Textiles
Chapter 6
Textiles
 Textiles : Fibers and Fabrics
 The Fiber Industry
 Fiber – an extremely fine, hair-like
strand almost invisib...
Raw Materials
Regardless of the design or manufacturing process, the basic raw material for making rayon is cellulose. The...
Textiles
 Natural Fibers
 Cotton- substance attached to the
seed of a cotton plant
 MOST WIDELY USED NATURAL
FIBER
 “T...
Textiles
 Wool – is the fiber that forms the
coat of sheep
 Is a natural insulator and is used
to make warm clothing
 A...
Textiles
 Silk – comes from the silkworm.
The silkworm forms silk by forcing
two fine streams of a thick liquid
out of ti...
Textiles
 FLAX – comes from the stem of
the flax plant. Flax fiber is spun
into yarn and woven into fabric
becoming linen...
Textiles
 RAMIE – comes from woody-
leafed Asian plant grown mostly
in China
 Is linen-like
 Is inexpensive
 Has tende...
Textile
 Man-Made Fibers- are made in a
chemist’s laboratory. They are
made from wood pulp, petroleum,
natural gas.
 Ex:...
Textile
 Man-Made Fiber Development
 75% of all fibers used in America are
man-made
 All man made fibers start out as t...
Textiles
 Types of Man-Made Fibers
1. Cellulosic Fibers
2. Non Cellulosic Fibers
Cellulosic Fiber- cellulose fibers made ...
Acetate RAYON
Textiles
 Noncellulosic fibers- fibers made from
molecules of petroleum, natural gas,
air and water. Fiber chemist’s link...
Textiles
 Man-Made Fibers are sold to
fabric manufacturers:
1. Unbranded
2. Branded or Trademarked
3. Licensing agreement...
Textiles
 Licensed trademark – A fibers
registered trademark used under a
licensing agreement whereby use
of the trademar...
Textiles
 Marketing of Natural and Man-Made
Fibers
1. Advertising – WWD
 Cooperative advertising- costs shared by a
stor...
Textiles
 The Fabric Industry
 Textile Fabric- any material that is made
by weaving, knitting, braiding, knotting,
lamin...
Textiles
 Greige goods (gray goods) – unfinished
fabrics (not printed or dyed yet)
 Textile converter- a producer who bu...
Textiles
 Advantages of a Textile Converter
1. A textile converter can spare the
fabric mill the trouble of anticipating
...
Textiles
 Marketing of Fabric
1. Fashion experts – Color Association of
US International Color Authority
2. Textile trade...
Textiles
 Government Regulation of Fabric:
 1954 – Flammable Fabrics Act:
banned ignitable fabrics and apparel.
 1972- ...
6 textiles (chap 6)
6 textiles (chap 6)
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6th Chapter in Fashion Marketing

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6 textiles (chap 6)

  1. 1. Textiles Chapter 6
  2. 2. Textiles  Textiles : Fibers and Fabrics  The Fiber Industry  Fiber – an extremely fine, hair-like strand almost invisible to the eye- is the smallest element of a a fabric  Types of Fibers 1. Natural Fibers 2. Man-made Fibers
  3. 3. Raw Materials Regardless of the design or manufacturing process, the basic raw material for making rayon is cellulose. The major sources for natural cellulose are wood pulp—usually from pine, spruce, or hemlock trees—and cotton linters. Cotton Linters are residue fibers which cling to cotton seed after the ginning process To make rayon, sheets of purified cellulose are steeped in caustic soda, dried, shredded into crumbs, and then aged in metal containers for 2 to 3 days. The temperature and humidity in the metal containers are carefully controlled. After ageing, the crumbs are combined and churned with liquid carbon disulfide, which turns the mix into orange-colored crumbs known as sodium cellulose xanthate. The cellulose xanthate is bathed in caustic soda, resulting in a viscose solution that looks and feels much like honey. cotton linters. Cotton linters are residue fibers which cling to cotton seed after the ginning process.
  4. 4. Textiles  Natural Fibers  Cotton- substance attached to the seed of a cotton plant  MOST WIDELY USED NATURAL FIBER  “THE FABRIC OF OUR LIVES”
  5. 5. Textiles  Wool – is the fiber that forms the coat of sheep  Is a natural insulator and is used to make warm clothing  Absorbs moisture slowly and dries slowly
  6. 6. Textiles  Silk – comes from the silkworm. The silkworm forms silk by forcing two fine streams of a thick liquid out of tiny openings in its head. These streams harden into fibers upon contact with air.  Has a luxurious feel and can be worn year round.
  7. 7. Textiles  FLAX – comes from the stem of the flax plant. Flax fiber is spun into yarn and woven into fabric becoming linen.  Is the strongest fiber  Has a tendency to wrinkle
  8. 8. Textiles  RAMIE – comes from woody- leafed Asian plant grown mostly in China  Is linen-like  Is inexpensive  Has tendency to wrinkle!!!
  9. 9. Textile  Man-Made Fibers- are made in a chemist’s laboratory. They are made from wood pulp, petroleum, natural gas.  Ex: rayon, acrylic, triacetate, spandex, acetate, polyester
  10. 10. Textile  Man-Made Fiber Development  75% of all fibers used in America are man-made  All man made fibers start out as thick liquids  SPINNERETTE- a mechanical device through which a thick liquid is forced to produce fibers or varying lengths
  11. 11. Textiles  Types of Man-Made Fibers 1. Cellulosic Fibers 2. Non Cellulosic Fibers Cellulosic Fiber- cellulose fibers made from soft woods chemically treated. Ex. rayon, triacetate, acetate
  12. 12. Acetate RAYON
  13. 13. Textiles  Noncellulosic fibers- fibers made from molecules of petroleum, natural gas, air and water. Fiber chemist’s link the molecules into long chains called polymers.  Polyester and Nylon account for 75% of the man-made fiber market
  14. 14. Textiles  Man-Made Fibers are sold to fabric manufacturers: 1. Unbranded 2. Branded or Trademarked 3. Licensing agreement (fabrics must pass tests)
  15. 15. Textiles  Licensed trademark – A fibers registered trademark used under a licensing agreement whereby use of the trademark is permitted only to those manufacturers whose end products pass established tests.  Ex. Fortrel is a licensed trademark Fortrel®
  16. 16. Textiles  Marketing of Natural and Man-Made Fibers 1. Advertising – WWD  Cooperative advertising- costs shared by a store and a fiber producer 2. Research and Development- improve fibers for wash-ability and wrinkle resistance 3. Customer Service- technical advice, films
  17. 17. Textiles  The Fabric Industry  Textile Fabric- any material that is made by weaving, knitting, braiding, knotting, laminating, felting, or chemical bonding.  Yarn- a continuous thread formed by spinning or twisting fibers together
  18. 18. Textiles  Greige goods (gray goods) – unfinished fabrics (not printed or dyed yet)  Textile converter- a producer who buys greige goods, contracts to have them finished (dyed, bleached, printed) and sells the finished goods  Yarn-dyed – yarns dyed before being woven or knitted  Piece-dyed – yarns dyed after being woven or knitted
  19. 19. Textiles  Advantages of a Textile Converter 1. A textile converter can spare the fabric mill the trouble of anticipating what colors, textures and types of fabric will be in future demand. 2. A textile converter can supply apparel producers with smaller runs of a specific fabric than a mill can.
  20. 20. Textiles  Marketing of Fabric 1. Fashion experts – Color Association of US International Color Authority 2. Textile trade shows –  Textalia; Milan, Italy  Interstoff Textile Fair; Frankfurt, Germany  Ideocomo; Como, Italy  Premiere Vision; Paris France
  21. 21. Textiles  Government Regulation of Fabric:  1954 – Flammable Fabrics Act: banned ignitable fabrics and apparel.  1972- Care Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel: required that all fabrics be labeled to show the type of care they require, including wash-ability, water temperature, bleach/no bleach, ironing

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