A perspective on major historical milestones                  Shelley Jansky                   USDA-ARS        University ...
1570‟s
17001621       1610
1900‟s
   By 1800, potato was a major crop in England and    Ireland   “Degeneration” was a problem   Selection of cultivars f...
   Daber    ◦ Brought to Germany in 1830    ◦ Immune to wart; high starch    ◦ Probably from Chile   Rough Purple Chile ...
   Germplasm collection    ◦ Russia, Germany, UK, US   W-races    ◦ Breeding lines developed in Germany, Belgium, U.S.  ...
   Base broadening    ◦ Mass selection for adaptation      Neotuberosum from adg (Simmonds, Glendinning,       Plaisted)...
   S. demissum (6x, 4EBN)    ◦ 1900‟s – found to be resistant    ◦ Initially used as a source of major genes   In pedigr...
   Cultivated    ◦ „Villaroela‟      Native cultivar, Chiloe      Introduced to U.S. for virus resistance      In pedi...
   S. stoloniferum (4x, 2EBN)    ◦ MPI61.303/34      Sto-tbr hybrid – Max Planck      Durable resistance –Rysto      I...
   1960‟s, U.S.   S. chacoense (2x, 2EBN)    ◦ Grandparent of Lenape    ◦ In pedigrees of most N. Am. processing CVs   ...
   Traits from CWRs can be easily transferred to    cultivars    ◦ “When trying to transfer genes from the mentioned     ...
   CWRs contribute to yield heterosis    ◦ “…it looks as though potato breeding has generally      been rather unsuccessf...
   No unfavorable traits prohibit the use of    CWRs for cultivar development    ◦ “There is no unfavorable trait known t...
   CWRs may contribute multiple desirable    traits    ◦ “It is noteworthy that when primitive cultivars or      wild spe...
   Few generations of backcrossing are needed    to return to cultivar types    ◦ “…after the first backcross already a r...
   Despite attempts by many programs over    several decades to introgress wild species    germplasm into cultivars, the ...
Shelley Jansky's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breedi...
Shelley Jansky's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breedi...
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Shelley Jansky's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato

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The expert consultations on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato was a workshops organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust in collaboration with CIP and took place from the 22nd – 24th of February 2012.

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  • Domesticated about 7000 years agoMuch gene exchange between cult and wild potatoSpooner – single domestication event in southern Peru/northern Bolivia
  • Potatoes have been used as a food in Peru for at least 10,000 yearsFor thousands of years, cultivated potato exchanged genes with wild potato
  • Potato introduced to Europe in late 1500’s – Canary Islands in 1567, then mainland Europe in 1570sSpread as a botanical oddity and feed crop1573 – first record of use for human consumption - Spain
  • For 350 years, potatoes were bred without an infusion of wild relatives
  • Breeding began in China and India in the 1930s
  • Attempts were made to cross tbr with acl and mag brought to Europe by travelers – unsuccessful because the acl and mag clones were 3x (Hawkes 1958)
  • Goodrich – Utica NY, from market in Panama, native CV from ChileIn the summer of 1842 farmers around Philadelphia experienced a disastrous and inexplicable loss of their potato crop.  The potatoes sprouted and grew normally but in mid-season their leaves developed ‘dead spots’ that quickly engulfed the plant. The following summer the mysterious potato affliction (LB) appeared again and it spread across New England in 1844.  One concept supported by Goodrich in 1847 was called “degeneracy.”  This theory held that potatoes were loosing “vitality” during their ~100 years of cultivation in North America.  They proposed to solve the problem by re-introducing “vigorous, native potatoes” from South America to cross with the enfeebled American crop. In 1850 Goodrich obtained several potato cultivars from Chile via a contact in the American embassy in Panama.  One of the cultivars was labeled “Rough Purple Chili.”  Its not known what strains Goodrich crossed with Rough Purple Chili but by 1853 he had a potato like no other.  “Garnet Chili” (photo) was a vigorous potato producing large yields of large round white-fleshed tubers of “excellent quality.”  Most breeders were hobbyists, so no good records
  • Russia – Vavilov, Bukasov – started collecting in 1926 – laid the foundation for modern potato breedingDms and dms-tbr hybrids sent from US to Germany for LB res – lines sent back to US gave rise to Kennebec
  • Mass selection of adg can produce progeny that are good parents in temperate breeding programsBut neotbr and phu-stn have not found their way into CVs – yield advantage but poor tuber type and short dormancy (Bradshaw et al 2006)B pops – no major genes for LB res, other traits virus res, culinary and processing quality – adg, neo tbr, dms, acl, blb, phu
  • LB res alone probably doesn’t explain the widespread prolonged popularity of dms – probably also due to hybrid vigor for yield
  • High starch quantity was a beneficial side effect of using vrnSpg also contributed scab res
  • Sto incorporated into European CVs for PVY resistance
  • Unfavorable traits – GA’s – according to Ross (1966) suppression of GA synthesis is dominant, so can easily reduce GA levels in BCsRudorf 1958 – few BCs needed
  • Unfavorable traits – GA’s – according to Ross (1966) suppression of GA synthesis is dominant, so can easily reduce GA levels in BCsRudorf 1958 – few BCs needed
  • Unfavorable traits – GA’s – according to Ross (1966) suppression of GA synthesis is dominant, so can easily reduce GA levels in BCsRudorf 1958 – few BCs needed
  • Unfavorable traits – GA’s – according to Ross (1966) suppression of GA synthesis is dominant, so can easily reduce GA levels in BCsRudorf 1958 – few BCs needed
  • Shelley Jansky's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato

    1. 1. A perspective on major historical milestones Shelley Jansky USDA-ARS University of Wisconsin-Madison
    2. 2. 1570‟s
    3. 3. 17001621 1610
    4. 4. 1900‟s
    5. 5.  By 1800, potato was a major crop in England and Ireland “Degeneration” was a problem Selection of cultivars from open-pollinated seedling populations was productive First deliberate hybridization ◦ Knight, England, 1807
    6. 6.  Daber ◦ Brought to Germany in 1830 ◦ Immune to wart; high starch ◦ Probably from Chile Rough Purple Chile ◦ Brought to US in 1851 (from Chile via Panama)  Progeny  include Garnet Chili, Early Rose, and Burbank  were used as parents in Europe after Irish potato famine  are in >250 N. Am and European cultivars Most cultivars are in Chilean cytoplasm
    7. 7.  Germplasm collection ◦ Russia, Germany, UK, US W-races ◦ Breeding lines developed in Germany, Belgium, U.S. ◦ Late blight resistance from S. demissum Backcross progenies resembled cultivars Yield increases were observed as a “side- effect” of introgressing disease resistance An important feature of successful parents was male fertility
    8. 8.  Base broadening ◦ Mass selection for adaptation  Neotuberosum from adg (Simmonds, Glendinning, Plaisted)  Long day phu-stn (Carroll, Haynes) ◦ B populations (CIP)  Late blight resistance and other traits Sexual polyploidization ◦ 4x from 4x x 2x and 2x x 2x crosses  Yield heterosis Processing quality ◦ Lenape contains S. chacoense germplasm
    9. 9.  S. demissum (6x, 4EBN) ◦ 1900‟s – found to be resistant ◦ Initially used as a source of major genes In pedigrees of cultivars developed in mid- 1900‟s – in many countries Resistance broke down in 1960‟s ◦ But minor genes also exist Also contributed hybrid vigor
    10. 10.  Cultivated ◦ „Villaroela‟  Native cultivar, Chiloe  Introduced to U.S. for virus resistance  In pedigrees of British and N. American cultivars ◦ Adg CPC 1673 and 1960 (H1gene) Wild ◦ S. vernei (2x, 2EBN)  Somatically doubled and crossed to cultivars  Quantitative resistance
    11. 11.  S. stoloniferum (4x, 2EBN) ◦ MPI61.303/34  Sto-tbr hybrid – Max Planck  Durable resistance –Rysto  In pedigrees of many European cultivars ◦ sto-tbr hybrids  Male sterile  Field resistance to late blight
    12. 12.  1960‟s, U.S. S. chacoense (2x, 2EBN) ◦ Grandparent of Lenape ◦ In pedigrees of most N. Am. processing CVs S. berthaultii (2x, 2EBN) ◦ In pedigrees of White Pearl and Kalkaska High dry matter content Low reducing sugar accumulation in storage
    13. 13.  Traits from CWRs can be easily transferred to cultivars ◦ “When trying to transfer genes from the mentioned wild species, we never were faced with unsurmountable difficulties.” (Ross, 1966) ◦ “It was possible to transfer any property so far tested of a wild species into a cultivar.” (Ross, 1978) ◦ “…virtually any potato species can be utilized for the introgression of desirable genes into S. tuberosum.” (Bradshaw et al., 2006)
    14. 14.  CWRs contribute to yield heterosis ◦ “…it looks as though potato breeding has generally been rather unsuccessful. … The reason most probably lies in the narrowness of the genetic base of our north temperate breeding stocks.” (Simmonds, 1971) ◦ “Three-fourths of the varieties developed from species hybrids are reported to possess high or very high yielding quality.” (Rieman et al., 1954) ◦ “Beyond the planned transfer of distinctive major genes, there is a heterotic effect on yield…” (Ross, 1979)
    15. 15.  No unfavorable traits prohibit the use of CWRs for cultivar development ◦ “There is no unfavorable trait known that would prohibit the utilization of a wild species.” (Ross, 1979) ◦ “The suppression of the glycoalkaloid synthesis is inherited in a dominant way.” (Ross, 1966)
    16. 16.  CWRs may contribute multiple desirable traits ◦ “It is noteworthy that when primitive cultivars or wild species have been used in modern breeding, in spite of the procedure used being designed to eliminate most of their contributions apart from the specific characters for which they were chosen for use, they have frequently contributed useful characters in addition to those intended.” (Glendinning, 1983)
    17. 17.  Few generations of backcrossing are needed to return to cultivar types ◦ “…after the first backcross already a remarkable shift to the behavior of S. tuberosum varieties has taken place.” (Rudorf, 1958) ◦ “…seedling lines appeared among the backcross progenies coming very close to cultivated varieties in yield and other properties.” (Ross, 1979)
    18. 18.  Despite attempts by many programs over several decades to introgress wild species germplasm into cultivars, the genetic base of potato is still primarily S. tuberosum. Scotland (Bradshaw, 2009) ◦ Access to 80 species  7 species in cultivar pedigrees  S. demissum (late blight)  S. vernei (cyst nematode)  S. microdontum (PVY)  S. multidissectum, S. commersonii, S. maglia, S. acaule

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