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Founding psychologists


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Founding psychologists

  1. 1. Founding Psychologists Chapter 1 Section 2
  2. 2. William Wundt
  3. 3. William Wundt <ul><li>Structuralist- interested in the basic elements of human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory of Psychology- 1879 in Leipzig Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to pursue the study of government in a systematic and scientific manner </li></ul><ul><li>Established modern psychology as a separate formal field of study </li></ul>
  4. 4. William James
  5. 5. William James <ul><li>“ Father of Psychology” </li></ul><ul><li>Taught the first class in psychology at Harvard in 1875 </li></ul><ul><li>Took him 12 years to write the first textbook in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Theorized that thinking, feeling, learning, and remembering have the major function of helping us survive as a species </li></ul>
  6. 6. William James <ul><li>Focused on functions or actions of the conscious mind and the goals or purpose of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalists- study how animals and people adapt to their environments </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sir Francis Galton
  8. 8. Sir Francis Galton <ul><li>Wanted to understand how heredity influences a person’s abilities, character, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Tracked eminent people and concluded genius or eminence is a hereditary trait </li></ul><ul><li>Did not consider the possibility that the tendency of genius to run in distinguished families might be about the environmental and socioeconomic advantages </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sir Francis Galton <ul><li>Believed in “good” marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Raised the issue of heredity v. environment which is a continued subject of debate and study in Psychology today. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Wolfgang Köhler
  11. 11. Wolfgang Köhler <ul><li>(1887-1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that perception is more than the sum of its parts- it involves the “whole pattern” (Gestalt in German) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Became the forerunner for cognitive approaches to the study of Psychology </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sigmund Freud
  13. 13. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Studied the unconscious mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There lied primitive biological urges that are in conflict with the requirements of society and morality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought this was responsible for many medically unexplained physical symptoms that troubled his patients </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Used free association for indirectly studying the unconscious processes </li></ul><ul><li>Had the role of psychoanalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Still remains contreversial </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ivan Pavlov
  16. 16. Ivan Pavlov <ul><li>(1849-1936) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov’s Dog’s experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed and interest in observable behavior versus studying the thought process </li></ul>
  17. 17. John B. Watson
  18. 18. John B. Watson <ul><li>Worked with Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Believed psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior and maintained that all behavior, even apparently instinctive behavior, is the result of conditioning and occurs because the appropriate stimulus is presented in the environment </li></ul>
  19. 19. B. F. Skinner
  20. 20. B. F. Skinner <ul><li>(1904-1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the concept of reinforcement to behavioralism </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote a novel on a Utopian society where behavioralism and reinforcements controlled society </li></ul>
  21. 21. Abraham Maslow
  22. 22. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Humanistic Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Describes nature as evolving and self-directed </li></ul><ul><li>Does not see humans as being controlled by events in the environment or by unconscious forces </li></ul><ul><li>The environment and other outside forces simply serve as a background to our own internal growth </li></ul>
  23. 23. Carl Rogers
  24. 24. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Another humanist </li></ul><ul><li>See Abraham Maslow </li></ul>
  25. 25. Jean Piaget
  26. 26. Jean Piaget <ul><li>Cognitive Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how we process, store, retrieve, and use information </li></ul><ul><li>How that information influences our thinking, language, problem solving, and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Believes behavior is influenced by a variety of mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions, memories, and expectations </li></ul></ul>