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Information Architecture blueprints for the web Christina Wodtke & Tom Wailes, Yahoo! Inc.
 
What we’ll cover ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Information Architecture   ,[object Object],[object Object]
It is the design behind the design Diagram from Jesse James Garett’s  Elements of User Experience
Where it fits in design
Who does it? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The elements and goals of IA Information Architecture Content architecture Organization of content for information retrieval findability Interaction Design Design of system behavior to promote usability Information /Interface design Design of information presentation to promote understandability
Why do we care so much ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why do we care so much ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why do we care so much ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why do we care so much ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Goal  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Missing information is expensive ,[object Object]
Missing information is expensive ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Missing information ,[object Object],[object Object]
Missing information ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Classification and Consequences ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
People and Information ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Information and IA ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Next Understanding your problem through requirements
Understanding your problem Requirements for success
Understanding ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Requirements gathering  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lou and Peter’s Venn ,[object Object],[object Object]
Tom and Christina’s Lunchbox ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Requirements gathering ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
User requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
User requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Business requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Business requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Technology requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Technology requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Content requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Content requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise:  requirements gathering
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Next Personas
Personas Never leave your user
Personas
Persona development ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Persona development/user profiling ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Grace   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scott   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Persona development/user profiling ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise:  rapid persona creation
Prioritize personas
Prioritize personas primary secondary special
Prioritize personas primary secondary special
Use personas ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Persona Posters ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Designing with what you’ve learned ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Personas in action ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scenarios for Design ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Get your persona out… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Example Persona Scenarios Michael is doing his morning surf; he’s just left indiewire.com and has come to indieword.com. He reads through the new stories on Sundance and spots the link to the Festival Planner. He remembers he was just  agonizing over having to wade through the huge number of films . He hopes this might make it simpler. Michael looks over the Festival Planner intro page. He wants to  make sure this is going to save him time  and not waste his time. He sees  he can play with it without having to sign up, which is a relief ; he sees he can set up a schedule for the day based on his preferences. It seems painless; he sets his watch alarm for five minutes—at that time he’ll decide if he wants to continue. Preferably, he’ll be done. … …  Festival Planner now gives him a schedule to review, with three films to pick from  and an option to “see all for this time slot.”  One film for each time slot is indicated as his “best pick.” Each shows how well it meets his taste and needs. And  he can choose  to “rest” and not select a film for that time period. Michael goes through the schedule; his wristwatch beeps, and he absent-mindedly shuts it off. He selects his films. As he chooses,  he notices an option  to get a report on any film when its available—he’s very excited by that. If he can’t see them all, at least he can get a sense of what he’s missing! Finally, Michael has a schedule that satisfies him. He notices  he can e-mail the schedule  to anyone. He sends a copy to his P.A. and to himself. 1. Emphasis on goals ^ 2. Avoiding interface design >
Next step ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Task analysis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Task analysis Purchasing a purse at nordstroms.com might include the tasks:   1. locate purse  2. add purse to shopping cart 3. check out
Task analysis Purchasing a purse at nordstroms.com might include the tasks:   1. locate purse  2. add purse to shopping cart 3. check out   f. Review order “ CHECK OUT” BECOMES g. Finalize checkout e. Input payment d. Input billing address c. Input shipping address b. Sign in/sign up a. Select checkout
Task analysis And so on… ,[object Object],f. Review order “ INPUT BILLING ADDRESS” BECOMES “ CHECK OUT” BECOMES ,[object Object],g. Finalize checkout ,[object Object],e. Input payment ,[object Object],d. Input billing address ,[object Object],c. Input shipping address ,[object Object],b. Sign in/sign up d. Input billing address (prepopulate all fields from c.) a. Select checkout
Example Task analysis
Another Task Analysis
digramming
Next Content Architecture Part I
Content Architecture Make it make sense
What is this?
What is this?
What is this?
What is this?
What are these?
They are all birds (ornithologist)
The Cassowary is not a bird! (the Karam)
From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer,  Man , Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer,  Man , Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
Who Cares? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Dewey Decimal System ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Who Cares? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object]
Get to know your audience… ,[object Object],Football Fan
Get to know your audience… ,[object Object],Football Fan?
Get to know your audience… ,[object Object],[object Object],Are the Patriots going to make the playoffs? Show me photos! What happened in the last game?
Get to know your audience… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Conference, division… Schedules, standings…
Get to know your audience… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Now what? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Metadata: what is it? ,[object Object]
Metadata: what is it? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Metadata ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Metadata
Yahoo! Travel < meta name =' description '  content =&quot;Yahoo! Travel is a comprehensive online travel destination, where you can reserve flights, rental cars, hotel rooms, cruises and vacation packages, all in one place.  Research trips from a wealth of planning resources including destination and city guides, user and expert reviews, local weather and currency information, and much more.  Yahoo! Travel has competitive prices on everything from airfare to lodging, it's easy to find great deals and special offers&quot;> < meta name =' keywords '  content ='online airfare airfares hotel car reservations travelocity airlines tickets airplane air line air fares arifares airline low fairs fares cheap tickets flights book information flight itinerary itineraries online reservations online tickets online travel agents vacations cruise cruises cruiselines business travel busines corporate hotels discounts car cars rental lasvegas tickets travel reservations online travel travel bookings online bookings book airfare fare wars discount fares sales lowest vacation planning information travel agencies travel sites disney world florida orlando miami atlanta ATL Dallas DFW DCA LAS LAX NYC ORD SFO atl dfw dca las lax nyc ord sfo Washington D.C. washington dc los angeles Los Angeles new york New York new york city New York City San Francisco sanfrancisco family trips family vacation family vacations'>
Types of Metadata ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Web Page: New England Patriots
Types of Metadata
Types of Metadata ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Logo: New England Patriots
Not all Metadata is equal ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Next Content Architecture Part II
Controlled vocabularies Master of your domains
When humans and computers interact I’ve got music I want music.
Humans are good at figuring things out Hip Hop Rap. Rock. Dance.
Most of the time Jiggy tunes ?
But computers are literal Acid reggae ? No matches found
Add more on how they are literal
And need help Acid Reggae? ? Let’s give them “Dance and DJ” IA
Of course, the IA can’t always be there… ,[object Object],[object Object]
Controlled Vocabularies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Controlled Vocabulary Types ,[object Object]
Controlled vocabularies ,[object Object],A=B Equivalence Christmas= Xmas Hierarchal Winter Holidays > Christmas Associative  Christmas | Santa Claus A B A B
Synonym rings ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Synonym rings include ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why Bother? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],I’m tired of typing “Controlled Vocabulary--- CV is shorter.
Why Bother? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],I want a cannon camera.
Bizrate takes good advantage It may be the  Canon PowerShot S30
But what do people call it? Cannon S30 Powershot S30 S30 Canon S30
A page for each synonym
And they can be number one
Authority File ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
There is a right spelling
Classification schemes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Classification schemes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Classification schemes Parent / Child (amazon.com)
Classification Schemes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Thesauri ,[object Object],[object Object],Santa Claus Winter holidays Hanukah, Kwanzaa X-mas,  Nöel   Christmas Associated Parent Siblings Variants Preferred term
Associations
Associations ,[object Object]
Associations
Associations
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Building your own ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What kind of CV do you need?  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Pareto’s Principle: a.k.a. the “80/20 Rule” ,[object Object],[object Object]
Useful IA guidelines ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Getting answers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Content Inventory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Identify all content and attributes
Term harvesting ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sorting Terms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sleeping Bags        BT Camping         NT Down Sleeping Bags        NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags        NT Family Sleeping Bags        NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags                NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags               NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags        NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags                NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags               NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags               RT Backpacks                RT Ultralight Backpacking        RT Sleeping Bag Liners        RT Sleeping Pads        RT Stuff Sacks        RT Pillows From  Creating a Controlled Vocabulary by  Karl Fast, Fred  Leise  and Mike  Steckel http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/creating_a_controlled_vocabulary.php
Sorting conflicts ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Associations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Possible Relationships  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
examples
Implement ,[object Object],[object Object]
Test ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Maintain ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Next Interface and Navigation
Interface & Navigation IA made visible “ Like putting an Armani suit on Attila the Hun, interface design only tells how to dress up an existing behavior.” – Alan Cooper
Most IA is invisible ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yahoo! Maps Legal turn One-way street No turns between 3pm and 6pm Concrete barrier Pedestrian walkway Speed limit 35 Road passes overhead Destination on the left Highway 101
The magic number? ,[object Object]
But not everything is simple  masthead Global links Folders Mail tools ad Other properties upsell Web search Related Services tip inbox ads ad Related Services upsell Mail tools Log out inbox Write mail And there isn’t even content!
Navigation orders complex pages
Understanding Navigation Message and Access
Global navigation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Global Navigation
Global navigation
Global navigation
Local Navigation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Local Navigation
Local Navigation
Local Navigation
Contextual navigation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Inline links
Related items
Examples of data manipulation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Content architecture Interaction Design Information /Interface design
Pagination Useful to reduce page download speed and cognitive overload. Annoying for printing.
Ad negotiation
Print/email/clip
Sort
Secondary Navigation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Have you ever seen this page?
How about this one?
How about this one?
You can make it helpful “ After testing several different sitemap designs on users, I decided to try putting one on every page of my small Columbian web site. I then decided to track how often it was used for navigation. It turns out  the sitemap is used for over 65% of all navigation done on the site .”  -- Usability Report by Peter Van Dijck of  poorbuthappy .com  (Guide to Columbia) http://www.webword.com/reports/sitemap.html
Conventions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conventions If 90% or more of the big sites do things  in a single way, then this is the de-facto standard and  you  have  to comply . Only deviate from a design standard if your alternative design has at least 100% higher measured usability. If 60-90% of the big sites do things  in a single way, then this is a strong convention and  you  should  comply  unless your alternative design has at least 50% higher measured usability. If less than 60% of the big sites do things in a single way, then there are no dominant conventions yet and you are free to design in an alternative way. -- Jakob Nielsen, November 14, 1999 Alertbox column   &quot;Identifying De-Facto Standards for E-Commerce Web Sites“ © 2003 Heidi P. Adkisson
Conventions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],&quot;Identifying De-Facto Standards for E-Commerce Web Sites“ © 2003 Heidi P. Adkisson
Homework: Prioritization
Now combine ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Next Understanding Search
Understanding Search The Web, your web
Does search stink? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
“ Most of the complaints we get are due to the way users search; they use the wrong keywords.” ,[object Object]
Vision ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Understanding search ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
A Yahoo Answer ,[object Object]
Your answers? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is a perfect user experience? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Search is a FAST experience ,[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Search must be fast
Design for speed of scan ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Smart things we did ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Search must be EASY ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],From E-Sex to E-Commerce: Web Search Changes -- Amanda Spink, Pennsylvania State University, Bernard J. Jansen, US Army War College, Dietmar Wolfram, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Search can be easy
Remember  your  context ,[object Object]
Take advantage of you ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
No Search? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Smart things IMDB did ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Smart things L.L. Bean did ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Smart things Launch did ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Dumb IBM search? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How will you be smart? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conclusion ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Q&A ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reading List ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reading List ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Information Architecture 101

  • 1. Information Architecture blueprints for the web Christina Wodtke & Tom Wailes, Yahoo! Inc.
  • 2.  
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  • 4.
  • 5. It is the design behind the design Diagram from Jesse James Garett’s Elements of User Experience
  • 6. Where it fits in design
  • 7.
  • 8. The elements and goals of IA Information Architecture Content architecture Organization of content for information retrieval findability Interaction Design Design of system behavior to promote usability Information /Interface design Design of information presentation to promote understandability
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  • 21. Next Understanding your problem through requirements
  • 22. Understanding your problem Requirements for success
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  • 41. Personas Never leave your user
  • 43.
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  • 47.
  • 48. Exercise: rapid persona creation
  • 50. Prioritize personas primary secondary special
  • 51. Prioritize personas primary secondary special
  • 52.
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  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Example Persona Scenarios Michael is doing his morning surf; he’s just left indiewire.com and has come to indieword.com. He reads through the new stories on Sundance and spots the link to the Festival Planner. He remembers he was just agonizing over having to wade through the huge number of films . He hopes this might make it simpler. Michael looks over the Festival Planner intro page. He wants to make sure this is going to save him time and not waste his time. He sees he can play with it without having to sign up, which is a relief ; he sees he can set up a schedule for the day based on his preferences. It seems painless; he sets his watch alarm for five minutes—at that time he’ll decide if he wants to continue. Preferably, he’ll be done. … … Festival Planner now gives him a schedule to review, with three films to pick from and an option to “see all for this time slot.” One film for each time slot is indicated as his “best pick.” Each shows how well it meets his taste and needs. And he can choose to “rest” and not select a film for that time period. Michael goes through the schedule; his wristwatch beeps, and he absent-mindedly shuts it off. He selects his films. As he chooses, he notices an option to get a report on any film when its available—he’s very excited by that. If he can’t see them all, at least he can get a sense of what he’s missing! Finally, Michael has a schedule that satisfies him. He notices he can e-mail the schedule to anyone. He sends a copy to his P.A. and to himself. 1. Emphasis on goals ^ 2. Avoiding interface design >
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61. Task analysis Purchasing a purse at nordstroms.com might include the tasks: 1. locate purse 2. add purse to shopping cart 3. check out
  • 62. Task analysis Purchasing a purse at nordstroms.com might include the tasks: 1. locate purse 2. add purse to shopping cart 3. check out f. Review order “ CHECK OUT” BECOMES g. Finalize checkout e. Input payment d. Input billing address c. Input shipping address b. Sign in/sign up a. Select checkout
  • 63.
  • 68. Content Architecture Make it make sense
  • 74. They are all birds (ornithologist)
  • 75. The Cassowary is not a bird! (the Karam)
  • 76. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man , Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
  • 77. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man , Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
  • 78.
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  • 92. Yahoo! Travel < meta name =' description ' content =&quot;Yahoo! Travel is a comprehensive online travel destination, where you can reserve flights, rental cars, hotel rooms, cruises and vacation packages, all in one place. Research trips from a wealth of planning resources including destination and city guides, user and expert reviews, local weather and currency information, and much more. Yahoo! Travel has competitive prices on everything from airfare to lodging, it's easy to find great deals and special offers&quot;> < meta name =' keywords ' content ='online airfare airfares hotel car reservations travelocity airlines tickets airplane air line air fares arifares airline low fairs fares cheap tickets flights book information flight itinerary itineraries online reservations online tickets online travel agents vacations cruise cruises cruiselines business travel busines corporate hotels discounts car cars rental lasvegas tickets travel reservations online travel travel bookings online bookings book airfare fare wars discount fares sales lowest vacation planning information travel agencies travel sites disney world florida orlando miami atlanta ATL Dallas DFW DCA LAS LAX NYC ORD SFO atl dfw dca las lax nyc ord sfo Washington D.C. washington dc los angeles Los Angeles new york New York new york city New York City San Francisco sanfrancisco family trips family vacation family vacations'>
  • 93.
  • 95.
  • 96.
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  • 100. When humans and computers interact I’ve got music I want music.
  • 101. Humans are good at figuring things out Hip Hop Rap. Rock. Dance.
  • 102. Most of the time Jiggy tunes ?
  • 103. But computers are literal Acid reggae ? No matches found
  • 104. Add more on how they are literal
  • 105. And need help Acid Reggae? ? Let’s give them “Dance and DJ” IA
  • 106.
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  • 114. Bizrate takes good advantage It may be the Canon PowerShot S30
  • 115. But what do people call it? Cannon S30 Powershot S30 S30 Canon S30
  • 116. A page for each synonym
  • 117. And they can be number one
  • 118.
  • 119. There is a right spelling
  • 120.
  • 121.
  • 122. Classification schemes Parent / Child (amazon.com)
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  • 138. Sleeping Bags        BT Camping        NT Down Sleeping Bags        NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags        NT Family Sleeping Bags        NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags               NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags               NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags        NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags               NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags               NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags               RT Backpacks               RT Ultralight Backpacking        RT Sleeping Bag Liners        RT Sleeping Pads        RT Stuff Sacks        RT Pillows From Creating a Controlled Vocabulary by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/creating_a_controlled_vocabulary.php
  • 139.
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  • 146. Next Interface and Navigation
  • 147. Interface & Navigation IA made visible “ Like putting an Armani suit on Attila the Hun, interface design only tells how to dress up an existing behavior.” – Alan Cooper
  • 148.
  • 149. Yahoo! Maps Legal turn One-way street No turns between 3pm and 6pm Concrete barrier Pedestrian walkway Speed limit 35 Road passes overhead Destination on the left Highway 101
  • 150.
  • 151. But not everything is simple masthead Global links Folders Mail tools ad Other properties upsell Web search Related Services tip inbox ads ad Related Services upsell Mail tools Log out inbox Write mail And there isn’t even content!
  • 154.
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  • 166. Pagination Useful to reduce page download speed and cognitive overload. Annoying for printing.
  • 169. Sort
  • 170.
  • 171. Have you ever seen this page?
  • 172. How about this one?
  • 173. How about this one?
  • 174. You can make it helpful “ After testing several different sitemap designs on users, I decided to try putting one on every page of my small Columbian web site. I then decided to track how often it was used for navigation. It turns out the sitemap is used for over 65% of all navigation done on the site .”  -- Usability Report by Peter Van Dijck of poorbuthappy .com (Guide to Columbia) http://www.webword.com/reports/sitemap.html
  • 175.
  • 176. Conventions If 90% or more of the big sites do things in a single way, then this is the de-facto standard and you have to comply . Only deviate from a design standard if your alternative design has at least 100% higher measured usability. If 60-90% of the big sites do things in a single way, then this is a strong convention and you should comply unless your alternative design has at least 50% higher measured usability. If less than 60% of the big sites do things in a single way, then there are no dominant conventions yet and you are free to design in an alternative way. -- Jakob Nielsen, November 14, 1999 Alertbox column &quot;Identifying De-Facto Standards for E-Commerce Web Sites“ © 2003 Heidi P. Adkisson
  • 177.
  • 179.
  • 181. Understanding Search The Web, your web
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