4. [crying] “I’m sorry, I’m so upset.”
Me: “Take your time...can you say
“I was about to see my great-great
grandmother, and then it was just
like this wall in my face. Like I
smashed into a wall. I’m sorry.”
5. I was about to see my
great-great grandmother, and
then I was blocked. It was
a ﬁgure of speech which makes an implicit, implied, or
hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated
but share some common characteristics
a ﬁgure of speech which has lost the original imagery of its
meaning due to extensive, repetitive, and popular usage
9. “The essence of metaphor is
understanding and experiencing
one kind of thing in terms of
- George Lakoff, Metaphors We Live By
18. The tools we reach for most
19. Finding the metaphors and
systems of metaphors shows us
the colorful, human side of the
data and allows us to focus our
number and picture work.
20. System 1 and System 2
The fast, subconscious side of our
brains makes new associations with
The slow, deliberative side checks
associations and thinks logically
Participants make metaphors, and we
interpret them, with System 1.
21. “Let seed be grass and grass turn into hay -
I’m martyr to a motion not my own.
What’s freedom for? To know eternity.
I swear she cast a shadow white as stone.”
- Theodore Roethke, I knew a woman
22. “I swear she cast a shadow white as stone.”
The presence of the lovely woman is a variable that correlates with
signiﬁcant changes in the poet’s perceptions along all four dimensions.
23. Paying attention to a user’s
(metaphors) gives us richer
information to consciously
interpret and use in our designs.
37. Grounded Theory
Social scientists use a multi-step
process to code research transcripts.
First, meticulously identify the
Then, keep notes on your theories
about the importance of your
Connect those notes into solid
38. Look for metaphors and
metaphor-ish analogies that
spark your interest.
Don’t forget the dead ones.