@mrjoeHello, I’m @mrjoe, butyou can
call me JoeIf you have ever bought a train ticket online? booked a hotel? chancesare you’ve used something I designed.UX 10 years with cxpartners, a UX agency in Bristol, UKI work with people like Disney, Marriott & theTrainline.My background in psychology. I studied Neuroscience and MScHuman Communication and Computing.
@mrjoeI use one of these
to with my phonewhen I’m on my bike, so no screen.Just talking. I love listening to musicespecially on random crazy I know,that’s the kinda guy I am. Here’s theproblem. So here I am on my bike.
@mrjoeHere’s what should have happened.
Ishould have said what song is thisplaying? silly me.I’m not the kind of guy who lets this go. Iwanted to know why Siri got it wrong.Why are computers terrible when itcomes to conversation?
@mrjoeWhat is going on? Let’s
look at thepsychology of conversation.HP Grice’s ideas on the logic ofconversation inlectures delivered at Harvard Universityin 1967. Published in 1975http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/studypacks/Grice-Logic.pdf
@mrjoe1. Maxim of Quantity:-Make your
contribution to the conversation as informative as necessary.-Do not make your contribution to the conversation more informative than necessary.2. Maxim of Quality:-Do not say what you believe to be false.-Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.3. Maxim of Relevance:-Be relevant (i.e., say things related to the current topic of the conversation).4. Maxim of Manner:-Avoid obscurity of expression.-Avoid ambiguity.-Be brief (avoid unnecessary wordiness).-Be orderly.Grice’s Conversational MaximsGrice’s maxims, a useful way of analysingconversations.And do you know what? It wasn’t Siri that wasbreaking one of these laws it was me.Conversation between real people. We don’t talk likethis.
@mrjoeThe problem is we don’t
use Grice’s maxims, in fact moreoften than not we ignore them, we like, well, a bitsubtlety.Here’s a funny sketch from Peter Cooke and Dudley Moorewhere they talk about, well, um, the uh, well the facts oflife.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0Z1QGpTZSo
@mrjoeTurns out we has humans
havehigh expectations fromconversation.If we followed the rules exactlywe would end up, well likeSheldon from Big Brother.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4fJSxbVSKLw
@mrjoeAbout youPlease enter your addressMrWhat
is your title*JohnWhat is your first name*SmithWhat is your last name*7Date of birth* 7 2012Gender* I am a MALEI am a FEMALEPlease select...Status*Please complete the form, please ensure you complete all the fhere, then press the button at the bottom of the screen. Undercircumstances we will your details on to third parties.What is / was thename of your first petwhen you were young1. Maxim of Quantity:-Make your contribution to the conversationas informative as necessary.-Do not make your contribution to theconversation more informative thannecessary.2. Maxim of Quality:-Do not say what you believe to be false.-Do not say that for which you lack adequateevidence.3. Maxim of Relevance:-Be relevant (i.e., say things related to thecurrent topic of the conversation).4. Maxim of Manner:-Avoid obscurity of expression.-Avoid ambiguity.-Be brief (avoid unnecessary wordiness).-Be orderly.So why have I wasted time tellingyou about Grice’s maxims?Well it turns out they are greatfor assessing the usability offorms.
@mrjoeWhat’s this playing?Was that sarcasm?I
love you.Take it or leave it.Who would say such a thing?So what is going on withSiri?These are pronoun is a wordor form that substitutes fora noun or noun phrase. Theyare notoriously hard tocompute. Us humans arebuilt to understand them,computers less so.
@mrjoeOn the iPod This?What’s this
playing?It’s Del the Funky Homosapian,well actually it’s Delton 3030(sweety)In psychology this is called Grounding. Grounding is the collective process by which participants try to reach a mutual beliefOnce we have formulated a message we need to do more than simply send it off. We need to ensure it has been understood.Grounding is the most important thing in conversation, not some prescriptive set of rules like those produced by old Grice.We have more than one level of interaction. We ask questions. Understand replies. If we don’t understand we ask.
@mrjoeAbout youMrWhat is your title*JohnWhat
is your first name*SmithWhat is your last name*7Date of birth* 7 2012Gender* I am a MALEI am a FEMALEPlease select...Status*Please complete the form, please ensure you complete all the fieldshere, then press the button at the bottom of the screen. Under somecircumstances we will your details on to third parties.ErrorsThere errors on this page:- Please enter status- You cannot be born in the futureComputers do try and do this. Butmore often than not it’s clunky likeerrors on forms.Not very human.
@mrjoePHONE PICTURELast December at the
cxpartners Christmas party. Picture the scene.I never like to leave early so was there until the end. Michelle mygirlfriend, who is in the audience today and couple of others neededa taxi. I phoned maybe 4 companies before getting one. They saidthey’d call when the taxi was outside. The call never came. The taxileft without us. We were out, slightly drunk on a cold Decemberevening with 3 miles to walk homeWell it did, I even put my phone on the table, face up so we wouldn’tmiss it. What happened?
@mrjoeTurns out the my do
notdisturb settings were on.Normally I don’t want anynotifications, calls orwhatever after 11pm.But this Thursday wasdifferent. I missed the call.Now do not disturb is turnedoff.
@mrjoeThis isn’t a new problem.This
is from a AutoProfiles, a symbian series 60app from 2005.It looks at your calendar and turns your phoneto silent if you are in a meeting. Clever. Well no,you turn it off pretty much after the first timeyou miss an important call because your phoneis on silent.The concept of chronofencing is clunky.It gets turned off pretty after the first time itgoes wrong.
@mrjoeCONTEXTContext is buzz word at
the moment. Contextis everything we know about our user.From where they are, to what there plans are.Even down to how they are feeling and whatthey had for breakfast.
@mrjoeFirst International Symposium, HUC’99 Karlsruhe,
Germany, September 27–29, 1999 ProceedingsFirst International Symposium, HUC’99 Karlsruhe, Germany, September 27–29, 1999 ProceedingsFirst International Symposium, HUC’99 Karlsruhe, Germany, September 27–29, 1999 Proceedings1999Context isn’t new, this is 1999 model. Contextmodelling isn’t the answer. We already have astructure to study this.We can track many parts of context. Fromlocation, to calendar to feelings from tweetsand other media.Even down to how they are feeling and whatthey had for breakfast.Nothing has moved on despite this being a welldefined problem.Let’s look to psychology to see how we humansdeal with the problem.
@mrjoe5∘10∘15∘ 20∘25∘mental model30∘This is the
thermostat in my house. My old flatmateused to come home feeling cold and turn up the heat to25 degrees so the house would heat up quicker. Flawedthinking. That’s not how a thermostat works.Compare that to a the heating element on a gas hob. Itdoes work that way. Not flawed thinking but a flawedmental model.
28I didn’t see them [the
asterisks].There’s nothing that explainswhat they mean.How did you hear about us?*How old are you? *http://www.cxpartners.co.uk/cxblog/the-ux-of-html5/From my FOWD talklast year. UX ofHTML5This isn’t a usabilityproblem this is anincorrect MentalModel problem.
@mrjoeI need to speak to
my wifeOur littlest is sick and isat homeIt’s 10.48am on a MondayThat’s the time of the weekly ops meeting which runs from 10am-11amI know from Find My iPhone that she’s not in the office.When this happened last time and I didn’t call she was worried.It’s urgent.I take a guess that she’s not in the meeting or won’t mind if I call.So back to our context problem.In the same way we build mental models of objects we buildmental models of situations.And the thing here. It’s not the first three things that make thedifference. It’s the last two.Computers are good at problems 1, 2 and 3 but poor at 4 and 5.But they are getting better.
@mrjoeGOOGLE NOWWe are getting there
Google Now is not halfbad. It uses one or more context.-location-recent searches-driving conditionsIt aims to be your personal assistant.Think about the human comparison, you trust ahuman with this information, your full diary,likes, dislikes. My personal assistant is great atbooking the perfect hotel for me. My assistantknows my likes and dislikes all the importantdetails that make me who I am.
@mrjoeALWAYSBE NICEThis is Niccolò Machiavelli.
Hewrote the The Prince.Machiavellian psychology,detach oneself fromconventional morality andhence to deceive andmanipulate others.We need to be able to trust ourdigital assistants won’t betraythat trust. They will collect allthis personal informationabout us. Can we sure theywon’t use it to manipulate us.In my book, I defined anapproach, exhaustively, to dealwith this problem. Summarisedinto: Always be nice.
@mrjoeTwo or more elements of
contextare needed to define relevance ina mental modelFuture Prediction #2Designing with Mental models of relevanceOtherwise known as getting to know youbetter. Or give away your privacy.The very thing that makes this stuff usefuldepends on the very information you arenervous about giving away.
@mrjoeWe will design smellbased interactionsFuture
Prediction #3designing with OlfactionForget glass folks, noses. All about noses. Google had it right.But seriously. We can use memory of smell to do this.The act of remembering a smell is almost identical in the brain toactually experiencing that smell.
@mrjoeFuture Prediction #1Designing likeConversationFuture Prediction
#2Designing with Mentalmodels of relevanceFuture Prediction #3designing with OlfactionSo to review. 3 predictions. One of whichis a little like a bad episode of Tomorrow’sWorld.But the first two have a commonality.Social. We build models of the worldbased around interactions with otherpeople.
@mrjoeTheory ofMindOther wise known as
THEORY OF MIND.Huge amount of brain power focused on mapping others. Creatingmental models of how others think and predicting how they willbehave. We invest huge amounts of mental power trying tounderstand how other people feel, what they know. It’s called atheory of mind.
@mrjoeSociallySharedCognitionBoth interaction and mental models
rely on a concept from Social Psychology.Socially shared cognition.Practically. We need to know this theory.I know what you know. You know what I know. If either of us don’t know, we ask.Other things that are related to Socially Shared Cognition.-Story telling-Education (I had to predict what you guys knew to write this talk)