Thomas Hoffmann
Banff, Sep. 18th 2010
Kananaskis River (Rocky Mnts.)
contents

1. Nature of fluvial (environmental) systems
2. Human impact on sediment in the Rhine
   catchment
   – Scientif...
contents

1. Nature of fluvial (environmental) systems
2. Human impact on sediment in the Rhine
   catchment
   – Scientif...
Rio Beni (Bolivia)
time & space
Environmental systems
are systems that are:
• variable in time and
   space
• physical systems with
   a hist...
time & space
Environmental systems        Timescales of adjustment of channel form
                              component...
contents

1. Nature of fluvial (environmental) systems
2. Human impact on the Rhine catchment
   – Scientific problem
   –...
problem: soil degradation

                                                       • Globally, nearly 2 billion
           ...
source to sink
Floodplains as proxies of environmental change
                                                            ...
sedimentation rate [mm/yr]
                                         floodplain sedimentation



                          ...
floodplain
  sedimentation

Uniform increase of mean
sedimentation rate

   Increase of erosion
   Increase of human
   im...
source to sink
Floodplains as proxies of environmental change
                                                            ...
source to sink
Coon Creek (Trimble 1999, Science)
• Cause: Decreased soil
  erosion due to
  conservation measures
• Affec...
source to sink
            connectivity
Rhine catchment
(Lang et al. 2003, Hydrological Processes)

• Cause: Long human
  ...
what is needed?
• Time dependent spatial information of external drivers
   – human impact
      • Location of agricultura...
land use history in Germany
Neolithic population (~7 ka BP)    Roman population (~2ka BP)

 North
  Sea




              ...
what is needed?
• Time dependent spatial information of external drivers
   – human impact
      • Location of agricultura...
human impact
 on the Rhine


  before 1850 AD




  today
data types
Vector                              Raster
• Area:                             • Topography (DEMs)
   – land us...
data types
Vector                           Raster
• Area:
Necessary meta information!        • Topography (DEMs)
    – la...
GeoCENS application

• Temporal GoogleEarth
• Visualization of time dependent spatial data
  – Point data, line data and a...
Salmon &
Geomorphology



                © http://www.thinksalmon.com
Fish habitat and geomorphology
          Strong decline of salmon populations
                                     60000
 ...
the big four (five) H´s

                                  Harvest
Habitat                         (overfishing)



      ...
salmon live cycle and habitats
             spawing: clean gravel of                                           buried in
 ...
healthy salmon habitats
changes of salmon habitat
Montgomery (2004)




                     1870                           1990
                 ...
changes of salmon habitat
changes of salmon habitat
                           Agricultural
Deforestation                                       Urba...
restoration
Understanding of:
  – Watershed processes (not only channel)
     • Water, sediment and large wooded debris fl...
which data needed?
                                           • High resolution digital elevation
                        ...
which data needed?
                                                                        step pool
                     ...
which data needed?
• Sediment size = most                                              hs
                                ...
which data needed?
                                     • High resolution digital elevation
                              ...
which data needed?
summary

Restoration of salmon habitat only
possible if we have a good
understanding of:
• ecological and geomorphological...
GeoCENS application

• Temporal GoogleEarth
• Visualization of time dependent spatial data
  – Point data, line data and a...
take home message

 geospatial data is
    not just xyzt
         but
  information in a
geographical context
take home message
• If we want a large geoscientific community to
  use GeoCENS we need to integrate spatial and
  tempora...
Thanks for
your attention !
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GeoCENS presentation on The need of spacial data in geoscience and GeoCENS by Thomas Hoffman in Banff, September 23, 2010

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Thomas Hoffman presented to the GeoCENS Senior Steering Committee in Banff, September 23, 2010.

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GeoCENS presentation on The need of spacial data in geoscience and GeoCENS by Thomas Hoffman in Banff, September 23, 2010

  1. 1. Thomas Hoffmann Banff, Sep. 18th 2010
  2. 2. Kananaskis River (Rocky Mnts.)
  3. 3. contents 1. Nature of fluvial (environmental) systems 2. Human impact on sediment in the Rhine catchment – Scientific problem – Data needs GeoCENS 3. Salmon and geomorphology – Scientific problem – Data needs GeoCENS 4. Summary
  4. 4. contents 1. Nature of fluvial (environmental) systems 2. Human impact on sediment in the Rhine catchment – Scientific problem – Data needs GeoCENS 3. Salmon and geomorphology – Scientific problem – Data needs GeoCENS 4. Summary
  5. 5. Rio Beni (Bolivia)
  6. 6. time & space Environmental systems are systems that are: • variable in time and space • physical systems with a history • self organizing • hierarchical • response is dependent on spatial scale
  7. 7. time & space Environmental systems Timescales of adjustment of channel form component with given length dimension are systems that are: • variable in time and 107 Watershed 106 physiography space Valley Time (years) 105 • physical systems with 104 morphology, river profiles a history 103 Channel reach morphology, sediment • self organizing 102 routing, channel width and depth • hierarchical 101 Habitat unit morphology, grain • response is dependent 100 size, bedforms on spatial scale 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Space (m²) modified after Montgomery (2004)
  8. 8. contents 1. Nature of fluvial (environmental) systems 2. Human impact on the Rhine catchment – Scientific problem – Data needs GeoCENS 3. Salmon and geomorphology – Scientific problem – Data needs GeoCENS 4. Summary
  9. 9. problem: soil degradation • Globally, nearly 2 billion hectares of land are affected by human induced degradation of soils (UN, 2000) • Main driver of soil degradation: soil erosion • Old world: long human impact (several 1000 years) Grabenerosion auf einer gerade bestellten Rapsfläche long term perspective needed M. Firelinghaus
  10. 10. source to sink Floodplains as proxies of environmental change Floodplains as major sinks Grabenerosion auf einer gerade bestellten Rapsfläche M. Firelinghaus Sources Fluss Regen in der Oberpfalz hat beim Augusthochwasser 2002
  11. 11. sedimentation rate [mm/yr] floodplain sedimentation Increase of mean SR since approx. 2000 BP strong human impact baseline SR: 0.5 mm/yr Hoffmann et al. (2009, Catena)
  12. 12. floodplain sedimentation Uniform increase of mean sedimentation rate Increase of erosion Increase of human impact Problem: link between erosion and deposition rates? Hoffmann et al. (2009, Catena)
  13. 13. source to sink Floodplains as proxies of environmental change Floodplains as major sinks Grabenerosion auf einer gerade bestellten Rapsfläche M. Firelinghaus Sources Fluss Regen in der Oberpfalz hat beim Augusthochwasser 2002
  14. 14. source to sink Coon Creek (Trimble 1999, Science) • Cause: Decreased soil erosion due to conservation measures • Affects: constant sediment delivery
  15. 15. source to sink connectivity Rhine catchment (Lang et al. 2003, Hydrological Processes) • Cause: Long human impact on hillslope erosion, with varying degree of deforestation • Affects: Buffered and delayed response of floodplains
  16. 16. what is needed? • Time dependent spatial information of external drivers – human impact • Location of agricultural areas at different scales: – large scale population distribution – small scale terrain position: slope/valley • Agricultural practice: – non plough, plough – size of agricultural fields – climate/hydrology • temperature • precipitation • discharge (magnitude & frequency) • Time dependent spatial information fluvial response – Sediment flux connectivity hillslope channel – Channel type + morphology (meandering/braiding)
  17. 17. land use history in Germany Neolithic population (~7 ka BP) Roman population (~2ka BP) North Sea European Alps Zimmermann at el (2009)
  18. 18. what is needed? • Time dependent spatial information of external drivers – human impact • Location of agricultural areas at different scales: – large scale population distribution – small scale terrain position: slope/valley • Agricultural practice: – non plough, plough – size of agricultural fields – climate/hydrology • temperature • precipitation • discharge (magnitude & frequency) • Time dependent spatial information fluvial response – Sediment flux connectivity hillslope channel – Channel type + morphology (meandering/braiding)
  19. 19. human impact on the Rhine before 1850 AD today
  20. 20. data types Vector Raster • Area: • Topography (DEMs) – land use • Climate data – geology – temperature – sediment storage location – precipitation • Line: time dependent – sediment transport paths (e.g. river network) – breaks of sediment transport (e.g. field edges) • Point: – Stratigraphical record (slope, floodplain) – Dating (e.g. 14C ages)
  21. 21. data types Vector Raster • Area: Necessary meta information! • Topography (DEMs) – land use • Time scale • Climate data – geology • Spatial representativeness – temperature – sediment storage location Upscaling of point data – precipitation • Line:Changing conditions! time dependent – e.g. changing land use in catchment of a gauging station sediment transport paths • Connectivitynetwork) points/objects extrapolation (e.g. river between – breaks of sediment transport • Quality evaluation!!! (e.g. field edges) • Point: – Stratigraphical record (slope, floodplain) – Dating (e.g. 14C ages)
  22. 22. GeoCENS application • Temporal GoogleEarth • Visualization of time dependent spatial data – Point data, line data and areal data e.g. visualization of changing land use (areal maps), 14C data of dated hillslope and fluvial sediment Time scales: ~10³ years From sensors to palaeo archives
  23. 23. Salmon & Geomorphology © http://www.thinksalmon.com
  24. 24. Fish habitat and geomorphology Strong decline of salmon populations 60000 Chinook Coho Columbia River Commercial Landings Sockeye Chum 50000 Steelhead Total (in Thousands of Pounds) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 years © http://www.thinksalmon.com Source: WDFW (2002)
  25. 25. the big four (five) H´s Harvest Habitat (overfishing) Salmon Hatcheries Hydropower (dams) History Assessment if restoration is possible © http://www.thinksalmon.com
  26. 26. salmon live cycle and habitats spawing: clean gravel of buried in appropriate size to spawn streambed + pools to rest shelter to grow, forage and hide from predators deep sheltered pools to rest ocean: food supply off channel wetlands + floodplains: summer rearing habitat and protection from winter floods Picture source: http://www.fishex.com/seafood/salmon/salmon life cycles.html
  27. 27. healthy salmon habitats
  28. 28. changes of salmon habitat Montgomery (2004) 1870 1990 Snohomish River (Washington) Snohomish River (Washington)
  29. 29. changes of salmon habitat
  30. 30. changes of salmon habitat Agricultural Deforestation Urbanization land use loss large woody high input of fine loss of wetlands & debris input into sediments into floodplains channels channel decreasing hetero siltation of geneity of channel bed channel beds morphology Loss of salmon habitat
  31. 31. restoration Understanding of: – Watershed processes (not only channel) • Water, sediment and large wooded debris flux – Hillslope channel connectivity – Transport within channel • Coupling of system components and processes – Coupling between processes and channel morphology – Coupling between biology and geomorphology/hydrology Spatial context – Disturbance history • Land use history • Channel morphology today and before human impact Temporal context
  32. 32. which data needed? • High resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) (esp. LIDAR = Light Detection + Ranging) – Extraction of channel networks – Mapping of geomorphological landforms identification of sediment transport processes – Classification of channel morphology Hillshade of LIDAR DEM (1m resolution) – Reconstruction of former Kananaskis country channel courses • Aerial photographs – Mapping of changing channel pattern – Reconstruction of land use history – Identification of sediment sources and storages
  33. 33. which data needed? step pool casacade plane Hillshade of LIDAR DEM (1m resolution) bed Kananaskis country Pool riffle pool riffle plane bed step pool cascade Classification based on Montgomery & Buffington (1997), data source 5m DEM (rescaled 1m LIDAR DEM)
  34. 34. which data needed? • Sediment size = most hs D50 * * important channel ( s )g c ( s ) c characteristic for spawning • Availability of suitable sediment dependent on: – Channel hydraulics (shear stress) – Sediment supply (volume and grain size) Estimation of sediment size based on DEM derived plane bed channels channel slope and wood poor pool riffle channels wood forced pool riffle channels drainage area increasing roughness / resistance
  35. 35. which data needed? • High resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) (esp. LIDAR = Light Detection + Ranging) – Extraction of channel networks – Mapping of geomorphological landforms identification of sediment transport processes – Classification of channel morphology – Reconstruction of former channel courses • Aerial photographs – Mapping of changing channel pattern – Reconstruction of land use history – Identification of sediment sources and storages. Orthophoto, 1m resolution (2008)
  36. 36. which data needed?
  37. 37. summary Restoration of salmon habitat only possible if we have a good understanding of: • ecological and geomorphological processes in salmon bearing rivers • how these rivers evolved in time
  38. 38. GeoCENS application • Temporal GoogleEarth • Visualization of time dependent spatial data – Point data, line data and areal data e.g. visualization of changing land use (areal maps), changing river habitat (linear features) and salmon populations Time scale: 10² years (since air photos are available)
  39. 39. take home message geospatial data is not just xyzt but information in a geographical context
  40. 40. take home message • If we want a large geoscientific community to use GeoCENS we need to integrate spatial and temporal, e.g.: – Geological, geomorphological maps – Digital elevation models – Time dependent land use maps – ……and derivatives • However: quality concerns must be met • Visualization tool of spatial temporal data important for every paleo environmental study
  41. 41. Thanks for your attention !

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