own efforts but also through those of their subordinates. Components of Delegation Delegation to others in the workplace involves four principal components: CENTRAL PHILIPPINE DELEGATOR UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE DELEGATEE STUDIES TASK MAN 625b: CLIENT / SITUATION. NURSING SERVICE ADMINISTRATION (Lab) Outcomes of Effective Delegation: THE ART OF DELEGATION o Protects patient safety IN NURSING PROFESSIONAL o Achieves desirable patient PRACTICE outcomes o Achieves benefits for the licensed nurse and other personnelDefinition of Delegation o Reduces health care costs by American Nurses Association using a mix of personnel (ANA) – the transfer of appropriately responsibility for the o Provides Accountability for performance of a task from nursing care one person to another. o Decreases nurse liability National Council of State Principles of Delegation Board of Nursing (NCSBN) – transferring to a competent The nurse takes responsibility individual the authority to and accountability for the perform a selected situation. provision of nursing practice The nurse retains The nurse directs care and accountability for the determines the appropriate delegation. utilization of any assistant It is an essential element of involved in providing direct the directing phase of the patient care management process because The nurse may delegate much of the work components of care but does accomplished by managers not delegate the nursing occurs not only through their process itself. The functions of assessment, planning,
evaluation and nursing systems to assess, monitor, judgment cannot be verify and communicate delegated. ongoing competence The decision of whether or not requirements in areas related to delegate or assign is based to delegation. upon the nurses’ judgment There is both individual concerning the condition of accountability and the patient, the competence of organizational accountability all members of the nursing for delegation. team and the degree of supervision that will be NCSBN in US presents 5 rights to required of the nurse if a task delegation from the perspectives of is delegated. both nursing service administrator The nurse delegates only and staff nurse. those tasks for which she or he believes the other health 1. Right task care worker has the 2. Right circumstance knowledge and skill to 3. Right Person perform, taking into 4. Right Direction or Right consideration training, cultural competence, Communication experience and facility or 5. Right Supervision, Right agency policies and Evaluation or Right Feedback procedures. The nurse individualizes communication regarding the Aspects of Delegation delegation to the nursing assistive personnel and client o RESPONSIBILITY situation and the Denotes obligation communication should be It refers to what must be done clear, concise, correct and to complete a task and the complete. The nurse verifies obligation is created by the the comprehension with the assignment. nursing assistive personnel The leader or manager and and the assistant accepts the the staff must understand the delegation and the activities for which the staff responsibility that member is responsible, what accompanies it. results are expected and how Communication must be a performance is to be evaluated two-way process. and managers need clear idea The nurse uses critical of what is to be done before thinking and professional they can communicate to judgment when following the others. 5 rights of delegation, Chief nursing officers are accountable for establishing
o AUTHORITY determining the implications It is the power to make final for the patient and others. decisions and give commands. People to whom the 3. Implementation, Surveillance responsibility is assigned need and Supervision – where most the authority to direct the delegation action takes place performance of delegated The delegator supervises duties. performance of the task by providing directions and clearo ACCOUNTABILITY expectations about how the Refers to liability tasks are to be performed; Staff incurs an obligation to monitoring the performance to complete work satisfactorily ensure compliance to and accept to use authority established standards of appropriately when they practice; intervening as accept the responsibility. They necessary and ensuring are accountable to the leader documentation of the tasks or manager. 4. Evaluation and feedback – theDelegation in Decision Making delegator evaluates theProcess delegation process, the patient and the performance of the 1. Assess – includes assessing task the needs of the patient, the circumstances and availability Tools in Making Delegation of resources and also knowing Decisions the following components of the practice setting: 1. Delegation Decision-making a. Environment Grid b. Organization This tool provides a scoring c. Practice mechanism for seven d. Self-attitudes and Beliefs elements that should be e. The delegate considered when making delegation decision. 2. Plan – this involves gathering 2. Delegation Decision-making Tree information about what the Another tool developed to needs to be done and assist nurses in making prioritizing the outcomes that delegation decisions are most important. Was adopted from the The delegator should specify delegation decision tree the knowledge and skills developed by the Ohio Board required to do each task by of Nursing requiring documented or The tool starts with a specific demonstrated current client, care giver and nursing competency to do each activity. Questions answerable delegated task and by by “yes” or “no” are asked at
the top of the tree. Tasks with Carrol, P (2007). Nursing Leadership “yes” answers are considered and Management: A Practical Guide. delegable. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning.Common Delegation Errors Marquis, B., and Huston, C,. (2009).1. Underdelegation Leadership Roles and Management Stems from the managers false Functions in Nursing Theory and assumption that delegation may Application (6thed). Lippincott be interpreted as a lack of ability Williams & Wilkins. on his or her part to do the job correctly or completely. National Council of State Boards of2. Overdelegation Nursing and American Nurses Their employees may become Association. (2006). Joint Statement overworked and tired which can on Delegation American Nurses decrease productivity. Association (ANA) and National3. Improper delegation Council of State Boards of Nursing. Includes such as things Retrieved July 1, 2012 from delegating at the wrong time, to http://www.nscbn.org/pdfs/Joint_s the wrong person or for the tatement.pdf wrong reason. Tomey, A.M. (2009. Guide to Nursing Management and Leadership (8thed.). Singapore: Common Barriers to Delegation Elseviers Pte. Ltd. Non Supportive Environment - Organization culture that restricts delegation - Lack of resources - Lack of training Insecure delegator or delegate - Lack of trust - Fear of liability Unwilling delegate - Person not willing to take on delegated task due to inexperience, fear or failureReferences:American Nurses Association.(2005).Principles for delegation. RetrievedJuly 1, 2012 fromhttp://www.safestaffingsaveslives.org/PrinciplesofDelegationhtml.aspx?