How to Succeed at Change


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Tips on managing change in your organization.

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How to Succeed at Change

  2. 2. WHY CHANGE? Adapt to environmental changes  Internal(staff, customers, and other stakeholders)  External (new initiatives, advances in medicine, and competition) Explore new solutions/alternatives Reduce overhead/costs Increase profits
  3. 3. REASONS FOR RESISTANCE TO CHANGEMajor Reasons Include (Gavin & Quick, 2000): Threat to one’s self-interest Lack of conviction that change is necessary Fear of being manipulated Threat to personal values Lack of confidence that change will succeed Distrust of Leadership, and; Uncertainty
  4. 4. OVERCOMING PEOPLE-ORIENTED CHANGETo eliminate/reduce resistance to peopleoriented change, leaders should (Mourier &Smith, 2001): Show relentless support/unquestionable commitment to change process. Communicate the need/urgency for change to everyone. Maintain ongoing communication about the progress of change.
  5. 5. OVERCOMING PEOPLE-ORIENTED CHANGETo eliminate/reduce resistance to peopleoriented change, leaders should (con’t): Avoid micromanaging and empower peopleto implement the change. Ensure change efforts are adequately staffand funded. Anticipate and prepare people for thenecessary adjustments that change willtrigger, such as career counseling and/orretraining.
  6. 6. OVERCOMING TASK-ORIENTED CHANGETo reduce or eliminate resistance to task- orientedchange, leaders should (Kanter, 2000): Assemble a coalition of supporters inside and outside the organization. Align organizational structure with a new strategy for consistency. Transfer the implementation process to a working team.
  7. 7. OVERCOMING TASK-ORIENTED CHANGETo reduce or eliminate resistance to task- orientedchange, leaders should (con’t): Recruit and fill key positions with competent and committed supporters. Know when and how to use ad hoc committees or task forces to shape implementation activities. Recognize and reward the contributions of others to the change process.
  8. 8. WHAT TYPE OF LEADERSHIP IS NEEDED?TransformationalLeadership (Campbell,2000): Focuses on a leader’s transforming abilities. Communicates to followers a special vision of the future. Promotes collective “buy-in” to organizational vision.
  9. 9. ATTRIBUTES OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERAttributes (Fetter et al.,1990): See themselves as change agents Are visionaries who have a high level of trust for their intuition Are risk-takers, but not reckless Capable of articulating a set of core values that tend to guide their own behavior
  10. 10. ATTRIBUTES OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERAttributes (con’t): Possess exceptional cognitive skills and believe in careful deliberation before taking action Believe in people and show sensitivity to their needs Are flexible and open to learning from experience
  11. 11. USE THE FOLLOWING SCALE;COMPLETE THE QUESTIONS BASED ON DISAGREE AGREEHOW YOU WILL ACT IN THE SITUATION 1 2 3 4 5 I enjoy change.  I enjoy spending time I am better at inspiring employees developing new solutions to old toward a new future than motivating problems rather than them to perform their current jobs implementing existing I have/had a vision of how an solutions. organization can change for the  I deliberate carefully before better. acting; I’m not impulsive.  I like to support change I see myself as someone who is initiatives, even when the idea comfortable encouraging people to may not work. express ideas and opinions that  I learn from my experience; I don’t differ repeat the same mistakes. from my own.  I believe the effort to change I enjoy taking risks, but am not something should be rewarded , even reckless. if the final outcome is disappointing. WHAT TYPE OF LEADER ARE YOU?
  12. 12. WHAT TYPE OF LEADER ARE YOU?Add up the numbers on lines 1-10 and place your total score on the continuum below.Transactional 10-20-30-40-50 TransformationalThe higher the score the more you exhibit transformational leader qualities.Note: “Transactional Leadership seeks to maintainstability rather than promoting change within anthrough regular economic and social exchanges thatachieve specific goals for both the leaders and their
  13. 13. ETHICS AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIPWays to include ethics at the organizational level (Hofmann and Nelson, 2001): Refuse temptation to incorporate or excuse inefficient business practices through rationalization. Ensure that your organization’s mission, vision, and values statements are fully understood by all staff, and that decisions and actions made are consistent with these statements. Involve physician, board, and management in significant change efforts that my impact the organization’s role in community. Assess all possible effects (positive and negative) on the community before starting competitive strategies. Assess and evaluate all potential ramification s (economic, non- economic, internal and external) of eliminating programs or services beforehand.
  14. 14. THE FORCE-FIELD MODELPhase I (Lewin, 1951):Establish the reason for changeEstablish problems with current situationPresent a vision of a better future
  15. 15. THE FORCE-FIELD MODELPhase II:Implementation or action of the vision.Communicate vision with a tone of urgencyEmpower followers to act (resources, information, discretion to make decisions)Removing obstacles to change by adapting infrastructure where needed
  16. 16. THE FORCE-FIELD MODELPhase III:Cementing the new visionPermanently replace old habits, values, tradition s, and attitudes by institutionalizing the new initiative
  17. 17. REFERENCESBass, B.M. (1995). Theory of transformational leadership redux. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (4), 463-478.Campbell, D.J. (2000). The proactive employee: Managing workplace initiative. Academy of Management Executive, 14 (3), 52-66.Gavin, J.H. & Quick, J.C. (2000). The next frontier: Edgar Schein on organizational therapy. Academy of Management Executive, 14 (1).Hofmann, P.B. & Nelson, W.A. (2001). Managing ethically: An executive’s guide. Chicago: Health Administration Press.Kanter, R.M. (2000). The enduring skills of change leaders. Ivey Business Journal, 64 (5). May/June. 31-36.Lewin, K. (1951). Field Theory in Social Science . New York: Harper & Row.Mourier, P. & Smith, M. (2001). Conquering Organizational Change: How to Succeed Where Most Companies Fail. Atlanta, GA; New York: CEP Press.