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Net essentials6e ch11


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Chapter 11

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Net essentials6e ch11

  1. 1. Guide to Networking Essentials, 6th Edition Chapter 11: Supporting a Small-Business Network
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives 2 • Explain how to address the needs of a small- business network • Identify network equipment requirements for small businesses • Identify requirements for small business applications • Describe issues in supporting a small business
  3. 3. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Addressing the Needs of Small-Business Networks • A small business, in terms of networking, can be defined as one that has: – Less than 200 computers – Only one or two locations – Modest technology needs • Most small businesses don’t require a complex, highly restrictive security policy, data encryption, or advanced WAN technologies • To be successful in supporting a small business network, you must listen to their requirements and design a solution that works for them
  4. 4. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4 Data and Application Sharing in a Small Business • First decision to make: peer-to-peer or server based? – When possible and funds allow, a server solution is best • If you’re forced to use a peer-to-peer scheme, you should limit the number of computers hosting network resources to minimize potential problems • A common practice for server-based networks is for each user to have a home directory on the server – Also have one or more common folders that the entire company has access to, or perhaps departmental folders • Applications can also be shared across a network
  5. 5. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5 Configuring a Windows 7 HomeGroup Network • Windows HomeGroups are a new peer-to-peer networking feature starting with Windows 7 – Is not backward compatible with Windows Vista or XP • Homegroups simplify file and printer sharing by making it unnecessary to create user accounts on every computer that shares resources • Suitable only for small office home office (SOHO) networks with fewer than 10 computers
  6. 6. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6 Creating and Joining a Homegroup • Windows 7 Home Premium, Ultimate, Professional, or Enterprise supports the creation of homegroups – Windows 7 Home Basic and Starter edition can join a homegroup, but not create one • Your network must be designated as a Home network rather than Work or Public • Homegroups are password-protected by a password generated randomly when the homegroup is created – Users must enter this password when they join a homegroup
  7. 7. Creating and Joining a Homegroup Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 The homegroup password is generated randomly
  8. 8. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 Creating and Joining a Homegroup • After created, other computers can join a homegroup by changing their network locations to Home, or by going to HomeGroup in the Control Panel • After sharing options have been chosen, the password must be entered • Once a computer has joined, all users logging on to the computer can access shared resources on the homegroup – Each user controls access to the files he or she shares
  9. 9. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 Creating and Joining a Homegroup Viewing members of a homegroup
  10. 10. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 10 Creating and Joining a Homegroup • Users can share or unshare a folder or library by right-clicking it in Windows Explorer and pointing to Share with
  11. 11. Troubleshooting HomeGroups • The HomeGroup Troubleshooter can resolve some of the problems you might run into – Access it by right-clicking on HomeGroup in Windows Explorer • If the troubleshooter does not help, check: – Routers: Homegroups do not operate across routers – IPv6: Must be enabled for homegroups to work – Clock settings: All computers must have same settings – Third-party firewalls: May have to disable it or configure it – Network discovery: Network discovery must be enabled • To access this setting, click Advanced sharing settings in Network and Sharing Center Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 12 Sharing Files in a Windows Domain Environment • If you require more than the minimum of security and sharing files is a major part of your business, then using a file server is the best way to go • In Windows, this means installing a domain controller • All desktop computers and other servers simply need to be made members of the domain • Folders on the domain controller, other servers and even desktop computers can be shared throughout the domain – This simplifies resource management and provides a more secure network
  13. 13. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13 Sharing Files in a Linux Environment • Two choices for sharing files in a Linux environment – Use Samba (discussed in Chapter 9) – Use Network File System (NFS), which might be a good choice if the environment consists of mostly Linux computers • In both cases, the Linux client computer mounts a shared folder into its own file system and accesses the shared folder as though it were a local resource • The advantage of using Samba rather than NFS is Samba’s compatibility with Windows file sharing
  14. 14. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14 Using a NAS to Share Files • As discussed in Chapter 8, a NAS is a server dedicated to sharing files • Many NASs can be configured to integrate with a Windows domain controller • NAS is easy to configure and costs considerably less than a server installed with Windows Server 2008 • Some NASs have a few slots for installing hard drives and a network interface for expansion
  15. 15. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 15 Equipment Sharing in a Small Business • Most common shared equipment is a printer – Presents problems because users could shut down computers connected to shared printers • One way around this potential problem is to connect the printer directly to the network – Some printers come with built in NICs – Also the printer can be attached to a print server • Other shared devices: – External hard drives – Card readers that read Secure Digital (SD) Compact Flash (CF) cards
  16. 16. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 16 Equipping Small-Business Networks • Most TV and print advertisements are aimed at large corporate networks – Small-business networks usually do not require high-end equipment • Do your homework when picking out equipment for small businesses – Consumer products are those that are intended for use by residential users and may lack security or management features – Most well-known equipment manufacturers have a small business or small and medium business (SMB) line of products
  17. 17. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 17 Servers and Desktops • When purchasing a server: – Buy as much hardware as the budget allows that will meet the company’s estimated needs for the next two to three years – Memory and storage expansion are critical – Look for fault-tolerant storage solutions (RAID) • Most business computers emphasize productivity software and manageability – A business computer is better off with a Professional, Ultimate, or Enterprise edition
  18. 18. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 18 Networking Equipment • One of the first decisions to make before selecting networking equipment is where it will be placed • In a small business, the space used for network equipment is often shared with another function (such as telephone and alarm system equipment) • Servers and some network equipment can generate a lot of heat, so make sure the space will be cool and well ventilated • Look for SMB line of products from manufacturers such as NetGear, Linksys, and D-Link
  19. 19. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 19 Making a Wired Connection • Even if you only have a few computers to connect, you should have network jacks at the work area wired to a patch panel in a wiring closet near the switch • Switches should be used to connect workstations – If you are upgrading a network, replace hubs with switches • When purchasing a switch consider: – Speed of the switch – Managed or unmanaged – Support for multiple media types
  20. 20. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20 Making a Wireless Connection • Due to low cost and ease of installation, wireless networking has become very popular • Most access points found at an office supply store max out at around 40 connections – More expensive commercial products (such Cisco Systems) can likely handle more than 100 connections • If the environment consists of users moving around with laptops or handheld computers, wireless is a great option • A combination can also be used – Server and desktop computers can be wired and a wireless access point setup for mobile users
  21. 21. Making a Wireless Connection • Special considerations when using wireless: – Outside people can access the wireless network simply by being close enough to the access point – Cordless phones can use the same frequency as an 802.11 network, which can cause users to disconnect from the network – Microwaves ovens, nearby networks and other radio frequency sources can also cause interference – Test for outside interference during business hours – Select the same security standard (WPA, WPA2) for all of your wireless equipment, including NICs – Consider whether the access point can be bridged to other access points (if your network extends beyond the reach of one access point, multiple access points might be required) Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. Communicating With the Outside World • Most small businesses require Internet • For a network with 10-20 computers, a broadband cable or DSL connection should be sufficient • A typical setup includes a cable modem or DSL modem connected to a router and the router connected to one of the switches (see figure on next slide) • Routers usually act as a firewall, however, investing in a dedicated firewall might be worthwhile • Routers can also play the role of DHCP server and network address translator Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. Communicating With the Outside World Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 23
  24. 24. Communicating With the Outside World • Most small networks can use an inexpensive router that can be purchased from computer retailers and office supply stores • These routers allow all packets through if an internal computer initiates the communication session – No unsolicited packets are allowed into the network from outside – The router configuration can be changed to allow certain types of packets to enter the network, referred to as port forwarding because you’re configuring the router to forward requests that apply to only certain TCP ports Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 24
  25. 25. VPN Remote Access • Recall from Chapter 10 that a VPN creates a private communication channel between two parties using the Internet • Two VPN modes are available: – Gateway-to-gateway VPN mode: A VPN connection is established between two routers that support VPN • Used primarily between offices connected to the Internet through a router that supports VPN – Client-to-gateway VPN mode: A VPN connection is established between a computer and a VPN device • Requires a VPN client to be configured on each computer participating in the VPN and a VPN device to which clients connect Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 25
  26. 26. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 26 VPN Remote Access • Manufacturers such as Linksys, Netgear, and D- Link have fairly inexpensive VPN routers that support either VPN mode • When purchasing a router that supports VPN connections from remote clients, look for one that supports VPN endpoints – The number of endpoints or tunnels the VPN router supports tells you how many VPN connections can be established – In client-to-gateway VPN mode, one VPN endpoint per user connection is required
  27. 27. Identifying Requirements for Small-Business Applications • Some businesses only need an office application suite, such as Microsoft Office • Not all software is designed to operate over a network with multiple users accessing the data – Requires the network administrator to be creative in making it work on an office network • You must ensure that proper software licensing has been purchased – The end user license agreement (EULA) should be consulted before purchasing any software for use by multiple users Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 27
  28. 28. Small-Business Accounting Software • As a network technician, your job is to help ensure that the network is set up to run this type of software adequately and to be sure data is backed up • Some issues in supporting these applications: – Should the software be accessible by multiple users? – How should the application be secured from unauthorized users? – Older software packages might not integrate with Windows well or support networking – How is the software and its data backed up? Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 28
  29. 29. Sales and Contact Management Software • Contact management software can keep track of customer conversations, promotional mailings can be targeted and customer’s birthdays and pet names can be tracked • This type of software is in a category called customer relationship management (CRM) • CRM software has some of the same support issues as accounting software • Your knowledge of the products available for handling typical small business tasks will help on the job Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 29
  30. 30. Windows Small-Business Server • Windows Small Business Server (SBS) provides the following applications features beyond the Windows Server 2008 OS: – E-mail server – Shared calendar – Intranet resource sharing – E-mail security – Database • Provides support for up to 75 users and is designed to be run by business employees who don’t have an extensive IT background Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 30
  31. 31. Hosted Applications • Hosted applications are accessible through a Web interface • Google Apps provides a full suite of office applications, E-mail, document collaboration, and calendaring – Standard edition is free and is suitable for fewer than 50 users • Using hosted applications is a viable alternative for businesses that have fast, reliable Internet connections and don’t need the advanced features offered in office suites such as Microsoft Office Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 31
  32. 32. Is Linux a Viable Desktop Alternative to Windows? • The biggest questions about using a Linux desktop are: – Total cost of ownership (TCO): Cost when you factor in support costs and productivity gain or loss – Application support • Linux-based Web browsers and e-mail clients are similar to those on Windows and Mac OS • is an open-source office application suite that is free to download • If the company needs to run industry-specific applications, you need to find out whether Linux is supported Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 32
  33. 33. Supporting a Small Business • If you work with small businesses, you need to understand their needs and be able to help them understand what technology can do for them • Working with small businesses can be financially rewarding and create a sense of achievement by helping them use technology to increase and maintain their business • You must convince small business owners to place their information technology in your hands Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 33
  34. 34. Supporting a Small-Business Network • Most small-business owners looking for a computer or network consultant usually request proposals from multiple businesses • You must: – Listen to the company’s requirements – Find out what kind of business the company is in – Find out how it is currently managing day-to-day information – Talk not only to the owner or manager, but also to the people actually using the computers – Be detailed about what’s included in the price you are quoting – Provide choices and spell out the advantages of the higher- priced quote Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 34
  35. 35. Securing a Small-Business Network • You must include security in your proposal to a small business • Determine what type of security will work best with the business • Be sure to emphasize the trade-offs between an open policy and a more secure policy – A more secure policy better safeguards data, but at the expense of more training and perhaps lower productivity • You must factor in how this company currently does business and whether tight security is even a requirement Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 35
  36. 36. Securing a Small-Business Network • Passwords and Backup – Some businesses simply do not need or want passwords – As long as you explain the ramifications of an open security policy, and it’s what the business wants, then do it – One of the first security-related items on your agenda should be an easy-to-use backup strategy – Depending on the amount of data, removable media such as DVD-RWs or USB hard drives might make sense – Many software packages are available to create an image of a hard disk • Symantec Ghost and Acronis True Image • A hard disk image allows you to recover from hard-drive failure by simply restoring the image to a new disk Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 36
  37. 37. Securing a Small-Business Network • Security from the Outside World – Antivirus and antispyware software are a must for any computer with an Internet connection – A firewall should also be in place for most businesses that share a connection to the Internet – For complete protection, use a router described as a firewall router • Can protect a network from external threats, such as DoS attacks and IP spoofing • Can be set up to filter Web sites based on URL and to block cookies and certain scripting languages that can install spyware on company computers • Can be set up to allow Internet access only during certain times of the day and block music and video streaming Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 37
  38. 38. Managing a Small-Business Network • With hard drives to defragment, virus scanners to update, OS patches to install, etc., setting up a weekly or monthly visit for maintenance is a good idea • Remote access is an option for solving a problem quickly – There are lots of options for gaining access to computers remotely so you do not have to be there in person • The technology needs of small businesses can be varied and complex – Rarely can you devise a one-size-fits-all solution for a small-business network Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 38
  39. 39. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 39 Chapter Summary • Most small businesses have modest computer network requirements that don’t require advanced WAN technologies, data encryption, or highly restrictive security policies • A server-based solution is often the best solution, but a peer-to-peer network is an option • Windows 7 has a new simple file-sharing option called HomeGroup • The two most common choices for file sharing in a Linux environment are Samba and NFS
  40. 40. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 40 Chapter Summary • Most computer manufacturers maintain small-business solution centers with equipment for sale that focuses on the needs of small businesses • When choosing network equipment, you need to decide between a wired and wireless network • A connection to the Internet and remote access usually require a broadband connection and a router • Small-business application requirements can range from simple and straightforward to very complex
  41. 41. Chapter Summary • Some of the most common applications small businesses use include office applications, such as word processors and spreadsheets, accounting software, and sales and contact management software • Working with small businesses requires excellent communication skills and the ability to make proposals that business owners understand • To manage a small business network, remote control options should be considered, including Remote Desktop through VPN, dial-up, Telnet, and Windows Remote Assistance Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 41