Educ 1724 teaching pronuciation


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Teaching pronunciation to ESL adults

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  • Seinfeld video: low talker:
  • Cooking the rice activity handout.
  • Beach Boys – Wouldn’t it be nice handout.
  • State names & noun/verb stress shift
  • Kazoo handout.
  • Educ 1724 teaching pronuciation

    1. 1.
    2. 2. EDUC 1724: Teaching Pronunciation American Culture & Language Institute, TESOL Certificate Program Northern Virginia Community College
    3. 3. Overview • What is Pronunciation? • Pronunciation Myths • Stress, Pausing, Thought Groups, Intonation • Sounds (Phonemes) of American English • Noticing and Self Correction
    4. 4. Reflection • Think about a time you either… – Couldn‟t understand what someone was saying – Couldn‟t make yourself understood. • What did you do?
    5. 5. What is Pronənsiešən? • The way in which a language, a word, or a sound is spoken aloud • Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), focuses on the rhythm of speech as a whole, not on individual sounds. • The result? Fluency and more comprehensible speech!
    6. 6. Pronunciation Myths • Only native speakers can teach it. • Teachers must speak „clearly,‟ not naturally as in normal conversation. • Pronunciation is about correctly producing consonant and vowel sounds. • Accent reduction teaches you to sound like an American.
    7. 7. In the past.. Teacher Students Teacher Teacher • Demonstrates proper pronunciation of individual sounds or words. • Try to imitate teacher‟s speech. • Points out errors. Asks S to “listen harder.” • Repeats steps 1-3, slower and louder each time.
    8. 8. Today.. Consonants & Vowels Stress, Thought Groups, Intonation, Linking • • • • • • Active Listening Noticing Monitoring Self-Correction Cultural Expectations Body Language Loudness & Pausing
    9. 9. How the Brain Works Left Hemisphere Math, Logic, Analysis Grammar Rules Sequence Right Hemisphere Music Emotions & Facial Expressions Intonation To help students move from text bound speech, use right-hemisphere activities.
    10. 10. Loudness • Different cultures have different expectations on what‟s appropriate. • Appropriate Loudness for English speaking culture: – Speaking too softly interferes with communication. – Speaking too loudly distorts speech. ELLs need time to comprehend. They aren‟t deaf.
    11. 11. Teaching Appropriate Loudness • Discuss how body language interferes with speech. • Discuss how loudness is perceived in US vs. other cultures. • Indicate when we can‟t hear = Noticing • Discuss the pitfalls of inappropriate loudness.
    12. 12. Pausing • The length of wait time between connected ideas/Thought Groups – Wait one clap between ideas. – Wait two claps at end punctuation. • ELLs often don‟t pause long enough or pause in the wrong places! • Result: Americans lose track of what ELLs are saying.
    13. 13. Teaching Pausing • Create an activity with ordinal numbers or a series of steps: – Instructions – Recipes • Help ELLs identify when and how long to pause. • Practice choral repetition of instructions with pausing.
    14. 14. Thought Groups • A group of words that express an idea • In writing, commas and periods mark thought groups. • In speaking, we pause slightly at commas and longer at periods. – I‟ll call you / when I finish my homework. – 202/546/7309
    15. 15. Teaching Thought Groups • Choose known, lower-level reading material, poetry, or songs. • Encourage hypothesis testing, i.e. ELLs predict thought group position, based on punctuation. • Have ELLs listen to check predictions. • Practice choral reading, pausing at thought groups.
    16. 16. Stress • A syllable in a word that sounds longer, louder, or changes in pitch. • Vowels receive stress. Consonants don‟t. • Often indicated with CAPITAL letters. • In English, stress carries meaning. – It‟s COLD. You NEED a COAT!
    17. 17. Stress (cont.) • In natural speech… • Content Words are stressed: – nouns, main verbs, adjectives, adverbs, negatives • Function Words are unstressed or reduced: – aux verbs, prepositions, articles, pronouns
    18. 18. Stress (cont.) • ELLs from syllable-timed languages put the stress on each word or syllable. – This makes ELLs sound angry, impatient, or robotic. – It makes Americans lose track of the meaning.
    19. 19. Teaching Stress • Count syllables in multisyllabic words. • Compare stress shift between nouns & verbs. • Practice identifying and using stress with content words in sentences. • Rubber bands and clapping.
    20. 20. Intonation • • • • • The change in pitch – rising or falling Yes/No Questions use rising intonation – Did you lock the door? Wh- Questions use falling intonation – What time does the bus arrive? Statements use falling intonation – I like chocolate. Choice questions use rising/falling intonation – Do you like Fall or Spring?
    21. 21. Teaching Intonation • Teach intonation as in the context of an information exchange. – Asking for directions – Ordering food at a restaurant • Use kazoos to focus on the sound.
    22. 22. English Phonemes • A unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another. – Rope – Leaf Robe Leave • In English speech, there are: – 24 consonant phonemes – 16 vowel phonemes
    23. 23. Producing English Consonants t, d, s, z, n, l p, b, m, w ch, sh, r, y f, v k, g, x, w, ng th h
    24. 24. Producing English Vowels u, ʊ i, I e, ɛ ə o, ɔ a/ɒ æ
    25. 25. Producing English Diphthongs Iy ow ɛy oy ay
    26. 26. Teaching Phonemes • Generally used as a repair strategy • Minimal Pairs: – die vs. tie or wed vs. wet – bit vs. beat or hoot vs. hot • Use mirrors and lollypops to aid in place of articulation identification. • Use rubber bands as kinesthetic input.
    27. 27. Put it into Practice • Choose one aspect of pronunciation: pausing, stress, intonation. • Choose a participatory style: pairs, choral, small group, etc. • Create and teach a 10 minute mini lesson teaching an aspect of pronunciation.
    28. 28. Useful Links • IPA Pronunciation Symbols – – – .htm phabet_for_English • Color Vowel Chart –
    29. 29. Useful Textbooks • • • • Well Said, Linda Grant Targeting Pronunciation, Sue Miller Clear Speech from the Start, Judy Gilbert Learner English, Swan & Smith