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Designing structure ia


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Designing structure ia

  1. 1. Designing StructureInformation Architecture
  3. 3. Cave
  4. 4. Hut
  5. 5. Stone Age City
  6. 6. VITRUVIUSfirmitas, utilitas, venustas : : durability, convenience, beauty
  7. 7. Durability“Durability will be assured when foundations arecarried down to the solid ground and materialswisely and liberally selected” Vitruvius
  8. 8. The hotel had several desigfeatures that made up for ifoundation:The reflecting pool (visiblethe picture above) alsoprovided a source of waterfor fire-fighting, saving thebuilding from the post-earthquake firestorm;[1]Cantilevered floors andbalconies provided extrasupport for the floors;A copper roof, which cannoon people below the way aroof can;Seismic separation joints,located about every 20 m athe building;Tapered walls, thicker on lofloors, increasing their streSuspended piping and wirininstead of being encased inconcrete, as well as smoothcurves, making them moreresistant to fracture.[2]
  9. 9. I’m searching for “my architect, not “movies, directors, actors”Technical Earthquakes
  10. 10. Social Earthquakes If people post jobs in discussion areas, any user can move them to job board If people useconnection invites to spam/market, they can be reported.
  11. 11. Convenience“When the arrangement of the apartments is faultless and presents no hindrance to use, and when each class of building is assigned to its suitable and appropriate exposure” Vitruvius Sound familiar? We’re talking usability!
  12. 12. ckspace headquarters in in a former mall. The lding is so usable for moving people around, itssily repurposed.bert Venturi calls this a “decorated shed”
  13. 13. Malls onlineepitomizeconvenience,and are typicallyextremelyusable.Anthropologie iselegant andfunctional.This simplemodel could berepurposed forany side dealingwith objects andmetadata
  14. 14. The MIT project, they were interviewing me for MIT and they sent their facilities people to Bilbao. I met them in Bilbao. They came for three days. W: This is the computer building.Bilbao did not G: They were there for three days and it rained every day. And they kept walkingleak. I was so around. I noticed they were looking under things and looking for things, and proud. they wanted to know where the buckets were hidden, people putting buckets out. I was clean. There wasnt a bloody leak in the place. It was just fantastic. But youve got to -- yeah, well, up until then, every building leaked. W: Frank had a sort of -- sort of had a fame -- his -- his fame was built on that in L.A. for a while. You know, Frank, youve all heard the Frank Lloyd Wright story when the guy -- the woman called and said, "Mr. Wright, my -- Im sitting in the couch and the waters pouring in on my head," and he said, "Madame, move your chair." G: So, some years later I was doing a little house on the beach for Norton Simon, and his secretary was kind of a hell-on-wheels type lady -- called me and said, Mr. Simons sitting at his desk, and the waters coming in on his head, and I told him the Frank Lloyd Wright story. W: Didnt get a laugh. G: No. Not now either. _asks_then_what.html
  15. 15. I call it the "Then What?" Okay, you solved all the problems, you did all the stuff, you made nice, you loved your clients, you loved the materials, you loved the city, youre a good guy, youre a good person... and then what? What do you bring to it?See his great TED talk
  16. 16. “Early in life I had to choose between honest arroganceand hypocritical humility. I chose honest arrogance andhave seen no occasion to change.” Frank Lloyd Wright
  17. 17. Beauty (delight)“when the appearance of the work is pleasing and in good taste, andwhen its members are in due proportion according to correct principlesof symmetry.” Vitrvius
  18. 18. “Less is more.” ~ Mies
  19. 19. SEAGRAM BUILDING (Philip Johnson did interiors, 1957) SeagramThis logical and elegant 38- Building story skyscraper (525 H) has alternating horizontal bands of bronze plating and bronze-tinted glass New York City and decorative bronze I- beams which emphasize its verticality. Placed to the rear of its site and set 1957 back from Park Avenue, it incorporates a large plaza in the front as part of the design--thus avoiding the need for set-backs. It uses granite pillars at the Is this Beautiful? base and has a two-story glass-enclosed lobby.
  20. 20. “Less is a bore.” ~ Venturi
  21. 21. Is this Beautiful?
  22. 22. Do we dictatewhat is beautifulby constraining user choice?
  23. 23. Or supportpassionate use that may not meet our aesthetic standards?
  24. 24. BeautifulDurable Convenient
  25. 25. Information Architecture Architecture Retrieval29
  26. 26. Information Architects• What is IA?• IAI definition 1. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability. 2. The structural design of shared information environments. 3. An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
  27. 27. Findability
  28. 28. In the physical world• Things that have fixed locations – We find with maps and signs- - wayfinding• Things that don’t – We find with organization and wayfinding
  29. 29. In the digital world• Nothing is fixed• Wayfinding and organization is the two keys to findability• Role of IA is to shape the digital space to enable findability.
  30. 30. Make things findable• Organization – Build on Metadata – Browse systems – Search systems• Wayfinding – Labels – Visual cues
  31. 31. Make things appear• Serendipity systems – See also – Related – Popularity relationships – Also built on metadata
  32. 32. Definition The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
  33. 33. Sort into groups. Name groupsPLAY WITH YOUR BALLS
  36. 36. KNOWN ITEM
  37. 37. What works • Search • A-Z index • Navigation
  39. 39. What can help • Navigation • Related Search • Search (with autocomplete, related terms)
  41. 41. What can help • Related information • Recommendations • Push technologies
  42. 42. REFINDING
  43. 43. What can help • Favorites • Personalization • Visited link color
  44. 44. RedesignTASKS• Find a baseball• Find a gift for a upcoming party for a seven year old• Make users aware some balls are on sale• Find again a good choice for that party
  45. 45. Classification has Consequences • A physician who doesn’t see a new cure • A poor student who can’t find financial aid • A store where a product isn’t found
  46. 46. IA has SolutionsInformation Architecture manages informationto make it findable – Tagging with metadata – Organizing with CV’s – Creating navigation systems – Optimizing search
  47. 47. And IA can build brands.
  48. 48. Branding in 10 seconds Brand managers create brand promises fullfilled by brand experiences Brian Collins’ Model of Brand
  49. 49. Brand and the User Experience Creating a good customer experience is the essence of good brandingHugh Dubberly’s Model of Brand
  50. 50. IA Realizes Brand
  51. 51. Benabar n’est pas jazz?
  52. 52. What is this?57
  53. 53. What is this?58
  54. 54. What is this?59
  55. 55. What is this?60
  56. 56. What are these?61
  57. 57. They are all birds (ornithologist)62
  58. 58. The Cassowary is not a bird!(the Karam) 63
  59. 59. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967) 64
  60. 60. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967) 65
  61. 61. Who Cares? • Ornithologists • The Karam • Information Architects66
  62. 62. Dewey Decimal System• 200-299 – Religion Categories• 40+ categories related to Christianity• 1 for Judaism• 1 for Islam (& related) 67
  63. 63. Who Cares? • Religious Scholars • Librarians • Information Architects • Jews and Muslims68
  64. 64. Context is King• Classification reflects social and cultural organization• Information Architect must understand this context69
  65. 65. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? Football Fan70
  66. 66. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? Football Fan?71
  67. 67. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? Show me 2. What do they care about? photos! Are the Patriots going to make the playoffs? What happened in the last game?72
  68. 68. Get to know your audience… 1. Who are they? 2. What do they care about? 3. How do they think of the information and content? Conference, division… Schedules, standings…73
  69. 69. Get to know your audience… 1. Observe others 2. Study Competitors and similar sites 3. Review your search logs 4. Do a card sort74
  70. 70. Now what? • Organize your information so it makes sense to your audience • Structure your information to help users find it • …using metadata75
  71. 71. METADATA
  72. 72. Pictures of you
  73. 73. Metadata: what is it? “metadata is data about data"81
  74. 74. Metadata: what is it? “Metadata tags are used to describe documents, pages, images, software, video and audio files, and other content objects for the purposes of improved navigation and retrieval” ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002) Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P.82
  75. 75. Descriptive • Ham • Cheese • Honey • Olivia’s
  76. 76. Intrinsic What does the camera know? What does the system know?
  77. 77. Administrative
  78. 78. Not all Metadata is equal• What are users interested in?• What do you want users to be able to find?• What metadata makes management easy?• Tag content for findability• Tag content for management86
  79. 79. Exercise• BALL• Write as many descriptive words (or short phrases) on your post-it• One word (or phrase) per post-it• Don’t share– yet! Hold on!87
  80. 80. Next Content Architecture Part II89
  81. 81. Controlled vocabularies Master of your domains91
  82. 82. Cardinal Richelieu Grandfather of controlled vocabularies92
  83. 83. The French Academy• Founded in 1635• Multiple dialects• Goal: purify the French language• Goal: unify the nation (ensure that the State and all citizens speak the same language)93
  84. 84. The French Academy today …but…94
  85. 85. So what? • So what are your goals? • How will you ensure that your users and your system speak the same language? • How will you ensure they continue to do so?95
  86. 86. When humans and computers interact I want I’ve got music. music96
  87. 87. Humans are good at figuring things out Rap. Hip Hop Rock. Dance.97
  88. 88. Most of the time Raggamuffin ?98
  89. 89. But computers are literal Acid ? reggae No matches found99
  90. 90. And need help ? Acid Reggae? IA Let’s give them “Reggae” and “Trance”100
  91. 91. Of course, the IA can’t always be there… Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV) Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV) as “organized lists of words and phrases, or notation systems, that are used to initially tag content, and then to find it through navigation or search.”101
  92. 92. Controlled Vocabularies I define them as Documented relationships of words and concepts to assist people finding stuff. Same dif.102
  93. 93. Controlled Vocabulary Types • Levels of control (Vocabularies) Synonym Authority Classification Thesauri Rings Files Schemes Simple Complex Equivalence Hierarchical Associative (Relationships)103
  94. 94. Controlled vocabularies • Relationships B A=B A A B Equivalence Hierarchal Associative Christmas= Winter Holidays > Christmas Xmas Christmas Tree | Santa Claus104
  95. 95. Synonym rings • Simplest type • Helps with search, indexing • Simplifies maintenance105
  96. 96. Synonym rings include • Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting Company; MPG, miles per gallon • Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled; honor, honour • Scientific terms versus popular use terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin; lilioceris, lily beetle – From Synonym Rings and Authority Files by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel106
  97. 97. Why Bother? I’m tired of typing “Controlled Vocabulary--- CV is shorter. • Sometimes on intranets, CV’s are skipped • You think you can force people to use proper terms • But people are lazy107
  98. 98. Why Bother? I want a cannon camera. • On the internet you want to be found • Plus users use short queries – Average queries are 2.5 words– 30% of searches are one word queries • On large scale sites, there is enough data to do this programmatically, but on small sites, not.108
  99. 99. Bizrate built a business off mispellings It may be the Canon PowerShot S30109
  100. 100. But what do people call it? Canon S30 Cannon S30 S30PowershotS30110
  101. 101. A page for each synonym111
  102. 102. And they can be number one112
  103. 103. Classification schemes • Types of relationships • Sibling: directories » Men » Women » Maternity » Body » Boys » Girls » Baby boy » Baby girl113
  104. 104. Classification schemes Parent / Child (
  105. 105. LATCH
  106. 106. Classification SchemesOther RelationshipsAlphabetical (administrative metadata)Authors, A-Z > ( M ) > Moore, AlanChronological (administrative metadata)New for You > New Releases > BooksTopic (descriptive metadata)Comics > Graphic Novels > HorrorAmazon uses all of these, and more…. 116
  107. 107. Thesauri • Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies • Includes associative relationships Preferred Variants Siblings Parent Associated term Christmas X-mas, Hanukah, Winter Santa Claus Nöel Kwanzaa holidays117
  108. 108. Associations118
  109. 109. Associations • Amazon uses buying patterns to determine associations119
  110. 110. Associations120
  111. 111. Content Inventory Identify all content and attributes • Link ID • Maintainer • ROT • Expiration • Document type • Access • Topics/Keywords • Author • Location • Existing/planned121
  112. 112. Term harvesting• Look Inward • Log harvesting – Your site – Search engines – Current keywords – Overture• Look outward • Ask people – Magazines – Interviews – Competitors – Card sorts – Discussion lists – Free Listing124
  113. 113. Sorting TermsA Card Sort for Architects• Multiple Groupings – Equivalent UF cheese=fromage – Broader terms BT cheese | dairy – Narrower terms NT cheese | cheddar – Related term RT cheese | crackers125
  114. 114. Sleeping Bags BT Camping NT Down Sleeping Bags NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags NT Family Sleeping Bags NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags RT Backpacks RT Ultralight Backpacking RT Sleeping Bag Liners RT Sleeping Pads RT Stuff Sacks RT Pillows From Creating a Controlled Vocabulary by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel
  115. 115. Sorting conflicts• Cheese goes in dairy or in sandwich materials?• A cheese basket?• String cheese?Choices fit strategy127
  116. 116. Associations• What is related• What is required?• What else is interesting?Relevancy is king128
  117. 117. Possible Relationships • Process/agent (camp fires/matches) • Action/product of action (baking/cakes) • Agent/counteragent (allergies/antihistamine) • Raw material/product (wool/sweater).129
  118. 118. Implement• Implementation dependant on situation and tools.• May be slow painful data entry– know this and prepare.130
  119. 119. Test• Test with users – did you get it right? – Browse Testing – Search Testing – Monitor quantitative – Refine, refine, refine131
  120. 120. Maintain• Who maintains it?• What the rules for new terms?• Document your decisions.132
  121. 121. Is that all? NO! Life beyond enumerative classification….133
  122. 122. Faceted Classification was developed, prior to the existence of computers, by S. R. Ranganathan, a Hindu mathematician working as a librarian.134
  123. 123. Ranganathan’s 5 Facets • who: personality • what: matter • how: energy • where: space • when: time135
  124. 124. Essential Qualities of a Facet • Mutually exclusive; represents a characteristic of division not found in any other facet • Cannot be further sub-divided • Relationships between facets are non- hierarchical (though within facets…)136
  125. 125. Facets The broad categories into which the subject area is divided. A facet consists “... of a group of terms that represents one, and only one, characteristic of division of a subject two facets may contain terms that could represent the same concepts.” —Louise Spiteri138
  126. 126. Ordinary stuff? Epicurious uses facets to help users find recipes139
  127. 127. Yahoo! Personals• Faceted classification by Yahoo! Personas• Content by the users140
  128. 128. What’s the difference? Electronics Camera facets Camera Pixels Digital Zoom Film Price PDAs Televisions141
  129. 129. MusicEnumerative Faceted• Modern • Mood – Rock • Tempo • Alternative – Seattle • Artist – Atlanta • Use142
  130. 130. Create ball facetsFACETS, ANYONE? 143
  131. 131. Making Facets 1. Consider the universe of documents to be indexed. 2. Consider user finding strategies. 3. Analyze each document to identify the facets. 4. Group isolates (simple-concept subjects) into the facets. 5. Apply the notational system. (I skipped some steps, to avoid wonking out….)144
  132. 132. Is this all there is?
  133. 133. Homework• Content inventory: what’s in your site?• Organizational Scheme – Hierarchal? – Faceted? – Combination?• Portfolio Piece: Site map (a la Dan Brown’s Communicating design Chapter 5)