www.nvcc.edu/workfo
EDUC 1727:
Teaching Entry-Level Students

American Culture & Language Institute, TESOL Certificate Program
Northern Virgin...
Overview
• Order of acquisition & the U-shaped
curve
• Different types of literacy
• Teaching Phonics
• Teaching “Survival...
Stages of Second
Language Acquisition
• Preproduction: the Silent Period
– Student understands 500 words
– Takes 3 to 6 mo...
Stages of Second
Language Acquisition (cont.)
• Speech emergence: simple communication
– Student understands & uses 3,000 ...
Stages of Second
Language Acquisition (cont.)
• Advanced fluency: students can function
close to the level of native speak...
Stages of Second
Language Acquisition (cont.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Plural –s
Progressive –ing
Copula forms of be
Auxiliary for...
U-Shaped Curve of Language
Acquisition
Correct

-ing used for
present &
progressive

-ing used for
progressive

-ing & pre...
Levels of Literacy
• Def.: Literacy: the ability to read and write
–
–
–
–

Preliterate
Nonliterate
Semiliterate
Literate ...
Levels of Literacy (cont.)
• Preliterate:
– Oral language
– No written form, or is rarely written (Hmong)

• Nonliterate:
...
Levels of Literacy (cont.)
• Semiliterate:
– Oral and written language
– Some formal education at the elementary level
– R...
Teaching Pre- &
Nonliterate Students
• Oral retellings of stories are transcribed
into text
• TPR or charades to act out p...
Teaching Pre- &
Nonliterate Students

• Life Timeline
– Ask students to put the pictures in order or hold up
fingers to in...
Teaching Pre- &
Nonliterate Students
• Have students point to pictures starting with
the sound P.
• Focus on word beginnin...
Teaching Phonics
• In the past, students were taught individual
letter/sound correspondence.
– Assumes oral knowledge of E...
Teaching Semiliterate Students
• Prediction by previewing text elements:
– Headings
– Titles
– Pictures & Graphics

• “All...
Teaching Semiliterate Students
• Semantic mapping
– Organize prior
knowledge shared
orally into formal
categories visually...
Teaching Literate Students
• New information still introduced orally first.
– Matching useful phrases, such as “Good Morni...
Assessing Entry-Level Students
• Focus on fluency of students’ production.
• Expect “backsliding” during experimentation
w...
Assessing Entry-Level Students
(cont.)

• Mistakes are:
– Unsystematic
– Students often self-correct
– Low need for teache...
Put it into Practice
• Work in pairs to create a 10 min entry-level
lesson.
– Level of literacy
– What is the input?
– Wha...
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Educ 1727 teaching entry level

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Background on second language acquisition plus best practices in teaching true beginner ESL students

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  • The copula links another noun or adjective.
  • Realia:Fruit, vegetables, canned goods, etc. Street signsPhotographs, music
  • Realia:Fruit, vegetables, canned goods, etc. Street signsPhotographs, music
  • Educ 1727 teaching entry level

    1. 1. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    2. 2. EDUC 1727: Teaching Entry-Level Students American Culture & Language Institute, TESOL Certificate Program Northern Virginia Community College www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    3. 3. Overview • Order of acquisition & the U-shaped curve • Different types of literacy • Teaching Phonics • Teaching “Survival Skills” www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    4. 4. Stages of Second Language Acquisition • Preproduction: the Silent Period – Student understands 500 words – Takes 3 to 6 months to move to the next stage • Early production: imitation of words or short phrases – Student understands & uses 1,000 words – Takes 6 months to 1 year move to the next stage www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    5. 5. Stages of Second Language Acquisition (cont.) • Speech emergence: simple communication – Student understands & uses 3,000 words – Takes 1 to 3 years to move to the next stage • Intermediate fluency: share thoughts and opinions – Student understands & uses 6,000 words – Takes 3 to 5 years to move to the next stage – BICS www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    6. 6. Stages of Second Language Acquisition (cont.) • Advanced fluency: students can function close to the level of native speakers – Takes 5 to 7 years to achieve – CALP www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    7. 7. Stages of Second Language Acquisition (cont.) • • • • • • • • Plural –s Progressive –ing Copula forms of be Auxiliary forms of be Definite & indefinite articles the & a Irregular past tense Third person –s Possessives Girls go. Girls going. Girls are here. Girls are going. The girls go. The girls went. The girl goes. The girl’s book. Cook, 2008 www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    8. 8. U-Shaped Curve of Language Acquisition Correct -ing used for present & progressive -ing used for progressive -ing & present tense used for progressive Lightbown, Spader, & Wallace, 1980 Incorrect Time www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    9. 9. Levels of Literacy • Def.: Literacy: the ability to read and write – – – – Preliterate Nonliterate Semiliterate Literate in a Non-Roman Alphabet • Some students new to English have literacy deficits in their L1 www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    10. 10. Levels of Literacy (cont.) • Preliterate: – Oral language – No written form, or is rarely written (Hmong) • Nonliterate: – Oral and written language – Speak only – Refugees (Somali, Sudanese) www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    11. 11. Levels of Literacy (cont.) • Semiliterate: – Oral and written language – Some formal education at the elementary level – Refugees • Literate: – Oral and written language – Non-Roman alphabet (Korean, Arabic, Chinese, etc.) www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    12. 12. Teaching Pre- & Nonliterate Students • Oral retellings of stories are transcribed into text • TPR or charades to act out phrasal verbs • Realia to connect meaning with functional vocabulary & encourage prediction • Holding a pencil/pen and printing storyrelated words www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    13. 13. Teaching Pre- & Nonliterate Students • Life Timeline – Ask students to put the pictures in order or hold up fingers to indicate first, second, etc. – Look for visual cues from students to indicate understanding, i.e. nods or smiles www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    14. 14. Teaching Pre- & Nonliterate Students • Have students point to pictures starting with the sound P. • Focus on word beginning or ending sounds, not individual letters. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    15. 15. Teaching Phonics • In the past, students were taught individual letter/sound correspondence. – Assumes oral knowledge of English. – 26 letters but 40 sounds in English – The letter C makes 4 sounds • /k/ like cat • /sh/ like Cheryl /ch/ like child /s/ like cycle • Phonics focus should be on whole words, not letters. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    16. 16. Teaching Semiliterate Students • Prediction by previewing text elements: – Headings – Titles – Pictures & Graphics • “All About Me” book – Each page has a picture and a simple sentence – Students learn to read through retelling the story. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    17. 17. Teaching Semiliterate Students • Semantic mapping – Organize prior knowledge shared orally into formal categories visually – Prewriting tool. Movies Food Life in the U.S. English Music www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    18. 18. Teaching Literate Students • New information still introduced orally first. – Matching useful phrases, such as “Good Morning” with a sunrise picture or “Good Night” with a moon picture – Name 10 things in the classroom – transcribed by the teacher. – Match months and seasons pictures with text. – Copying simple stories in their books. – Find the odd word out activity. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    19. 19. Assessing Entry-Level Students • Focus on fluency of students’ production. • Expect “backsliding” during experimentation with language (U-shaped curve) • Correct if… – The error truly interferes with your comprehension – There is a pattern of errors – The student has established the content and context. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    20. 20. Assessing Entry-Level Students (cont.) • Mistakes are: – Unsystematic – Students often self-correct – Low need for teacher correction • Errors are: – Systematic – Rule-governed, i.e. based on L1 – Students aren’t aware -> Teacher correction needed www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    21. 21. Put it into Practice • Work in pairs to create a 10 min entry-level lesson. – Level of literacy – What is the input? – What is the output? • Consider how you will assess students. • Teach us! www.nvcc.edu/workfo

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