Fraud Investigation & Control Summit 2012                     Electronic Evidence                            in IndiaAdv. ...
Electronic Evidence• Mohinder Sharma, a resident of Budhpur in  northwest Delhi was Sent to 20 years of  Imprisonment and ...
Admissibility of Electronic Records•  Section 65-B (Admissibility of Electronic Records) –any information contained in an ...
Admissibility of Electronic Records• Section 65-B (Admissibility of Electronic Records)–Making statements:    In any proce...
Forensics Labs• Cyber Forensics Labs where electronic  records can be taken for obtaining  certificate:• –3 Labs at Hydera...
Computer Printouts Admissible• State (NCT of Delhi) v. NavjotSandhu, SAR Gilani& Ors.      (AIR 2005 SUPREME COURT 3820)• ...
Case Law on Email as evidenceM/s. P. R. Transport Agency v. Union of India (AIR 2006 ALLAHABAD 23) Thus, the acceptance of...
Case Law – Electronic RecordDharambir vs CBI (pronounced on 11thMarch 2008)• Certain data (i.e. call records) were copied ...
Evidence –Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891• What is permissible as evidence?A “certified copy”of any  entry in a bankers ...
Evidence –Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891•   Nature of certificate for a copy obtained through mechanical    process:   ...
Evidence –Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891State Bank of India vs. Rizvi Exports Ltd (DRT, Allahabad)• State Bank of India...
THANKYOUAdv. Prashant Mali [BSc.(Phy.), MSc.(Computer Sci.),LLB]President - Cyber Law ConsultingAuthor, Speaker & ExpertMo...
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Electronic Evidence fraud conference

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Electronic Evidence fraud conference

  1. 1. Fraud Investigation & Control Summit 2012 Electronic Evidence in IndiaAdv. Prashant Mali [BSc.(Phy.), MS(Comp. Sci.), CNA, LLB]Speaker, Author & ExpertPresident – Cyber Law ConsultingCyber Law & Cyber Security Expert
  2. 2. Electronic Evidence• Mohinder Sharma, a resident of Budhpur in northwest Delhi was Sent to 20 years of Imprisonment and 1.02 Lakhs Penalty was charged.”Electronic Evidence was Relied upon”• Mohinder Sharma V/S State Delhi HC• Surveillance with the help of its unique international mobile equipment identity (IMEI) number and was found being used by Sharma with a different SIM. He had destroyed the original SIM.
  3. 3. Admissibility of Electronic Records• Section 65-B (Admissibility of Electronic Records) –any information contained in an electronic record which is printed on a paper, stored, recorded or copies in optical or magnetic media produced by a computer (hereinafter referred to as the computer output) shall be deemed to be also a document – Conditions for admissibility• the computer output containing the information was produced by the computer during the period over which the computer was used regularly to store or process information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that periodby the person having lawful control over the use of the computer;• during the said period, information of the kind contained in the electronic record or of the kind from which the information so contained is derived was regularly fedinto the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities;• throughout the material part of the said period, the computer was operating properly or, if not; then in respect of any period in which it was not operating properly or was out of operation during that part of the period, was not such as to affect the electronic record or the accuracy of its contents;• the information contained in the electronic record reproduces oris derived from such information fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities.
  4. 4. Admissibility of Electronic Records• Section 65-B (Admissibility of Electronic Records)–Making statements: In any proceedings where it is desired to give a statement in evidence by virtue of this section, a certificate doing any of the following things, that is to say-(a)identifying the electronic record containing the statement and describing the manner in which it was produced;(b)giving such particulars of any device involved in the production of that electronic record as may be appropriate for the purpose of showing that the electronic record was produced by a computer;(c)dealing with any of the matters to which the conditions mentioned in sub-section (2) relate,and purporting to be signed by a person occupying a responsible official position in relation to the operation of the relevant device or the management of the relevant activities (whichever is appropriate)shall be evidence of any matter sufficient for a matter to be stated to the best of knowledge and belief of the person stating it.
  5. 5. Forensics Labs• Cyber Forensics Labs where electronic records can be taken for obtaining certificate:• –3 Labs at Hyderabad• –1 Lab at Trivandrum• –1 Lab at CBI, Delhi• –1 Lab at Himachal• –1 Lab at Ahmadabad• –1 Lab at Mumbai
  6. 6. Computer Printouts Admissible• State (NCT of Delhi) v. NavjotSandhu, SAR Gilani& Ors. (AIR 2005 SUPREME COURT 3820)• It is not in dispute that the information contained in the call records is stored in huge servers which cannot be easily moved and produced in the Court. That is what the High Court has also observed at para 276. Hence, printouts taken from the computers/servers by mechanical process and certified by a responsible official of the service providing Company can be led into evidence through a witness who can identify the signatures of the certifying officer or otherwise speak to the facts based on his personal knowledge. Irrespective of the compliance of the requirements of Section 65B which is a provision dealing with admissibility of electronic records, there is no bar to adducing secondary evidence under the other provisions of the Evidence Act, namely Sections 63 and 65.• Above all, the printouts pertaining to the call details exhibited by the prosecution are of such regularity and continuity that it would be legitimate to draw a presumption that the system was functional and the output was produced by the computer in regular use, whether this fact was specifically deposed to by the witness or not.
  7. 7. Case Law on Email as evidenceM/s. P. R. Transport Agency v. Union of India (AIR 2006 ALLAHABAD 23) Thus, the acceptance of the tender, communicated by the respondents to the petitioner by e-mail, will be deemed to be received by the petitioner at Varanasi or Chandauli, which are the only two places where the petitioner has his place of business
  8. 8. Case Law – Electronic RecordDharambir vs CBI (pronounced on 11thMarch 2008)• Certain data (i.e. call records) were copied from Hard Disk to a CD.• Cyber Forensics Lab in Hyderabad confirmed that the recorded data (i.e. call conversation) on CD were true copies of the originals and that the Hard Disk was in working condition.• A question came: difference between “electronic device” and “electronic record”.. It was held that if the electronic device has ever recorded any data which is relevant for a case, such “electronic device” shall be treated as “electronic record” for the purpose of evidence.• Scope of definition of the word “data” was contended and was held that “data” would include active memory as well as subcutaneous memory
  9. 9. Evidence –Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891• What is permissible as evidence?A “certified copy”of any entry in a bankers book shall in all legal proceedings be received as prima facie evidence of the original entry itself. {Section 4}• What are banker’s book in electronic form?Any record stored in a micro film, magnetic tape or in any other form of mechanical or electronic data retrieval mechanism, either onsite or at any offsite location including a back-up or disaster recovery site of both. {Section 2(3)}• How a certified copy of electronic record be obtained? {Section 2(8)} –A copy obtained through mechanical process can be certified if acertificate of the principal accountant or the manager of the bank. –A printout containing a certificate in accordance with Section 2A.
  10. 10. Evidence –Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891• Nature of certificate for a copy obtained through mechanical process: A certificate from principal accountant or manager of the branch that the mechanical or other process adopted to obtain the copy has ensured the accuracy of the copy.• Nature of certificate for a copy obtained through mechanical process: Authenticity certificate from principal accountant or branch manager, AND Certificate from person in-charge of computer system regarding •Details of computer system •Process of data storage •Safeguard to protect computer system and data• A further certificate from the person in-charge of the computer system to the effect that to the best of his knowledge and behalf, such computer system operated properly at the material time, he was provided with all the relevant data and the printout in question represents correctly, or is appropriately derived from, the relevant data.
  11. 11. Evidence –Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891State Bank of India vs. Rizvi Exports Ltd (DRT, Allahabad)• State Bank of India (SBI) had filed a case to recover money from some persons who had taken various loans from it.• As part of the evidence, SBI submitted printouts of statement of accounts maintained in SBI’s computer systems.• The relevant certificates as mandated by the Bankers Books of Evidence Act (as amended by Information Technology Act) had not been attached to these printouts.• The Court held that these documents were not admissible as evidence.
  12. 12. THANKYOUAdv. Prashant Mali [BSc.(Phy.), MSc.(Computer Sci.),LLB]President - Cyber Law ConsultingAuthor, Speaker & ExpertMob: 09821763157facebook.com/cyberlawconsultantWeb : www.prashantmali.com www.cyberlawconsulting.com

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