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Closed Doors
Suffering
2
Coordinator : Milan Dharel
Team Leader : Bindu Gautam
Research Associate : Karuna Tamrakar
Editing : Simon Gautam & Mich...
3
A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s
In spite of Nepal’s ratification and commitment to various
international standards and t...
4
The project was founded on the reference of SCNN-CWIN
study on child sexual abuse “Silent Suffering”, but still there
wa...
5
The work from civil society and the government side in
Nepal for children have been able to make positive changes
on the...
6
We expect the information, analysis; discussion, conclusion
and recommendations from this study would help you all
peopl...
7
List of abbreviations
UN UnitedNations
UNCRC UnitedNationsConventionontheRightsofChild
UNICEF UnitedNationsChildren’sFun...
8
9
Both Children-Women in Social Service and Human Rights
(CWISH) and Save the Children Norway Nepal (SCNN)
are jointly wor...
10
share their experiences in focus group discussions, recording
their case stories, making informal observations, interac...
11
and protection services. The study records the magnitude
of the perception of both child workers and their employers
wh...
12
sexually. However, 77.70 per cent children thought the
offender to blame for abusing children, and the rest thought
the...
13
Recommendations
The findings and the conclusions of the study strongly
suggest the key stakeholders—parents, guardians,...
14
15
C o n t e n t s
Executive Summary 9
1. Introduction
1.1 Background 17
1.2 Define Sexual Abuse 20
1.3 Statement of the P...
16
3. Findings
3.1 Socio-Economic Profiles of Respondents 53
3.2 Perspective and Practice of Employing CDWs 56
3.3 Perspec...
17
Involving children in domestic service is a traditional practice
in Nepal. In a feudal society children of poor and lan...
18
1
A Rapid Assessment on Child Domestic Workers in Kathmandu Valley
2001, Dr. Shiva Sharma, ILO-IPEC, National Labor Aca...
19
Social Service and Human Rights (CWISH) has been
addressing the problems of child domestic labour with a
view to improv...
20
are away from their family and home and there exists a
power hierarchy between the employer, and the employees’
family....
21
adult or another child who by age or development is in a
relationshipofresponsibility,trustorpower,theactivitybeing
int...
22
including physical, emotional, and sexual abuses.
Of all forms of abuse, perhaps the most difficult one for
people to c...
23
there is currently a gap of factual information.
This rationale is consistent with the broader international
view that ...
24
child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social
development. (2) States Parties shall take legislative,
...
25
States Parties in a position to do so shall provide financial,
technical or other assistance through existing multilate...
26
The more specific objectives of the study are to:
investigate the level of understanding and awareness
of CDWs and empl...
27
Bouddha, Saraswatinagar, Balaju, Kuleshwar, Kusunti,
Satdobato, Balkumari, Koteshwar, Sanepa, Maijubahal,
Anamnagar and...
28
The team members and NFE facilitators were provided
orientation on various aspects of sexual abuse and
communication sk...
29
and experiences in the issue. For this purpose, a daylong
workshop was held for boys and girls separately. This was
don...
30
Focus group discussion
In order to facilitate group interaction among the employers
and provide a better understanding ...
31
issue by children themselves. Many children immediately
translated the issue as child sexual abuse.
Before administerin...
32
discussion, often girls shared awkward glances and showed
uneasiness in front of the boys. Some girls even giggled
and ...
33
1.6.6 Information processing and analysis
The information received through the survey was processed
through software de...
34
The research was conducted towards the end of the 9-
months NFE course.As a result, many children had already
left the ...
35
Discussions on
Child Sexual Abuse
twoChapter
There are many studies on child sexual abuse which
consequently have defin...
36
This definition includes non-contact forms of abuse, such
as flashing, sexualized talk and showing pornography to
child...
37
consent, or that violate the social taboos of family roles.”
According to this definition, child sexual abuse includes ...
38
Usually the perpetrator has easy access to the child because
she/he has sole responsibility for the child, or takes car...
39
The victim
All children are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Sexual abuse
and incest occur in every race, class, religion, c...
40
Children vary in their responses to sexual abuse. The
manner in which adults react to the child’s disclosure
is an impo...
41
A lack of adequate care, supervision and protection leaves
the child exposed to the approaches of molesters, and
vulner...
42
traumatogenic factors, which can lead to negative
psychological effects in children after sexual abuse. These
are the b...
43
greater duration and frequency of the abuse (Elliot
and Briere 1992);
multiple perpetrators (Peters 1988);
presence of ...
44
Those who have been abused and subsequently have positive
school experiences, where they feel to have succeeded
academi...
45
an offender may be so drunk or high that he/she cannot
be considered responsible for what he/she did;
children and youn...
46
While it is popularly thought that far more girls are sexually
abused than boys, current research estimates show that
o...
47
young person feel good physically. In many cases, a
child does not have the emotional tools to understand
what is happe...
48
Norrkoping (Sveden in Svedin et al. 1996) emphasizes this.
Ninechildreninvolvedintheringshadbeensubjectedtosexual
abuse...
49
reported. In a study conducted on child sexual abuse (1999)
by Teaching Hospital under “Mental health project”, 25 per
...
50
2.8 Child Domestic Workers and SexualAbuse
The existence of CDWs is a grim reality in Nepal. A study
conducted by CWISH...
51
Studies show that CDWs fall prey to the employers’ sexual
exploitation due to the formers’ vulnerability and isolation
...
52
53
Findings
threeChapter
3.1 Socio- Economic Profiles of Respondents
3.1.1 Employers
There were 60 female and 30 male empl...
54
Table 3.1.1: Demographic Information of Respondents
3.1.2 Child Domestic Workers (CDWs)
Out of total CDW respondents pa...
55
Most CDWs were from the indigenous groups and very
few were from Brahmin community (13.11%). In spite of
the existing c...
56
3.2 Perspective and Practice of Employing CDWs
3.2.1 Employer’s perspective
Usual work of CDWs
The majority of employer...
57
Preferred sex, age and caste of CDWs
Employers, especially females (62.22%) preferred to have
female CDWs. The common t...
58
group said they would accept Dalits as their employees.
This indicates the traditional attitude to Dalits still very st...
59
Most children visited their families during festivals according
to their religion such as Dashain (64.92%), Tihar (19.0...
60
per cent of the respondents said 9 -10 p.m. was their usual
time: with male respondents tending to go to bed earlier
th...
61
3.3 Perspectives on Child Sexual Abuse
3.3.1 Employers’ perspective
Understanding of CSA
Employers defined child abuse ...
62
In spite of employers claiming that they were aware of
child sexual abuse, only 55.56 per cent considered that both
con...
63
Table 3.3.1 B: Employers’ Perception of Child Sexual
Abuse (by sex and age)
Child’s Vulnerability to Abuse
A large numb...
64
The majority employers (54.44%) identified any age group
to be at risk. The number of employers with this belief is
fou...
65
According to the literacy status of children, the majority of
employers (53.33%) believed that illiterate children were...
66
both males and females could sexually abuse children, the
number was found to be higher among male employers
(60%), amo...
67
According to the offenders’ personal character
Regarding the offenders’ personal character, majority of
respondents (63...
68
socially accepted behaviours. This reinforces the higher
amount of risk of abuse for children, makes it all the more
di...
69
communities, while 27.78 per cent believed it could occur
in both the middle class and rich communities. At the same
ti...
70
Table 3.3.3 A: Employers’ Perception to be Responsible
for CSA (by Caste/Ethnicity)
There are 2 out of 90 respondents, ...
71
The concept that both children and the offenders are
responsible for child sexual abuse provides offenders with a
prete...
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Closed door suffering

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In 2003, to combat with the silent suffering of
children especially child domestic workers, CWISH started
the project “Combating Silent Suffering of Children” with
the objective to intensively focused against sexual abuse of
children and protecting them from such suffering including
providing care, support and services.
A study was conducted to obtain information on the problems of sexual abuse of child domestic workers who were out of school.

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Closed door suffering

  1. 1. 1 Closed Doors Suffering
  2. 2. 2 Coordinator : Milan Dharel Team Leader : Bindu Gautam Research Associate : Karuna Tamrakar Editing : Simon Gautam & Michale Croker Statistician : Mohan Khajum Pictorial Expert : Prithvi Shrestha Assistated by : Yubaraj Ghimire, Writu Bhatta, Pratisha Dewan Enumerators : Kalpana Nepal, Prem Ghimire, Laxmi Khanal, Prashanta Dangol, Pabitra Oli, RupaAcharya, Radhika Bhattarai, Bhavani Pandey, Ganga Dahal, Gita Neupane, Trilochan Neupane, Prakash Sarki & Samjhana Basnet Cover Illustration : Rajan Kaphle Pre-Press : Times Creation, 4410059 Copyrights : @CWISH 2005 Supported by : Save The Children Norway-Nepal Program R e s e a r c h T e a m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
  3. 3. 3 A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s In spite of Nepal’s ratification and commitment to various international standards and treaties, Children in Nepal are suffering violation of rights. Adults and state mechanism responsible for respecting, fulfilling and promoting children’s fundamental rights are failed in several aspects. One of such rights violation is the problem of child abuse. A large number of children in Nepal are suffering from abuse, violence, discrimination and exploitation. Children living without family care and protection are further vulnerable to abusive practices. But still the problem is hidden and rarely exposed. In case of Sexual abuse and violence it has become further hidden due to the social stigma attached with this. Being a Human Rights organization focused on children, youth and women, CWISH could not overlook such issues. Working with Child Domestic Workers’ it has received a lot of complaints of sexual abuse against them by various actors. Thus in 2003, to combat with the silent suffering of children especially child domestic workers, CWISH started the project “Combating Silent Suffering of Children” with the objective to intensively focused against sexual abuse of children and protecting them from such suffering including providing care, support and services.
  4. 4. 4 The project was founded on the reference of SCNN-CWIN study on child sexual abuse “Silent Suffering”, but still there was not enough information on suffering of out of school child domestic workers. In fact CWISH has been observing a huge problem of sexual abuse against these children, while conducting educational programs. Therefore, to have information on the problems of sexual abuse of child domestic workers who are out of school, CWISH conducted this study “Closed Door Suffering” with the technical and financial support from Save the Children Norway Nepal Program. I would like to thank the team of Save the Children Norway and Sita Ghimire for their generous help and support. I hope the study would be valuable reference for people interested and working on protecting children from such a heinous crimes. I also expect that this study would be useful for getting an idea about the vulnerability of children and the conclusion and recommendations it made would be useful for programming purpose. We are thankful to the whole research team lead by Ms. Bindu Gautam along with Milan Dharel and Karuna Tamrakar for carrying out such a challenging task, to Michale Croker and Mr. Simon Gautam for editing of Language, Prithvi Shrestha for making questionnaire sketches and Times Creation team for making it possible to use with children in friendlier way. The children and the courage who made this study possible and reveal the issues.The NFE facilitators who involved in children consultation. Thanking all other remaining actors to make it a success. Ms. ShantiAdhikari Chairperson, 2005 December
  5. 5. 5 The work from civil society and the government side in Nepal for children have been able to make positive changes on the lives of children. Still some of the issues are overlooked and not responded properly. One of such problem was Child Sexual Abuse. The issues of child sexual abuse have not been appropriately and intensively addressed by the child rights interventions. It is also because it was hidden and not much investigated. There was almost absence of information on this issue. One of the research done by CWIN and SCNN in 2003 was first such kind of study, which has tried to highlight the problem, however it is also found not accessed to the out of school and working children, who are more vulnerable. Thus, finally the study “Closed Door Suffering” was carried out to fill up the gaps there. Doing research with children who are not able to read and write in such a sensitive issue (Sexual Abuse) was not an easy task. The research team has proved it’s ability with accepting and fulfilling the challenges. In Many places Facilitators (Enumerators) have been harassed by employers, in many cases children were not interested on responding to the questions and in some places employers blocked children to participate on the study process. Numbers of children were also identified having psychological trauma and still suffering of abuse during study period. Thanks to the CWISH Combating Silent Suffering projects and it’s counseling services, that provided them necessary support to coup with the problem and protect themselves. Crossing all the challenges, finally a study report has come out on your hand. P r e f a c e
  6. 6. 6 We expect the information, analysis; discussion, conclusion and recommendations from this study would help you all people to have an idea on the situation of sexual abuse, to develop appropriate programs and for government to think of formation and reformation as well as effective implementation of the policy. We know this is not the end, rather a beginning point. This report might not represent or be perfect from all side, we would be more than happy to receive your suggestion and feedback on this report that would enhance our work in future. Finally I would like to thank all my team members involved in the research without whose active involvement, it was almost impossible to make it. I would like to thank all those childrenandtheiremployersforparticipatinginstudyprocess and also allowing their child domestic workers to involve in the process. I thank to Michelle Crooker and Mr. Simon Gautam for their help on making language and writing more clear; thanks to Mr. Mohan Khajum for data processing and analysis;thankstoPrithiviShresthaandteamoftimescreation to design and producing child friendly pictorial questionnaire. Milan Dharel for excellent coordination and being great contributor for the study It was impossible without CWISH interest and commitment and Save the Children Norway Nepal financial and technical support to make this study happen. I would like to thank Ms. Shanti Adhikari, Chairperson of CWISH and her team as well as Ms. Sita Ghimire from SCNN and the team there for their cooperation support. Once again thanking you all those who are involved directly indirectly in this study. Ms.BinduGautam, Research Team Leader, December 2005.
  7. 7. 7 List of abbreviations UN UnitedNations UNCRC UnitedNationsConventionontheRightsofChild UNICEF UnitedNationsChildren’sFund ILO InternationalLaborOrganization IPEC InternationalProgramtoEliminateChildLabor CWISH Children-WomenInSocialServiceandHumanRights CWIN ChildWorkersinNepalConcernedCentre CDWs ChildDomesticWorkers NLA NationalLabourAcademy SCNN SavetheChildrenNorwayNepal UNGASS UnitedNationsGeneralAssemblySpecialSession NFE Non-FormalEducation FGD FocusGroupDiscussion CSA ChildSexualAbuse UNCHR UnitedNations(High)CommissiononHumanRights NGO Non-GovernmentOrganization SMS Short Message Service DDC DistrictDevelopmentCommittee VDC VillageDevelopmentCommittee
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Both Children-Women in Social Service and Human Rights (CWISH) and Save the Children Norway Nepal (SCNN) are jointly working on combating Child SexualAbuse (CSA) since 2003. The study assumes that CSA, a crime against children, highly prevails in Nepal and it is underreported Objectives and Methodology The study broadly seeks to contribute to the identification of key issues surrounding cases of Child Domestic Workers (CDWs), and to recommend strategies to address them. Whereas specifically the study seeks to: investigate the level of understanding among CDWs and employers about CSA; identify types and magnitude of CSA and sexual offenders of CDWs; understand the employers’ perception of CSA; and finally recommend actions to help prevent and address sexual abuse of CDWs. Both qualitative and quantitative tools were adopted to meet the objectives of the study. This involved letting the children Executive Summary
  10. 10. 10 share their experiences in focus group discussions, recording their case stories, making informal observations, interacting with all the stakeholders through checklists, structured and open-ended questionnaire, and making unstructured interviews. An extensive pictorial questionnaire was developed and used to generate information from the children. The study was conducted with 306 CDWs aged 8 -16, and currently attending non-formal education programmes (NFE). The study was conducted in two phases; the first phase involved identifying the CDWs’ understanding level of CSA, and second phase conducting a prevalence survey ensuring that they respond with a sense of awareness and freedom of conscience. The children who were identified with problems of abuse were either taken to the ANTARJYOTI psychosocial care and support center or CWISH counselor visited them for counseling and services. Besides, the CDWs’ respective employers were also interviewed. Findings The findings of the study Closed-door Sufferings are varied: some relate to new facts, while others confirm the existing facts. The act of child sexual abuse in the Nepali society is at alarming level, and the indication is that it can go further for the reason that it is kept hidden due to the associated myths and social taboos on sex issues. People rarely discuss and raise their concern over such issues. Such social behavior has forced the children to all the more suffer from the abuses silently in whatever form it may come to them. And those children who are living out of their home without their family support and not going to school and living as workers are further victimized. CDWs are perceived as highly vulnerable groups because of their confinement, invisibility and lack of access to family support
  11. 11. 11 and protection services. The study records the magnitude of the perception of both child workers and their employers which may contribute to future programming in combating against the act of CSA. The CDWs’ adult employers too showed low level of knowledge and understanding of the issue of CSA: out of 90 interviewees, only 55 per cent agreed with both contact and non-contact forms of activities as sexual abuse. Only 60 per cent thought both boys and girls were vulnerable, and the remaining thought only girls were vulnerable.Almost 48 per cent of the employers believed both male and female could sexually molest children, while 44.44 per cent thought only male could do so and only 1.11 per cent thought only female could do so. Only 73.33 per cent employers thought it was only offenders to blame for child sexual abuse, while others believed children were also responsible for the act. However, 49 per cent of employers believed persuading and offering gifts was the way to start abusing children. A greater number of employers perceived that the offenders used threats and force to abuse children. A 24.44 per cent of employers believed that since children did not complain, they were also responsible for what happened to them. Similarly, 17.78 per cent thought children made false stories, and 11.11 per cent said they enjoyed talking about sex, if a child reported them against sexual abuse case.A96 percent of employers agreed to educate children about CSA, and teach them protection skills. Almost all the out-of-school CDWs were not aware of different activities that could be considered as CSA cases, because only 2.30 per cent mentioned the non-contact forms of abuse also as CSA. However, 59 per cent of them thought both boys and girls were at risk of sexual abuse, still 40 per cent stuck to either sex group. Only 19 per cent of respondents mentioned anyone could abuse children
  12. 12. 12 sexually. However, 77.70 per cent children thought the offender to blame for abusing children, and the rest thought the children themselves were also responsible. Sexual abuse against out-of-school CDWs is quite high (54.90%), and quite against the general belief, the percentages of CSA cases among the girls (55.25%) and the boys (54.40%) are almost similar. Surprisingly contact forms of abuse (56.55%) are found higher than the non contact forms (43.45%). A 34 per cent of respondents mentioned that they were even suffering during the survey period. Majority respondents held males as the only offenders (82.74%), while a small percentage held females as the only offenders (4.76%) and equally the same percentage held both males and females as the offenders (4.76%). Though a higher number of respondents said they did not know the offender before, the latter met the victim frequently they knew each other (26.19%), they offered friendship (19.05%) and showed affection (17.26%) before the act of abuse. Only 15.48 per cent threatened and 11.31 per cent exercised power over the victim. Only 51 per cent children reported what happened to them to someone and the remaining 49 per cent did not do so, for they got afraid of (40.48%), and felt hurt (30.95%) after they were abused. They also did not report the abuse because almost 29 per cent said the offenders threatened them, and 25.61 per cent said they feared of losing prestige. Consequently, the magnitude of the prevalence of the CDWs’ sexual abuse and the low level of knowledge and understanding of the issue in parents, employers and children themselves have further increased their vulnerability and prevented them from reporting and access to support services.
  13. 13. 13 Recommendations The findings and the conclusions of the study strongly suggest the key stakeholders—parents, guardians, concerned organizations and finally State—to move towards creating children’s voice nationwide and implementing the strategic activities by: educating and empowering children especially the child workers such as the CDWs with the establishment of community-based mechanisms and systems of support for children at home, working places and community level; completelybanningtheemploymentofchildrenofsmall age at domestic level and ensuring them school education; empowering all children to understand the happenings against them and to protest and seek support if need be; taking in view the current situation, enabling parents, guardians and employers of working children to protect the latter from the risk of their being abused and to access them to support services; and establishing functionary child-friendly protection system guided by necessary instruments of laws and policies both at local and national levels and tying them into greater networks.
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 C o n t e n t s Executive Summary 9 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 17 1.2 Define Sexual Abuse 20 1.3 Statement of the Problem 21 1.4 Rationale 22 1.5 Objectives of the Study 25 1.6 Methodology of the Study 26 1.7 Limitations of the Study 33 2. Discussions on Child Sexual Abuse 2.1 Concepts about Child Sexual Abuse 35 2.2 Concepts abou Offenders and Victims 37 2.3 Family Risk Factors 40 2.4 Sympoms and Behavioral Disorders as Indications of Sexual Abuse 41 2.5 Myths Associated with Child Sexual Abuse 44 2.6 Some Facts about Child Sexual Abuse 46 2.7 Some Facts about Child Sexual Abuse in Nepal 48 2.8 Child Domestic Workers and Sexual Abuse 50
  16. 16. 16 3. Findings 3.1 Socio-Economic Profiles of Respondents 53 3.2 Perspective and Practice of Employing CDWs 56 3.3 Perspectives on Child Sexual Abuse 61 3.4 Prevalence of Sexual Abuse of CDWs 83 4. Discussion of Key Findings 4.1 Child Domestic and Sexual Abuse 97 4.2 Rights Violations : A Serious Issue 100 5. Conclusion and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusion 105 5.2 Recommendations 108 Bibliography 115 Annexes Annex 1: Guidelines for Facilitating/Working with Children Annex 2 : Checklist for Focus Group Discusion Annex 3 : Questionnaires Annex 4 : Findings Table Details
  17. 17. 17 Involving children in domestic service is a traditional practice in Nepal. In a feudal society children of poor and landless families are sent to work at their feudal lords’ houses as domestic servants. Some work as bonded labourers, which is a slavery-like practice prevalent even to this day in Nepal. Over time, the practice of Child DomesticWorkers (CDWs) has become a common phenomenon. 1.1 Background Introduction oneChapter
  18. 18. 18 1 A Rapid Assessment on Child Domestic Workers in Kathmandu Valley 2001, Dr. Shiva Sharma, ILO-IPEC, National Labor Academy). 2 Annual Status Report, Children in Domestic Service in Kathmandu Valley 2005, CWISH. One reason behind the increase in the number of child labourers has been Nepal’s unstable political situation. Since the rise of conflict, it became a common thing for children to go to work as domestic labourers. The villages remained no longer a safe place for even adults. Many schools got closed due to conflict-led threats, teachers’ abduction, and forceful recruitment of children as soldiers. Women/mothers began to be killed for no reason by both the state and the rebels. Consequently, young children forcefully became school dropouts that led them, at a tender age, to take up petty jobs for paltry wages. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), the number of children working as CDWs is dangerously high in the Kathmandu Valley. A total of 56,000 children are in domestic service spread in all the 58 urban areas of Nepal1 . Employing children as domestic servants is more widespread in the cities than in the villages as most of the poverty-ridden villagers often feel that sending their children to the cities as domestic labourers guarantees food, shelter, clothing and even education. Children are preferred as domestic labourers mainly because they are cheap, they tend not to complain, are vulnerable and easy to manipulate, intimidate and exploit. Studies reveal that a child works for a wage five times less that than that demanded by an average adult2 . For instance the minimum daily wage is Rs. 67, while a child domestic worker earns only around Rs. 300 per month. CDWs are often vulnerable to exploitation by their own employers, physically, mentally and sexually. Since its establishment in 1996, Children and Women in
  19. 19. 19 Social Service and Human Rights (CWISH) has been addressing the problems of child domestic labour with a view to improve the children’s situation, and ultimately end this worst form of child labour. Following its long term strategic objective to eliminate the practice of child domestic labour, CWISH has worked with more than 6,000 children in domestic labour. Through its work with CDWs, CWISH has identified the prevalence of child sexual abuse as, a critical issue. Save the Children Norway Nepal (SCNN) believes that sexual abuse puts a child’s survival and development at risk, reinforcesdiscrimination,deniesanymeaningfulparticipation of the child in matters that affect them and is definitely not in the best interests of the child. Therefore, SCNN aims to contribute to protecting children from sexual abuse and exploitation and to reducing the incidence and impact of child sexual abuse and exploitation (SCNN Policy). Child sexual abuse is a major problem experienced by children worldwide, including Nepal. However, most Nepalese are ignorant of this issue. Talking about sex, sexuality and sexual issues is considered a social taboo in Nepali culture, and so child sex related matters are even more of an embarrassment, disgrace and taboo. Children are expected to obey their elders no matter what they ask, and this cultural factor places them in a relatively powerless situation. For example, in a situation where an adult abuses a child, the latter can neither directly oppose the offensive behaviour, nor share his/her problem with others. Sexual abuse of CDWs is considered to be common due to the child’s vulnerability and isolation at their employers’ homes. However, it cannot be ignored that all children are at risk of sexual abuse everywhere. CDWs are considered to be in a more vulnerable situation of sexual abuse as they
  20. 20. 20 are away from their family and home and there exists a power hierarchy between the employer, and the employees’ family. CDWs often do not have anyone with whom they can share their feelings, problems and pains. Despite the CDWs facing mounting problems, no study has to date determined, in a focused manner, the extent of their sexual abuse in the Nepali society. The only related study made so far was a CWIN and SCNN joint research on child sexual abuse among school going children in which some participants were from CDWs. So, with a view to filling in the information gap, CWISH and SCNN conducted the study among the out-of-school CDWs in Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts. Both of these organizations have been jointly working on combating against CSA since 2003. 1.2 Defining Child SexualAbuse Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) and exploitation is a global phenomenon. It is a serious violation of child rights. SCNN is dedicated to working for the protection of children from sexual abuse and exploitation pursuant to the UN Convention on Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The organization works on the basis of the universally accepted definition of CSA as “the imposition of sexual acts, or acts with sexual overtones, by one or more persons on a child” with a view to effectively address the problems of girls and boys, and the study is guided by this common definition. According to a WHO definition, Child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violate the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by an activity between a child and an
  21. 21. 21 adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationshipofresponsibility,trustorpower,theactivitybeing intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. This may include but is not limited to the inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; the exploitative use of a child in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; the exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. (Consultation on ChildAbuse Prevention (62), 1999) More specifically, child sexual abuse includes indecent touching, penetration and sexual torture, as well as indecent exposure, using sexually explicit language towards a child and showing children pornographic material. It includes all forms of sexual abuse and exploitation under the general definition of sexual abuse. Note: The legal age of consent defines when a child is regarded mature enough to consent to mutually desired sexual relations. The legal age of consent in Nepal is above the age of 16, however, the UNCRC defines anyone as child up to the age of 18. 1.3 Statement of the Problem ILO estimates the domestic work in the households of families other than that of the child’s own is the largest single employment category of under 16 girls in the world. Although the numbers that this represents are ‘don’t know’, it is likely to run into millions worldwide. Aside from the magnitude of children involved in domestic work, the most alarming aspect is their condition of work. They live and work in a closed-door condition, which is a life with no public view, at their employers’ home. Their invisibility, lack of negotiating power, and lack of awareness of their rights makes CDWs vulnerable to exploitation,
  22. 22. 22 including physical, emotional, and sexual abuses. Of all forms of abuse, perhaps the most difficult one for people to come to terms with is that of sexual abuse. However, for long, incidents of sexual abuse were spoken in hushed voices. Studies suggest that a vast number of survivors of sexual abuse are the children. It shows that one in four girls and one in six boys are the victims of unwanted sexual acts before turning 18. Children are raped, sodomised and sexually exploited in different ways routinely in all classes and areas of society. Many children in the worldaresexuallyabusedintheirfamilies,theircommunities, at the workplaces and in the streets. With the growing popularity of internet, children are forced to participate in the production of pornographic movies or view the images. CSA affects victims across all aspects of their lives. They often become physically damaged and emotionally traumatized. While it is clear that not all CDWs suffer abuse, neglect, or exploitation and that their working conditions may not necessarily be dangerous or inhumane, but we should not ignore the fact that a significant number of CDWs face sexual abuse. They often do not talk about sexual abuse committed against them due to shame, guilt and fear of repercussions or disbelief from their family back home. If they do speak it out, it is likely that they will experience shame, guilt and bring dishonour to their own families. Consequently they meekly accept the abuse and suffer the pain therefrom. 1.4 Rationale The underlying rationale for this joint CWISH and SCNN report is to raise awareness and help facilitate action to prevent and protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation. The study primarily focuses on CDWs, because
  23. 23. 23 there is currently a gap of factual information. This rationale is consistent with the broader international view that it is the responsibility of every civil society and its individuals to bring an end to all forms of sexual abuse and exploitation experienced by children. The Child Rights Convention (CRC) 1989 clearly states the responsibility for protection of children from sexual abuse and exploitation. Likewise, the Declaration of UNGASS “World Fit for Children” also calls for work on the protection of children from sexual abuse. The ILO Conventions 138,182 and recommendation 190 call for actions to end the child workers’ sexual harassment at work. TheUNConventionontheRightsofChild(UNCRC)states: Article 19: (1) States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child. (2) Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.” Article 32: (1) States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the
  24. 24. 24 child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. (2) States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular: (a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment; (b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment; (c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article. Article 34: States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent: (a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; (b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; (c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (come into force on 18 January 2002): Article 10 (3) States Parties shall promote the strengthening of international cooperation in order to address the root causes, such as poverty and underdevelopment, contributing to the vulnerability of children to the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography and child sex tourism. (4.)
  25. 25. 25 States Parties in a position to do so shall provide financial, technical or other assistance through existing multilateral, regional, bilateral or other programmes. Nepal’s Tenth National Plan also includes a call for action to end child abuse. It states a long term objective to end all kinds of violence, exploitation and discrimination against women and children. Similarly, on the policy of action to mainstream child rights, it calls for protection of children from all kinds of violent activities, abuse and exploitations. Despite all these policy instruments, the reality in Nepal is that CSA highly prevails, but it is underreported. Even among the reported CSA cases, a large number of them lack proper care and service. There are very few programmes and services that have targeted children to protect them from sexual abuse, unlike in trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. The children who are poor, disadvantaged and marginalized such as CDWs are at high risk of sexual abuse because of their less power in social system and isolation from family care and support. Therefore there is urgent need of exact information and figures to draw out concrete programmes so as to protect the poorest of the poor children from such heinous crime and also to raise social concern on child protection. Keeping children’s best interest in view, this study can be a milestone for child protection advocacy and campaign against child sexual abuse. 1.5 Objectives of the Study The broad objective of this study is to contribute to the identification of key issues surrounding CSA cases among CDWs, and recommend strategies to address these issues.
  26. 26. 26 The more specific objectives of the study are to: investigate the level of understanding and awareness of CDWs and employers about child sexual abuse; identify types and the magnitude of CSA committed against CDWs; identify the sexual offenders of CDWs; understand the perception of employers of child sexual abuse; and lay out recommendations for action to help prevent and address sexual abuse of CDWs. 1.6 Methodology of the Study The study is based upon both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Human behaviour is not easily encapsulated in numbers and percentages. Therefore, for purpose of studying a sensitive issue like sexual abuse of CDWs, it is necessary to employ both techniques to get the best of information. 1.6.1 Study samples and distribution of sample locations The research into sexual abuse of children in domestic services was carried out on children in domestic services between 8 -16 who are currently attending the non-formal education (NFE) programme run by CWISH. There were 306 CDWs involved in the study. Most of the CDWs worked full time, while others worked part time. Their respective employers were also involved in the study. The employers’ consent for participation in the study was received before the research team spoke to them and the CDWs about the study. CDWs from all 17 CWISH non-formal classes in the valley participated in the research. They were located in Chabahil, Dhumbarahi, Maharajgunj, Basundhara,
  27. 27. 27 Bouddha, Saraswatinagar, Balaju, Kuleshwar, Kusunti, Satdobato, Balkumari, Koteshwar, Sanepa, Maijubahal, Anamnagar and Gyaneshwar. 1.6.2 Questionnaire development and pre-test The questionnaire for both employers and children was developed with utmost care in view of the subject’s sensitivity. The pictorial questionnaire for the children was carefully scrutinized before it was finalized. This was done in order to present the pictures of various forms of sexual abuse in a respectable form. Pilot tests were conducted separately with the CDWs and employers to assess the validity of the questionnaire. Some of the employers were illiterate and they were assisted while filling in the survey questions. After the test, it was decided not to involve the illiterate employers in the questionnaire session. Following the completion of the pilot test, the questionnaire for all the CDWs attending NFE centres and their respective employers was finalized. 1.6.3 Construction of study team and its orientation Considering the sensitivity of the matter and seriousness of the study, the team was formulated consisting of a female team leader with long experience in social research. Assisting her were a child rights female research associate, a statistician, and an artist (pictorial expert) and various other enumerators. In addition, facilitators from all NFE centres were also involved in the process of administering questionnaire to the children. Besides, a child counsellor’s expertise was used in the study. To lead the entire study project to a successful end, a senior CWISH staff coordinated it. Other CWISH staff members also gave their helping hand to the study project.
  28. 28. 28 The team members and NFE facilitators were provided orientation on various aspects of sexual abuse and communication skills. Proper communication skills were essential to bring out and address the actual problems faced by the children while avoiding further victimization of the children. Different ways of administering both pictorial and non-pictorial forms of questionnaire to the children were discussed in order to put the children at ease and conduct the study in a friendly environment. Emphasis was put on maintaining confidentiality of any sort of sexual abuse that the children faced, to avoid further victimization. Ways of addressing unseen problems and issues in the process of the study were also discussed. Guidelines were provided to all the team members and NFE facilitators while working with the children. (Annex 1) 1.6.4 Management of the fieldwork Collection of primary data in the field was made through focus group discussion and filling in of survey questionnaire. A facilitator from the respective NFE centres administered thestructuredquestionnairetotheemployers.Whileconducting focus group discussions with the employers, care was taken not to involve the employers who had already participated the questionnaire session in order to avoid repetition. Focus group discussions were held with the employers of CDWs of seven different NFE centres. In these sessions were involved, both employers who were literate, and those who had difficulty in reading and writing. Two different facilitators conducted the focus group discussions simultaneously along with the respective NFE facilitators. After assessing the views of the employers on the issue of child sexual abuse, CDWs of the NFE centres were involved in filling out the questionnaire and discussing their views
  29. 29. 29 and experiences in the issue. For this purpose, a daylong workshop was held for boys and girls separately. This was done to avoid gender awkwardness. Two different groups were formed to conduct these workshops simultaneously, with the CDWs of all 17 NFE centres. Each research team consisted of five members - a facilitator, three volunteers, along with an NFE facilitator of the respective NFE centre. A team of at least five members was required to give individual attention to the children while administering the questionnaire. After conducting the workshops in 6 different NFE centres, a review meeting was held with the team members. Problems encountered in the workshops were discussed in order to make the remaining workshops more successful. Again, care was taken not to re-victimize the children by making them give details, in front of other children, of the sexual abuse they had experienced. It was also important to ensure that the children felt that any sexual abuse committed against them was not their fault. Therefore, the team members were reminded not to focus on legal punishments. This was to help the children open up, and feel more comfortable in giving information. Similarly, emphasis was given on observation to gain clues about the vulnerability of the children. 1.6.5 Tools of the study Child sexual abuse is a very sensitive issue and children have great difficulty in sharing their experiences. Keeping this in view, different tools of data collection were employed in the study.
  30. 30. 30 Focus group discussion In order to facilitate group interaction among the employers and provide a better understanding of child sexual abuse, focus group discussions were held in seven different groups for the employers of the CDWs. This was conducted after the survey questions were administered to different groups of employers to avoid repetition and also to involve employers who had difficulty in reading and filling up the questions. Each group consisted of about 7-9 employers, both male and female. Two moderators simultaneously carried out the discussion in different centres along with an NFE facilitator as a note taker. Each session lasted about 2 hours. The FGDs were guided by issue-focused checklists. Structured questionnaire As mentioned earlier, the employers of CDWs participated in filling in the questionnaire that required their knowledge on child sexual abuse. Similarly, CDWs were also involved in filling in the different sets of structured questionnaire. Separate day-long workshops were organized for CDW boys and girls at NFE centres. They were encouraged to actively participate in the workshop to assess their knowledge of sexual abuse and the prevalence of child sexual abuse of CDWs. The workshop used child friendly tools to create an environment to facilitate rapport building with the children. Different ways of introducing issues included songs, role plays, dramas and giving out prizes. Taking into consideration the children’s level of understanding, use of technical terms was avoided to make the child more comfortable. For example, instead of using the term “child sexual abuse”, simple expressions like “problems encountered in the daily lives such as eve teasing, uneasy feelings when fondled by someone, unwanted kissing,” and the like were used initially to bring out the
  31. 31. 31 issue by children themselves. Many children immediately translated the issue as child sexual abuse. Before administering the structured questionnaire relating to knowledge and understanding of child sexual abuse, the children were told to give their views on child sexual abuse. Interestingly there were always some children who had some knowledge on this issue. This prevented the facilitator having to explain what child sexual abuse is before the children’s knowledge was assessed. After completing the first set of questionnaire, orientation on CSA was given by a team member. Role plays by the team members further helped the children to open up and freely conduct the second set of questionnaire mainly focused on bringing out the magnitude and types of sexual abuses experienced by the children. Children were asked to draw pictures on issues of CSA they might have felt, seen or heard or which had concerned them. The workshop ended with songs or some other forms of entertainment. Externalinterferencewasnotallowedtodisturbtheworkshop sothatthechildrenremainedfocused.Similarly,childrenwere constantly reminded not to humiliate other children, and to maintain secrecy about the information shared. Informal observation Observationwasanotherimportanttooltocollectinformation from the workshops held for the CDWs without disturbing the flow of activity. Factors like facial expressions of the children while sharing their experiences, and those of other children who were listening to them, their body postures, feeling of uneasiness they showed, or their gestures were constantly kept under observation. In the observation of the employers during focus group
  32. 32. 32 discussion, often girls shared awkward glances and showed uneasiness in front of the boys. Some girls even giggled and others looked down instead of sharing their opinions. To create an environment of confidential sharing, some participants were given more attention and sharing chance in other confidential places. Open ended questionnaire In the structured questionnaire designed for CDWs and their employers, some open-ended questions also were included to get qualitative information. The team members helped write down the children’s answers because of the children’s inability to write in readable forms. Unstructured interview In the process of facilitating the children in filling in the questionnaire, some children were identified as cases and they were on the spot interviewed along with some form of counselling. For example, when a child expressed indications that she/he was abused or was still under abuse, they were immediately taken aside for further and rather detail information on the issue. While some were reluctant and unwilling to give information readily, some shared their experiences openly. This was another tool that provided an indication of a need for further counselling. In such cases the study team referred the child to counselling care and support centre for further assistance and rescue from the existing situation. The child who was identified with problems of abuse was either taken to the CWISH ANTARJYOTI psychosocial care and support centre or the CWISH counsellor visited her/him for counselling and meeting other needs.
  33. 33. 33 1.6.6 Information processing and analysis The information received through the survey was processed through software developed purposely designed for the research. The data were then analyzed in the context of child rights, social phenomena and existing national and international legal standards. On the basis of the analysis, conclusions and recommendations were drawn. 1.7 Limitations of the Study Although the employers were positive towards the study and permitted the collection of information relating to CSA, it was difficult for them to manage the time to participate in the questionnaire session. Employer participants were mainly housewives or shopkeepers, for office workers were often unable to find the time to participate. Further, some housewives were illiterate and they did not participate in the written questionnaire. In the employers’ focus group discussion, some of them were reluctant to answer questions relating to CSA. They believed that such matter should not be discussed so openly, as there is risk that children might learn bad behaviour. In some groups the women participants preferred to keep quiet and passively listen to the male participants. The male participants actively took part in the discussion on various forms of sexual abuse. Arranging a full day’s leave from work for the CDWs to participate in the study was not an easy task. It was also significant to get permission from the employers for CDWs to participate in the study. Some employers showed impatience to allow the CDWs five hours leave. They were assured that their particular CDW would have a holiday the next day as it would be either the boys’ or girls’ turn to participate in the workshop. Due to this, all the children from the NFE classes could not participate in the research.
  34. 34. 34 The research was conducted towards the end of the 9- months NFE course.As a result, many children had already left the NFE classes to go home for Dashain/or Tihar festival. Therefore, not all the children who initially joined the NFE classes could participate in the study, further affecting the number of child participants. While conducting the workshop for the children, the participants often took a considerable amount of time narrating their stories. Unfortunately, all of their stories could not be heard due to lack of time allocated for the day, which could again annoy the employers or affect their daily chores. Some of the children themselves were eager to finish the workshop, as they were concerned about their daily chores and other jobs at home.
  35. 35. 35 Discussions on Child Sexual Abuse twoChapter There are many studies on child sexual abuse which consequently have defined it in several ways. The United Nations defines child sexual abuse and incest as “The imposition of sexually inappropriate acts, or acts with sexual overtones by one or more persons, who derive authority through ongoing emotional bonding with that child” (UN 2000). 2.1 Concepts about Child Sexual Abuse
  36. 36. 36 This definition includes non-contact forms of abuse, such as flashing, sexualized talk and showing pornography to children, in addition to actual touching and penetration. Some studies focus only on direct physical contact while others define it as a mixture of contact and non-contact forms. Incest has also been defined by some as both sexual abuse by close family members and anyone trusted by the child (Heidberg 2001). Finkelhor (1984) has defined sexual abuse with some guidance on the age of development level of the participants, sometimes with a clause concerning the experienced aversiveness of the activity and the element, which make it abusive. He defines sexual victimization as sexual encounters of children under thirteen with persons at least five years older than themselves and encounters of children of thirteen to sixteen years with persons at least ten years older. Sexual encounters are defined as intercourse, anal- genitalcontact,fondlingoranencounterwithanexhibitionist. Baker and Duncan (1985) have defined sexual abuse as, “a child under age sixteen is sexually abused when another person, who is sexually mature, involves the child in any activity with the other person expects to lead to their sexual arousal.” In these definitions a chronological age has been selected to define the limits of abuse. However, a central factor in any form of sexual abuse involves the use of coercion in an explicit or implicit way, and this is indeed a central factor in designating it as abusive. Some definitions have included a child’s ability to consent to sexual contact. For example, Schechter and Roberge state: “Sexual abuse is defined as the involvement of dependent,development,developmentallyimmaturechildren and adolescents in sexual activities they do not truly comprehend to which they are unable to give informed
  37. 37. 37 consent, or that violate the social taboos of family roles.” According to this definition, child sexual abuse includes the situation where the child does not resist sexual advances by an adult. Such an activity is still regarded as an abuse because the child is unaware of the social meanings and psychological effects of sexual encounters. In addition, a child may be unable to give informed consent due to the dependence on or power relations with an adult. This is particularly relevant to CDWs whose dependency on their employer and the associated power relationship can lead to theemployermanipulatingthechildforhisorhergratification and against the well being of the child. CWISH defines child sexual abuse is as any kind of activity over children with sexual overtones mostly by adults and many times by elder children. This includes both contact such as kissing, fondling and rape and non-contact such as pornographic activities, teasing, making to see and hear sexual pictures and sounds with intention to have sexual act with children. CSA happens mainly on the basis of power hierarchy rather than the sexual intention, hence an abuse of power over children.And it often occurs in a one- child to one-adult situation; nonetheless, it can happen anywhere to any child by anyone. 2.2 Concepts about Offenders and Victims The offender Perpetrators are most often those the child knows and trusts. “An estimated 90 per cent of sexual abuse is at home or at the hands of someone known to the family. The majority of perpetrators are relatives, most notably fathers, stepfathers, uncles, grandfathers, older siblings, as well as mothers, grandmothers,andaunts”(Engel22-23).Otherfemaleoffenders might include older cousins, babysitters, older girls in the neighbourhood, and female teachers and coaches (Engel 16).
  38. 38. 38 Usually the perpetrator has easy access to the child because she/he has sole responsibility for the child, or takes care of or visits the child, and is trusted by the child’s parents. It has been found that children are most at risk of abuse in and around their home environment by people they normally trust. Sexual abuse usually occurs in places regarded as safe for children. Many researches have confirmed that: most offenders are not strangers to their victims, they are well known to their victims; approximately 25 per cent of offenders are adolescents; most of the reported offenders are males; offenders use a number of tactics to gain access to children and ensure their victim’s silence, including threats, psychological coercion, physical force and bribery; and most of the sexual abuse takes place in the context of an ongoing relationship between the offender and the child. Children are often advised to keep themselves away from strangers and unfamiliar places to protect themselves from any form of sexual abuse. However, this does not effectively protect them from abuse that takes place within the home. In Baker and Duncans’ (1985) study, in 49 per cent of the abuse cases, the victims knew their offenders and 14 per cent of the abuses took place within the family. Similarly, in Dejong et al. (1983) study, 26 per cent of the abused children were assaulted at their own home and 21 per cent at the offender’s home. Russell (1983) study shows that 60 per cent were known to the victims but were unrelated to them.
  39. 39. 39 The victim All children are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Sexual abuse and incest occur in every race, class, religion, culture, and country. Children whose emotional needs are not met, who are emotionally deprived of, or otherwise abused, can also be more vulnerable because their perpetrators exploit their need for attention. Some of the following facts referred to in the National Clearinghouse on Family Violence Publication, 2005 give an indication as to why some children are at high risk of getting sexually abused. Victims of child sexual abuse are found in all classes and ethno-cultural communities. Children who have physical or mental disabilities are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse: Children who are isolated from others are at greater risk of being sexually abused. These children have little contact with friends, brothers and sisters or adults whom they can trust. Children want to report their abuse so that it can be stopped, but they are often afraid that they will not be believed or protected, or they are afraid of what might happen if they do tell. There is little evidence that many children deliberately make false allegations or misinterpret appropriate adult-child contact as sexual abuse. False denials of sexual abuse and recanting a disclosure of abuse are much more common than false reports. When a child victim receives professional support prior to giving testimony in court, her/his statements are more likely to be clear and accurately reflect the time and details of the event. The experience is also less stressful for the child when she/he has received such support.
  40. 40. 40 Children vary in their responses to sexual abuse. The manner in which adults react to the child’s disclosure is an important factor in influencing how the child’s view about the abuse and his or her own role in it. Being believed and having family support can help the child to cope and adjust. All studies have shown a prevalence of girls over the boys among victims of sexual abuse. In the college students by Finkelhor (1979), the rates of sexual abuse experienced in the childhood were twice as high for women (19 percent) as for men (9 percent). Interestingly, studies have also shown that offenders tend to blame the child for the abuse rather than take the responsibility for it themselves. The abuse of boys is another aspect of child sexual abuse which has received limited attention. Clinical cases reported so far show a much lower proportion of boys as victims. This is perhapsduetothevariousdefinitionsandtheinhibitingfactors specific to reporting of sexual abuse of boys. Despite the likely underreporting of this aspect of sexual abuse, studies have shown that a growing number of boys are involved in prostitution and pornography (Heidberg,Turid 2001). 2.3 Family Risk Factors Child sexual abuse is not randomly distributed through the population. It occurs more frequently in children from socially deprived and disorganized family backgrounds (Finkelhor and Baron 1986; Beitchman et al. 1991; Russell 1986; Peters 1988; Mullen et al. 1993 in Paul E Mullen and Jillian Fleming 1998). Marital dysfunction, as evidenced by parental separation and domestic violence, is associated with higher risks of child sexual abuse, and involves interfamilial and extra familial perpetrators (Mullen et al 1996; Fergusson et al. 1996; Fleming et al. 1997 in Mullen and Fleming 1998).
  41. 41. 41 A lack of adequate care, supervision and protection leaves the child exposed to the approaches of molesters, and vulnerable to offers of apparent interest and affection (Fergusson and Mullen in press as referred to in Paul E Mullen and Jillian Fleming 1998). These findings could indicate that a CDW is vulnerable in terms of her/his lack of protection, supervision and care from the immediate family member while living with their employer. 2.4 Symptoms and Behavioural Disorders as Indications of Sexual Abuse The impacts of sexual abuse have been studied in great detail. Research indicates that sexual molestation of a child usually begins at an age of 8-9 years old, and is perpetrated by someone who is in the mid-20s or older who is typically male. (Finkelhor1979;Russell1986inBriere,JohnN.1992).When a child is sexually assaulted she/he is not only subjected to immediate effects of the abuse but also it affects the child’s long-term developmental, psychological and social maturity (Briere 1992.). The first phase of modern research on child sexual abuse was often driven by the self-disclosures of sexual abuse exclusivelybywomen,facingpersonaldifficultiestheirsexual abuse as children. In contrast, current studies on child sexual abuse are predominantly carried out by observations of professionals caring for abused children. It has now become a subject of public health and research issue. Due to this there is a strong emphasis and a grave concern on the long- term consequences of sexual abuse in adult life, apart from its immediate implications for an abused child. Finkelhor and Browne (1985), through their traumatogenic model explain why certain children manage to cope with sexual abuse or can deal with their experience while others suffer long term difficulties. They describe four
  42. 42. 42 traumatogenic factors, which can lead to negative psychological effects in children after sexual abuse. These are the betrayal by the adult, stigmatization, traumatic sexualisation and powerlessness of the child. Due to the overwhelming power of the adult, a child cannot attempt self-protection and stop the abuse. The power of the adult makes the child feel powerless physically and emotionally. Resignation and adjustment lead to a vicious circle in which powerlessness is reinforced. The child thus develops a “victim identity” or alternatively, aggressive behaviour, during the years of growing and in adulthood. There have been numerous studies examining the association between the history of child sexual abuse and mental health problems in adult life that have employed clinical samples, convenience samples (usually of students), and random community samples. There is now an established body of knowledge clearly linking the history of child sexual abuse with higher rates in adult life of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance abuse disorders, eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders (Briere and Runtz 1988; Winfield et al. 1990; Bushnell et al. 1992; Mullen et al. 1993; Romans et al. 1995 and 1997; Fergusson et al. 1996; Silverman et al. 1996; Fleming et al. in press as referred to in Paul E. Mullen and Jillian Fleming 1998). Diana Russell’s (1986) study of 930 women in the general population revealed that of 80 per cent of those sexually abused as children, 78 per cent reported experiencing negative long-term psychological effects. Various studies have found that if untreated any form of sexual victimization in childhood increases the risk of later mental health problems. Certain characteristics of sexual abuse are found to be more likely to result in long-term psychological impacts. As referred to in John N, Briere, (1992), these characteristics include:
  43. 43. 43 greater duration and frequency of the abuse (Elliot and Briere 1992); multiple perpetrators (Peters 1988); presence of penetration or intercourse (Finkelhor etal. 1989); physically forced sexual contact (Fromuth 1986); abuse at earlier age (Zinvey, Nash, and Hulsey 1988); molestation by perpetrator substantially older than the victim (Finkelhor 1979); concurrent physical abuse (Briere and Runtz 1989a); abuse involving bizarre features (Briere 1988); the victim’s immediate sense of personal responsibility for the sexual abuse (Wyatt and Newcomb 1991); and the victim experiencing feelings of powerlessness, betrayal, and/or stigma at the time of the abuse (Henschel et al. 1990). Often sexually abused children live with their secret, their shame and their guilt. For some may it be so disturbing to the extent they may suffer mental illness and some may even attempt to commit suicide or self-harm (Heidberg 2001). In Nikaraguwua, 33 per cent of the women who were sexually abused in childhood revealed that they had contemplated suicide and 19 per cent had actually attempted it (Heidberg 2001). Among males abused, 39 per cent had contemplated suicide and 25 per cent had attempted (Herrera in Heidberg 2001). Child sexual abuse inflicts fundamental damage to the child’s capacity for developing trust, intimacy, and their own sexuality. While the damaging effects of sexual abuse can manifest at many levels of a child and later in adulthood, the resilience of some does enable them to live normal lives.
  44. 44. 44 Those who have been abused and subsequently have positive school experiences, where they feel to have succeeded academically, socially or at sport, have significantly lower rates of adult difficulties (Romans et al. in Mullen and Fleming 1998). Those who had a positive and supportive relationship with their parents subsequent to abuse also fared better (Romans et al. in Mullen and Fleming 1998). 2.5 MythsAssociated with Child SexualAbuse Sexual abuse is cloaked in stigma and myths and is characterized by many misconceptions. Some common myths include: children make up stories or lie about sexual abuse; strangers most often commit abuse; offenders look sleazy, cruel or unusual; acts like fondling, kissing, or touching are not really sexually abusive, and don’t really harm the young person; if a male child or young man has an erection, or if a female child or young woman doesn’t complain or display any signs of distress during the sexual abuse, then what is occurring is not abuse; the child or young person is at fault for encouraging or allowing the sexual abuse to happen; sexually abused children and young people are scarred or damaged forever; children and young people who have been sexually abused by a member of the same sex (or opposite sex) grow up to be homosexual;
  45. 45. 45 an offender may be so drunk or high that he/she cannot be considered responsible for what he/she did; children and young people are sexually abused because their parents/caregivers neglected to care for, or supervise them properly; and children and young people are sexually abused because their mothers are not sexually available to their husbands or partners;3 CWISH has recorded the following commonly found myths in Nepal: Children tend to forget the sexual abuse if it has been committed at a very tender age and it does not have any effect on their later life. It is a child’s family’s willingness and consent to engage the child in commercial sex that leads to sexual exploitation of that child. Sexual abuse in very young children does not occur; it is usually teenagers who are sexually abused. Only violent sexual behaviour and acts of coercion are associated with child sexual abuse. Children have full right to decide for their own good even in terms of commercial sex. Expressing or sharing about the incidence of sexual abuse with others is often more dangerous and painful than the act of sexual abuse.4 3 Kids Intervention Prevention Program, Wide Bay Sexual Assault Assocation Inc. The State of Queensland (Department of Communities) 2005 4 Handout on child sexual abuse and communication skills, 2004, CWISH
  46. 46. 46 While it is popularly thought that far more girls are sexually abused than boys, current research estimates show that one in every three children (including boys) is abused (Engel 19). When a boy is abused, he is revictimized by his culture and by himself because of the expectation that he should be able to defend himself (Engel 19). 2.6 Some Facts about Child SexualAbuse While children do make up stories, they seldom lie about sexual abuse. Children who have not been abused do not usually have explicit knowledge of intimate sexual behaviour. Statistics indicate that most reports of child sexual abuse are true. Most abuse is committed by someone the victim knows and trusts. Offenders come from all walks of life and are ordinary people. It is because they are ordinary people that it is easy for them to offend undetected. They can be family members, babysitters, coaches, teachers, doctors, social workers, neighbours, and the like. Any form of direct or indirect sexual contact with a young person by an adult, an older child, or a sibling who is more mature, is abusive. Every individual has a unique reaction to sexual abuse regardless of the type, extent or duration of the abuse. Physical reactions to sexual stimulation indicate only that one’s biological body functions are healthy. Under no circumstances should these types of physical reactions be taken to mean that the child or young person is enjoying the abuse. Sexual assault is a criminal offence regardless of whether or not some of the acts make the child or
  47. 47. 47 young person feel good physically. In many cases, a child does not have the emotional tools to understand what is happening. Adults are responsible for their own behaviours. A child or young person is never responsible for behaviours displayed by an adult. Many children and young people who have been victims of sexual abuse do heal and go on to lead normal lives like everyone else. In most cases, sexual abuse leaves no visible physical marks on a person, and no one will know that abuse has occurred unless a person is told. The sex of the person who commits the abuse does not determine the victim’s sexual orientation. Offenders use a range of tactics to gain access to their victims. The offender alone is responsible for their actions. Many offenders are experts in manipulating both the victim and the people who care for them. Offenders may have normal sex lives with their partners and still abuse young people. With or without alcohol or drugs, the offender is responsible for his/her actions and may need specialized treatment for his/her offending behaviours and for the alcohol and/or drug abuse. Many children who are sexually abused do not become child sexual offenders when they grow up. Various sources of documentation reveal that children find it difficult to talk about sexual abuse, both when it is in progress and in later life. A survey conducted in Sweden among children in pornography rings in Huddinge and
  48. 48. 48 Norrkoping (Sveden in Svedin et al. 1996) emphasizes this. Ninechildreninvolvedintheringshadbeensubjectedtosexual abuse for a total of 28 years and kept the matter to themselves for 42 years without telling anyone. Only after presenting the actual evidence material by the police they could talk about this. Guilt, shame, and fear of both the perpetrator and their parents’ views were all reasons the children gave for keeping quiet. Surveys made by Elliot and Briere (1995), and Fish and Scott(1999)showthatwhenonlythevictimandtheperpetrator know about the sexual abuse, it results in events occurring for extended periods of time. Many victims and the families of victims are reluctant to report the incidence of sexual abuse due to the social stigma attached to it. Because sexual abuse is a taboo and a crime, the family dare not disclose it and instead deny it, forget it and suppress it by behaving as if nothing happened and reject external interference. In addition, the families may face social exclusion and psychological problems associated to it. If the offender is from outside the family, he/she will have, in many cases, to pay compensation or marry the girl. The family usually does not like to take the case to court and due to stigma and subsequent difficulties in getting the girl married (Heidberg 2001). Prevalence studies in UK and USA suggest that less than 10 per cent of the cases is reported to the police and less than 1 per cent result in arrest and conviction of the Offender (Russell 1984; Morrison et al. 1996 in Heidberg, Turid, 2001). 2.7 Some Facts about Child SexualAbuse in Nepal In Nepalese society talking about sex and matters related to sex are still taboos. Due to this many incidents of sexual abuse are never discussed or reported, especially about child sexual abuse. Fear of rejection, dishonour and humiliation of family members are reasons for such abuses not being
  49. 49. 49 reported. In a study conducted on child sexual abuse (1999) by Teaching Hospital under “Mental health project”, 25 per cent of college students expressed that they were sexually abused as children in various forms. The study revealed that children, 11 to 13 were most vulnerable to sexual abuse and the perpetrators were predominantly their relations, family members, and neighbours (Nepal 17). CWIN’s research on CSAamongst children studying in both government and private schools and street children revealed that 45 per cent of the respondents had experienced verbal sexualabuse;29percenthadseenpornmoviesandmagazines; 14 per cent were involved in kissing, fondling of the genitals, oral sex, and the like.According “new kerala.com” there were 137 cases of serious child sexual abuses in Nepal within the last six months of 2004 (Nepal 17). Nepal’s conversation with 10 street children showed that seven were sexually abused and four had at least two sexual experiences with foreign paedophiles (Nepal 14). Foreigners are mostly regarded with respect and revered in Nepal. However, some of these foreigners have been involved in sexually abusing children in the name of running shelter homes for street children. Children living in the streets are vulnerable to sexual abuse by foreign paedophiles as they are attracted to the prospect of money, food or clothing and ultimately fall victim to sexual abuse. In close association with INGOs and NGOs, Nepal Women Children and Social Welfare Council (NWCSWC) prepared a paper on Child Sexual Exploitation,Abuse andTrafficking (2001), according to which 5000 children in Kathmandu Valley alone were reported of being sexually abused.
  50. 50. 50 2.8 Child Domestic Workers and SexualAbuse The existence of CDWs is a grim reality in Nepal. A study conducted by CWISH (2005) among 415 CDWs shows that 36.14 per cent children work for more than 8 hours per day; 20.72 per cent children are ignorant about their wages while 28.92 per cent children receive less than Rs 500 per month; 85.88 percent children are school dropouts; 21.45 per cent children do not have anyone to turn to in times of need; and 76.63 per cent children express their desire to return home. A report by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (2002) shows that 90 per cent of CDWs worldwide are girls, although in some countries (such as Nepal and Haiti) a significant number of boys are employed as domestics. The majority of children in domestic labour are between 12 and 17, but in many countries children routinely begin working as domestics well before 12 years. The state of these working children is often characterized by long working hours; harassing attitude of the employer’s family members, physical and mental abuse and, above all, the child is often subjected to sexual abuse. Most of these children come from rural areas through various connections. Poverty, illiteracy, and lack of awareness are some of the reasons for the children to become domestics. Most of their parents are illiterate and the children possess little knowledge about their rights.
  51. 51. 51 Studies show that CDWs fall prey to the employers’ sexual exploitation due to the formers’ vulnerability and isolation at the latters’ homes. For example, several studies show that, in Latin America, many men have their first sexual encounter with a domestic worker. In Fiji, eight out of 10 domestic workers reported that their employers sexually abused them and in Haiti, girls are sometimes called “la pou sa”, meaning “there for that”. They are accepted sexual outlets for the men or boys of the household (UNCHR, 2002). Sexual abuse of CDWs often results in pregnancy, which is a matter of shame and guilt for the young girls. In many incidences girls are thrown out of the employers’ house and ultimately some even end up in the streets forced to work as sex workers for a living. They do not want to return home fearing rejection and becoming a source of dishonour for their families. In Bangladesh, for example, a local NGO interviewing children working in commercial sexual exploitation in the capital Dhaka found that all of them had previously worked as child domestic workers and had been sexually abused by the employer family (UNCHR 2002).
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53 Findings threeChapter 3.1 Socio- Economic Profiles of Respondents 3.1.1 Employers There were 60 female and 30 male employers interviewed. CDWs are very much the products of gender role division at Nepali households, because they are mostly trained by women and are viewed as responsible persons for household chores. Majority of employers (53.33%) were between 26- 40, followed by less than 25 (24.44%) and those 41-60 (22.22%). In terms of caste, 43 out of 90 employers were Brahmin/Chhetri, 37 were from Janajati, 1 from Dalit community and 9 from others category (those who could not be classified into any group)
  54. 54. 54 Table 3.1.1: Demographic Information of Respondents 3.1.2 Child Domestic Workers (CDWs) Out of total CDW respondents participating on awareness survey session, the majority were girls (60.32%) followed by boys (39.67%) (Table 3.1.2). Most CDWs belonged to the 10 -14 age group (73.77%) and very few (9.18%) belonged to the less than 10 years.Asignificant percentage of (17.05%) CDWs belonged to 15-18 age group. The smallest child domestic worker who participated in the study was 7. Agegroup Boys Girls Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 05-09Years 10 8.26 18 9.78 28 9.18 10-14Years 93 76.86 132 71.74 225 73.77 15-18Years 18 14.88 34 18.48 52 17.05 Total 121 39.67 184 60.32 305 100.00 Agegroup Boys Girls Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 07-09Years 10 8.26 18 9.78 28 9.18 10-14Years 93 76.86 132 71.74 225 73.77 15-18Years 18 14.88 34 18.48 52 17.05 Total 121 39.67 184 60.32 305 100.00 Age Sex Group Cast Group Group Female Male Total Brahmin/ Janajati Dalit Others Total Xetri No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct <25Years 14 23.33 8 26.67 22 24.44 6 13.95 13 35.14 0 0.00 3 33.33 22 4.44 26-40Yrs. 34 56.67 14 46.67 48 53.33 26 60.47 18 48.65 1 100 3 33.33 48 53.33 41-60Yrs. 12 20 8 26.67 20 22.22 11 25.58 6 16.22 0 0.00 3 33.33 20 22.22 Total 60 100 30 100 90 100 43 100 37 100 1 100 9 100 90 100 Table 3.1.2: Age group of CDWs
  55. 55. 55 Most CDWs were from the indigenous groups and very few were from Brahmin community (13.11%). In spite of the existing caste discrimination, 5.90 per cent of CDWs were from Dalit community (Table 3.1.3 ). Among the CDWs participating in prevalence study, majority (147) were from hilly ethnic groups of whom 61 were boys and 86 were girls. Terai ethnics constituted the lowest in number (only 4 boys, no girls). There was only one boy but 19 girls among the Dalit group. Out of 65 Brahmin/ Chhetri, 29 were boys and 36 were girls. Other caste groups consisted of 70 respondents with 30 boys and 40 girls. Together there were 125 boys and 181 girls. By age group, majority respondents belonged to 10-14 (227), followed by the 15-18 (52). Respondents belonging to the 7-9 age group were the lowest (only 27 children). Table 3.1.3: Cast Details of CDWs Cast Boys Girls Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Tamang 13 10.74 27 14.67 40 13.11 Chhetri 17 14.05 22 11.96 39 12.79 Newar 12 9.92 11 5.98 23 7.54 Magar 9 7.44 17 9.24 26 8.52 Rai/Limbu 11 9.09 23 12.50 34 11.15 Brahmin 16 13.22 24 13.04 40 13.11 Tharu 10 8.26 15 8.15 25 8.20 Dalit 7 5.79 11 5.98 18 5.90 Gurung 2 1.65 2 1.09 4 1.31 Sherpa 3 2.48 8 4.35 11 3.61 Yadav/Ahir 3 2.48 2 1.09 5 1.64 Rajbansi 1 0.83 1 0.54 2 0.66 Gharti 0 0 2 1.09 2 0.66 Mandal 2 1.65 1 0.54 3 0.98 Others 15 12.40 18 9.78 33 10.82 Total 121 39.67 184 60.33 306 100
  56. 56. 56 3.2 Perspective and Practice of Employing CDWs 3.2.1 Employer’s perspective Usual work of CDWs The majority of employers agree that the major household job of their domestic helpers is washing utensils (73.33%) followed by cleaning the house (67.78%) and washing clothes (50%). Other jobs included cooking, baby sitting and grocery shopping. For employers, CDWs must comply with their demands. They must do their job with a feeling of being a part of the family and not an outsider. They must not lie or steal things. They must take initiative to do any work without having to remind them and become responsible, disciplined and hardworking. They are also expected to become fast and good learners so that they can immediately carry out their duties. In case of confusion they must speak up for clarity. Some of the employers are considerate towards the domestic chores and behaviour they expect from their CDWs due to their age factor—a child worker. They are also aware of the importance of providing education to the child and encourage him/her for the same. On the other hand, some expect that a child must do household work perfectly and almost all the work that an adult is expected to do. CDWs’ reward system It was found that 48.89 per cent of employers preferred to give cash to CDWs in appreciation of the jobs done, and it was more common among male employers (60%) than among female employers (43.33%). However, giving verbal appreciation (38.33%) and giving clothes (10%) was found more prevalent among female employers than among male employers (30% and none respectively). This may be due to differences of access to finance. Only a few employers took the domestic helpers for an outing or outdoor entertainment.
  57. 57. 57 Preferred sex, age and caste of CDWs Employers, especially females (62.22%) preferred to have female CDWs. The common trend of preferring female CDWs is likely to stem from the traditional belief that girls are more suitable for household work. However, it was found that elder employers do not have a preference for either male or female helpers. In houses having more male members, a male CDW is preferred, for it is safer than female. Girls are more risky in a sense they are more vulnerable, fear of being lured or even trafficking or leaving the employer’s home without anyone’s consent. In few cases the employers or family members purposely employed boys as domestic workers because they could sexually abuse them. Participants’ view in FGD Employers preferred to have CDWs belonging to the age group 11-14 (36.67%) and 15-16 (30%). Male employers tended to prefer older CDWs, with 26.67 per cent identifying the 15-16 age group and 23.33 per cent the 18+ age group. The preference is different among female employers; a larger number (46.67%) preferred the 11-14 age group followed by the 15-16 years age group (31.67%). It is highly serious that a large number of employers preferred children of 11-14 to employ as domestic worker, which is strictly prohibited by law. However, the employers from ethnic community were more interested in hiring the CDWs of above 16. A 53.33 per cent of the employers from other groups said they did not prefer CDW of any specific caste. Only 2.33 per cent of the employers belonging to Brahmin/Chhetri
  58. 58. 58 group said they would accept Dalits as their employees. This indicates the traditional attitude to Dalits still very strong in the Brahmin/Chhetri group. But oriented to change as they are, a large number (70.27%) showed no specific caste/ ethnicity preference, any group would be acceptable for them. The majority of employers (50%) employed CDW through their close relatives, followed by their own initiative (25.56%) and through friends (10%). 3.2.2 Child Domestic Workers’Experience Living arrangements of CDWs The highest number of children (64.92%) lived with the employers and worked as residential domestic workers. This is followed by those living with their own family members and working as non-residential domestic workers (20.98%) and children working for their extended relations’ family (13.77%). Only a few were found living with their friends (0.33%). Younger children were more frequently found to be working as non-residential domestic workers. For example, 42.86 per cent of children of the 7-9 age group were living with their own parents and 14.29 per cent were working with their extended family relations. Only 25 per cent of children of more than 15 years were found to be living with their family, relations or friends. Contact with families Almost all (98.03%) of the CDWs’ families knew where and with whom they were staying. The majority of CDWs (96.39%) said they often visited their family and were in contact.
  59. 59. 59 Most children visited their families during festivals according to their religion such as Dashain (64.92%), Tihar (19.02%), Iid (1.31%) and Chhath (1.31%). Comparatively, girls (70.11%) were found to be sent home during Dashain more than the boys (57.02%). Conversely, it was boys (22.31%) who were sent home more than the girls (16.85%) during Tihar. The boys tended to be in close contact with their families than the girls. The number of children who said it was less than 3 months since their last family contact was 48.76 per cent for boys compared to 33.70 per cent for the girls. Similarly, this statistic is also influenced by the age group of children. The younger children had more frequent contact with their family. An 11.80 per cent of children were away from their homes without contacting their parents for more than a year. However, 41.31 per cent of the children had met their families in the last 4-6 months and 7.21 per cent were in contact during the last 7-12 months. Entrance, recruiting and working conditions In most cases the parents made the decision to send their child to work at the employer’s houses. This is especially the case for younger children while older children were more likely to make their own decision to become a domestic worker. The majority of respondents woke up and started their work between 5 - 6 a. m. From a gender perspective, the study indicates that the girls woke up earlier than the boys. Likewise, the respondents’ time of waking up in the morning seems to be later if they are younger.About bed time, 39.29
  60. 60. 60 per cent of the respondents said 9 -10 p.m. was their usual time: with male respondents tending to go to bed earlier than the females. It was also evident that the older children had a later bedtime. CDWs’Work at Employers’ Home The CDWs suggested a number of key factors the employers considered when they recruited a domestic worker. These were age (46.89%), skill (42.30%) and cleanliness and health (40.33%). Buying milk, collecting flowers for pray and worship, cooking food, washing dishes, taking children to school, buying fuels, fetching water from the tap, working at employers’ business,takingcareof dog, its kennel and plates, mopping the floor, wiping mirrors, makingbedandrooms, polishing shoes, tendingplants,assisting and doing shopping, waking up the employers, ironing the clothesandwashingcar Sweeping the whole house, preparing tea, buyingthingsfromshop, watching television, combing dog’s furs, playing computer games, doing school homework,washingthe dishes, preparing for evening pray, grinding thespices,cleaninggas stoves, serving drinks to the guests, taking goodcareoftheguests and getting cigarettes andalcoholreadyforthe master. Vegetable shopping, havingteaandwashing the dishes, taking care of the siblings, taking children from school, taking dog for a walk, watering the plants, settingupthecupboard, working at employer’s business, cleaning the kitchen, attending the non formal education classes,Cleaningtoilet, paying the bills and taking care of older peopleathome Morning Day Evening
  61. 61. 61 3.3 Perspectives on Child Sexual Abuse 3.3.1 Employers’ perspective Understanding of CSA Employers defined child abuse differently. For some, child abuse was giving physical punishments for minor mistakes, making them work against their working capacity, being cruel to them, locking them in rooms without food, denying them nutritious and enough food and sleep. Besides, they also indicated verbal abuse, hurting their feelings, mentally torturing them through threats, inhuman treatment, making them sleep in the cow sheds, compelling them into criminal acts, teaching them offensive and vulgar languages, making them work for meagre wages and denying them fundamental rights. At the same time they also identified other different forms of abuse such as sexual exploitation of children, involvingtheminwatchingpornmovies,touchingorfondling their genitals, exhibiting one’s genitals, forcing to have sex with the child or raping them. Apart from physical and mental tortures, some employers included sexual abuse under child abuse. Some related child abuse to the abuse of CDWs. Others expressed child abuse as an abuse committed to children under 14. A 73.33 per cent of employers claimed that they were aware of child sexual abuse. The number is comparatively higher among the employers from Brahmin/Chhetri community, but the single Dalit employer mentioned not being aware of child sexual abuse. More than half the employers from the other caste group (55.56%) mentioned not being aware of child sexual abuse. The number of employers who mentioned not being aware of CSA was comparatively higher among female (11.67% female compared to 6.67% men) and younger employers (13.64%).
  62. 62. 62 In spite of employers claiming that they were aware of child sexual abuse, only 55.56 per cent considered that both contact and non-contact forms of sexual abuses were prevalent. Interestingly, 10 per cent of the employers had no idea about sexual abuse. Though the single employer from Dalit community said he was not aware of child sexual abuse, but when he was asked to define it he was able to mention both contact and non-contact forms of abuses. The lesser number of aware female employers has put both CDWs and possibly employers’ children at risk of abuse. As almost all the CDWs are supervised by female employers, it is all the more necessary that they be aware of CSA issues in order to protect them and any other children including their own. Table 3.3.1A: Employers’perception of Child Sexual Abuse (by caste) Response Cast Group Brahmin/Xetri Janajati Dalit Others Total No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct Only non-contact 1 2.33 1 2.70 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 2.22 forms of abuse Only contact 14 32.56 6 16.22 0 0.00 2 22.22 22 24.44 forms of abuse Both of above 23 53.49 23 62.16 1 100.00 3 33.33 50 55.56 Don’t know 4 9.30 4 10.81 0 0.00 1 11.11 9 10.00 Not mentioned 1 2.33 3 8.11 0 0.00 3 33.33 7 7.78 Total 43 100.00 37 100.00 1 100.00 9 100.00 90 100.00
  63. 63. 63 Table 3.3.1 B: Employers’ Perception of Child Sexual Abuse (by sex and age) Child’s Vulnerability to Abuse A large number of employers seem to have a misconception that children of a certain age, social status or character are more likely to be sexually abused. According to sex and age In regard to vulnerability of children to CSA, by sex, 60 per cent respondents felt that both boys and girls were equally so. The number of employers that identified both boys and girls as vulnerable was considerably higher among male employers of 41-60 age group (70%) and from the Brahmin/ Chhetri community (67.44%). None of the employers thought that only boys were vulnerable to sexual abuse.A33 per cent of the respondents thought that only girls were at risk. The number of employers with this misinformation was found higher among female employers (36.67%) of less than 25 yrs (40.91%) and from Janajati group (37.84%). Response SexGroup AgeGroup Female Male Total <25Yrs. 26-40Yrs. 41-60Yrs. Total No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct Onlynon-contact 1 1.67 1 3.33 2 2.22 0 0.00 1 2.08 1 5.00 2 2.22 Formsofabuse Onlycontactforms 16 26.67 6 20.00 22 24.44 8 36.36 7 14.58 7 35.00 22 24.44 ofabuse Both of above 32 53.33 18 60.00 50 55.56 10 45.45 31 64.58 9 45.00 50 55.56 Don’t know 7 11.67 2 6.67 9 10.00 3 13.64 6 12.50 0 0.00 9 10.00 Not mentioned 4 6.67 3 10.00 7 7.78 1 4.55 3 6.25 3 15.00 7 7.78 Total 60 100.00 30 100.00 90 100.00 22 100.00 48 100.00 20 100.00 90 100.00
  64. 64. 64 The majority employers (54.44%) identified any age group to be at risk. The number of employers with this belief is found to be greater among males (56.67%) of less than 25 yrs (68.18%) and from the Janajati community (56.76%). Misinformation and the absence of knowledge among a large proportion of the population that children of any sex are at risk of sexual abuse, is likely to have put boys in a relatively more vulnerable situation. This also reinforces the social gender stereotype that leads to only girls asking for help or being given consideration in terms of safety. Accordingtosocialstatus When the employers who participated in the study were asked to identify the category of children which was more at risk of sexual abuse by social status, majority of them (57.78%) pointed out one that worked in small teashops. Such belief is more prevalent among female employers (65%), employers of 26-40 age group (64.58%) and employers from the Brahmin/Chhetri community (65.12%) in addition to the single Dalit employer. We do not think that our child helpers are undergoing sexual abuse. If they were undergoing such abuse, they would have told us and as they have not come to us to complain against sexual abuse, it is clear that it’s not happening to them in anyway. Employers with the perception that all CDWs are vulnerable to sexual abuse were found to be 41.11 per cent (45% female and 33.33% male employers). Employers with the same belief were found to be comparatively higher among those of 41-60 age groups (50%) and among Brahmin/Chhetri community (51.16%). Participants’ view in FGD
  65. 65. 65 According to the literacy status of children, the majority of employers (53.33%) believed that illiterate children were at risk of sexual abuse, while a significant percentage of them (34.44%) believed that even educated children were vulnerable. Some employers believed that sexual abuse happened more to poor children (45.56%) while others thought that it happened to those from rich families (34.44%) as well. As high as 47.78 per cent of employers believed that children from any social status were vulnerable to sexual abuse, but over fifty percent of them (52%) misconceived that children of certain social status were at risk. According to the child’s personal character Employers were also requested to express their belief in the vulnerability of children according to their personal character. Over fifty percent (53.33%) said CDWs were at risk of sexual abuse regardless of their personal characteristics, while little less than fifty percent (47 percent) believed that children with certain characteristics were more at risk. Such characteristics included innocent children (55.56%), mentally ill/retarded children (42.22%) and attractive children (43.33%). Perception about offender According to sex of the offender Although 47.78 per cent of the respondents said both male and female could abuse children sexually, 44.44 per cent said only a male could sexually abuse children. A single female employer said only females could sexually abuse children. Among the employers who held the belief that
  66. 66. 66 both males and females could sexually abuse children, the number was found to be higher among male employers (60%), among employers of less than 25 yrs age (54.55%) and among the Brahmin/Chhetri community (51.16%) along with single Dalit employer. Mostly female employers believed that only males could sexually abuse children. The findings indicate that there exists the myth that males are the major sexual offenders. This misconception puts children at risk as females are not always identified as possible offenders. Table 3.3.2A: Employers’Perception of Offender ( by Caste/ Ethnicity) Response SexGroup AgeGroup Female Male Total <25Yrs. 26-40Yrs. 41-60Yrs. Total No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct Male only 30 50.00 10 33.33 40 44.44 9 40.91 22 45.83 9 45.00 40 44.44 Female only 1 1.67 0 0.00 1 1.11 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 5.00 1 1.11 Both of above 25 41.67 18 60.00 43 47.78 12 54.55 22 45.83 9 45.00 43 47.78 Don’t know 3 5.00 2 6.67 5 5.56 1 4.55 4 8.33 0 0.00 5 5.56 Not mentioned 1 1.67 0 0.00 1 1.11 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 5.00 1 1.11 Total 60 100.00 30 100.00 90 100.00 22 100.00 48 100.00 20 100.00 90 100.00 Response Caste/Ethnicity Brahmin/Xetri Janajati Dalit Others Total No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct Male only 19 44.19 17 45.95 0 0.00 4 44.44 40 44.44 Female only 0 0.00 1 2.70 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 1.11 Both of above 22 51.16 16 43.24 1 100.00 4 44.44 43 47.78 Don’t know 2 4.65 2 5.41 0 0.00 1 11.11 5 5.56 Not mentioned 0 0.00 1 2.70 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 1.11 Total 43 100.00 37 100.00 1 100.00 9 100.00 90 100.00 Table 3.3.2 B: Employers’Perception of Offender (by Sex and Age Group)
  67. 67. 67 According to the offenders’ personal character Regarding the offenders’ personal character, majority of respondents (63.33%) thought that people with offensive behaviour were more likely to be sexual offenders. They identified drug addicts and alcoholics as the second most likely sexual offenders (62.22%) followed by the mentally ill (43.33%) and survivors of childhood sexual abuse (43.33%). Only 38.89 per cent of employers believed that seemingly civilized people could sexually abuse children. AccordingtoRelationshipwithchild Regarding the offenders’ relationship with child, 42.22 per cent employers identified people in relations more likely to be offenders, followed by strangers (40%).About the same percentage (38.89%) believed that family members, friends/ peers and the neighbours could sexually abuse children. Concerning the professional attachment with the child, 42.22 per cent of employers mentioned it might be teachers who sexually abuse children, followed by 38.89 per cent hostel warden and 37.78 per cent baby sitters. By profession, 45.56 per cent employers believed transport workers (e.g. drivers, helpers and conductors) were more likely to be the offenders, while 36.67 per cent believed the domestic workers themselves could be the offenders. Over fifty percent (53.33%) employers said anyone could sexually abuse children, regardless of personality. This trend was across both male and female respondents and different agegroups.TheDalitemployerthoughtthatonlydrugaddicts could be sexual offenders. The employers’ view from different perspectives of sex, age and ethnicity is similar to commonly held misconceptions that sexual offenders are mostly people who deviate from
  68. 68. 68 socially accepted behaviours. This reinforces the higher amount of risk of abuse for children, makes it all the more difficult for children to voice their abuse concern against an individual who has so-called accepted, disciplined and decent behaviours. Risky Places Well over sixty per cent (66.67%) respondents rated lonely places as the most vulnerable places where CSA could be committed. Dark place was rated 55.56 per cent, bedrooms 48.69 per cent, hostels 35.56 per cent and any place 41.11 per cent. Little over thirty percent (33%) employers believed that sexual abuse occurred mostly outside home, while 28 per cent believed it could happen inside home as well. They identified the kitchen, terrace and toilets as areas of risk inside the home and buses and factories (places of work) outside home. The employers’ perception that CSA happens only outside home have put children in greater risk of sexual abuse as the fact of this study showed that 29 per cent survivor children faced sexual abuse inside home. Vulnerable Communities Just over sixty per cent (61.11%) employers rated an illiterate community as the most probable community where CSA could occur. A significant percentage of employers (25.56%) believed CSA could happen within the educated community as well. Only 36.67 per cent employers opined that CSA could occur in any community. Pointing to the financial position of community, 43.33 per cent employers believed that CSA mostly occurred in poor
  69. 69. 69 communities, while 27.78 per cent believed it could occur in both the middle class and rich communities. At the same time, 41.11 per cent employers believed children were more vulnerable in the working class community than in a slum community (40%), rural community (25.56%) or urban community (32.22%). Although the respondents generally believe that CSA takes place in societies where people are poor, illiterate and underprivileged, yet they also mention that urban and rich families or societies too are not entirely free from it. It is to be noted that a third of respondents believe that CSA can happen in any community. Responsibility of the Crime The majority of respondents (73.33%) think that the child offenders (as opposed to the children) are responsible for child abuse. Employers with this view were found to be comparatively higher among female (76.67%), employers If CSA is committed for the first time it is the fault of an offender but if it continues for longer period then a child is responsible. Participants’ view expressed in FGD older than 25 (75%) and among the Brahmin/Chhetri community (74.42%) together with the other caste group category (77%). However, there are still 13.33 per cent employers who believe both offenders and the children to be responsible for the abuse. And they are more males (20%) in 41-60 age group (15%) from the Brahmin/Chhetri community (16.28%).
  70. 70. 70 Table 3.3.3 A: Employers’ Perception to be Responsible for CSA (by Caste/Ethnicity) There are 2 out of 90 respondents, who think child sexual abuse is the fault of the child. This number constitutes 2.22 percent of the total respondents, and is from the 41-60 age group. Response SexGroup AgeGroup Female Male Total <25Yrs. 26-40Yrs. 41-60Yrs. Total No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct Childrenthemselves 1 1.67 1 3.33 2 2.22 0 0.00 2 4.17 0 0.00 2 2.22 Offenders 46 76.67 20 66.67 66 73.33 15 68.18 36 75.00 15 75.00 66 73.33 Both of above 6 10.00 6 20.00 12 13.33 4 18.18 5 10.42 3 15.00 12 13.33 Others 2 3.33 0 0.00 2 2.22 0 0.00 1 2.08 1 5.00 2 2.22 Don’t know 5 8.33 3 10.00 8 8.89 3 13.64 4 8.33 1 5.00 8 8.89 Total 60 100.00 30 100.00 90 100.00 22 100.00 48 100.00 20 100.00 90 100.00 Table 3.3.3 B: Employers’ Perception to be Responsible for CSA (by Sex and Age) Response Caste/EthniGroup Brahmin/Xetri Janajati Dalit Others Total No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct No. Pct Male only 19 44.19 17 45.95 0 0.00 4 44.44 40 44.44 Children themselves 1 2.33 1 2.70 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 2.22 Offenders 32 74.42 27 72.97 0 0.00 7 77.78 66 73.33 Both of above 7 16.28 5 13.51 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 13.33 Others 0 0.00 2 5.41 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 2.22 Don’t know 3 6.98 2 5.41 1 100.00 2 22.22 8 8.89 Total 43 100.00 37 100.00 1 100.00 9 100.00 90 100.00
  71. 71. 71 The concept that both children and the offenders are responsible for child sexual abuse provides offenders with a pretext (albeit false) to escape from responsibility and legal punishment. It also increases the re-victimization of children and restricts child complaints for fear of further suffering. Reasons behind CSA Forty per cent of employers felt that child sexual abuse was committed because children were weak and helpless. About thirty-seven percent (36.67%) thought that it occurred as children could not oppose or say no to what was happening. Thirty-two percent (32.22%) believed it was easy to persuade children and 32.11 per cent thought it was easy to threaten children. About twenty-seven percent (26.67%) employers believed that the offender thought and knew that a child’s complaint would not be taken seriously or believed. Only 13.33 per cent thought that CSA happened because the child was attractive. Similarly, 34.44 per cent employers believed that offenders sexually molested children primarily for their own enjoyment and entertainment or because they could not maintain an adult-adult sexual relationship (16.67%). An offender commits CSA taking advantage of his/her status or power relations. She/he has the advantage of being in a powerful or superior position. In terms of abuse against CDW, the children are in a lowly position compared to their employer, and far away from home or people with whom he/she can rely on. Thus if the offender happens to be the employer he/she thinks children cannot oppose him or speak against him/her. In some cases, she/he threatened the child saying he/she would be sent home with false accusation like theft. Thus the helpless child is left with threat, and sometimes his/her own desire to stay in the cities forces him/her to rather quietly accept the abuse and suffer in silence. ParticipantsviewinFGD

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