale
  2. 2. EXAMPLE OF CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES  Mock up  Models  Specimen  Artifacts  Simulation  Games
  3. 3.  Is an ‘’edited” copies of reality and are used as substitutes for real thing.
  4. 4.  Is a reproduction of a real thing in a small scale, or a large scale, or exact size-but made of synthetic materials.
  5. 5.  Is an arrangement of a real device or associated devices, displayed in such a way that representation of reality is created.
  6. 6.  Is any individual or item considered typical of a group class or whole. It is simply part of a whole thing.
  7. 7.  Displayed in a museum or objects displayed in exhibits or preserved insects specimen in science.
  8. 8.  Is a representation of manageable real event in which the learner is an active participant engaged in learning a behavior or in applying previously acquired skills or knowledge.
  9. 9.  Forms of physical exercise taught to children at school
  10. 10.  GAMES- are played to win  SIMULATION- need not have a winner
  11. 11. 1. Overcome limitations of space and time, 2. To “edit” reality for us to be able to focus on parts or a process of a system that intend to study, 3. To overcome difficulties of size, 4. To understand the inaccessible, and 5. Help the learners understand abstractions.