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Taking the Lead: Applying New Strategies for Knowledge Exchange & Uptake PHAC ISHLCD Workshop  February 8-9, 2011 Metaphor...
Knowledge Exchange <ul><li>Parts & the Whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not build new knowledge in an additive way from s...
Towards a Knowledge Network Ca Di Ob CV L MH
Metaphors, assumptions  & cultural paradigms <ul><li>“ Science works mainly by metaphor ”  - Brian Arthur, Santa Fe Instit...
To Change the Possibility, Change the Metaphor <ul><li>Research shows that by changing the frame we use, we inevitably cha...
Blind Men & the Elephant
Decision Making Under Uncertainty <ul><li>Good decisions require asking the right questions, not just giving plausible ans...
Other Learning Biases <ul><li>Availability bias </li></ul><ul><li>Framing bias </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring and adjustment ...
Knowledge Exchange, Innovation  & Cultural Adaptation Old View Nasty mould destroys bacterial cultures Innovation Mould ki...
Knowledge Exchange  & Dissemination of Cultural Norms Enrich Confirms & extends cultural assumption Assimilation Eg. Pathw...
3 Targets for KE Intervention <ul><li>Where individuals interact with networks and associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoP’...
5 Questions for Online KE <ul><li>What are the various needs, resources, and abilities of the  people who will be directly...
Two Fundamental Data Types <ul><li>Subject-matter information   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including primary data, research pap...
10 Ways to Promote Effective  Knowledge Mobilization <ul><li>Use active and engaging practices to promote user ownership a...
10 Ways to Promote Effective  Knowledge Mobilization <ul><li>Website design, content collection and dissemination should g...
Thank you <ul><li>Christopher Wilson   </li></ul><ul><li>Research Fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Centre on Governance </li></ul>...
Additional Resources: Computer Supported Cooperative Work <ul><li>The focus of CSCW is twofold –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pr...
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Metaphors, biases & learning partnerships

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From a talk to the Workshop on Integrated Strategy on Healthy Living and Chronic Diseases, Ottawa, February 2011.

Knowledge exchange is more than just a compilation or warehousing of data or information. To generate new knowledge we must infuse data with new meaning. We do this not in an additive way from single actions and data-bits, but by creating a story about the overall pattern embedded in events and data and then using that story to understand more clearly the events and data that gave rise to it.

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Metaphors, biases & learning partnerships

  1. 1. Taking the Lead: Applying New Strategies for Knowledge Exchange & Uptake PHAC ISHLCD Workshop February 8-9, 2011 Metaphors, Biases & Learning Partnerships 10 Ways to Promote Effective Knowledge Mobilization Christopher Wilson Research Fellow
  2. 2. Knowledge Exchange <ul><li>Parts & the Whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not build new knowledge in an additive way from single actions & data-bits, but by forming ideas about the overall patterns embedded in events & data and then using these patterns to understand more clearly the events & data that gave rise to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metaphors & Re-framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mobilization of knowledge sufficient to alter organizational behaviours and sector practices rests on conversational processes involving many stakeholders that simultaneously re-shape practice norms together with cultural values and assumptions. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Towards a Knowledge Network Ca Di Ob CV L MH
  4. 4. Metaphors, assumptions & cultural paradigms <ul><li>“ Science works mainly by metaphor ” - Brian Arthur, Santa Fe Institute, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>“ W e [do] not perceive a signal from the outside world unless it is relevant to an option for the future that we have already worked out in our imaginations ” - Arie de Geus, formerly Royal Dutch Shell, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving health & social policies has “ more to do with the ways in which we frame the purposes to be achieved than with the selection of optimal means for achieving them ” - Donald Schön, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>The framing of problems & solutions depends upon the metaphors and stories in good currency among problem solvers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the KE move from warehousing data to exercises of re-framing & the creation of meta-frames? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. To Change the Possibility, Change the Metaphor <ul><li>Research shows that by changing the frame we use, we inevitably change the collective decisions and actions that follow from it </li></ul><ul><li>What would prompt us to change our internal narrative? </li></ul><ul><li>Change evolves thru a process of meaning making </li></ul>
  6. 6. Blind Men & the Elephant
  7. 7. Decision Making Under Uncertainty <ul><li>Good decisions require asking the right questions, not just giving plausible answers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just like the blind men the ‘experts’ need to learn together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social biases (authority bias) such as status and power differences can prevent us from considering and evaluating the quality of the data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are not solely objective in our treatment of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual cognitive biases can prevent us from seeking or recognizing critical data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk evaluation bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect of probability </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Other Learning Biases <ul><li>Availability bias </li></ul><ul><li>Framing bias </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring and adjustment bias </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight bias </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon bias </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast bias </li></ul>
  9. 9. Knowledge Exchange, Innovation & Cultural Adaptation Old View Nasty mould destroys bacterial cultures Innovation Mould kills bacteria Single individual / Organization Changed Paradigm Bacterial infections easily dealt with by antibiotics Culture / Collective Understanding Dialogue Medical therapies, treatment regimens and contra-indications for antibiotics Private / Public Knowledge Institutions Affirmation Mould-derived antibiotics effective in killing many forms of bacteria in many situations Multiple individuals / Sector Organizations
  10. 10. Knowledge Exchange & Dissemination of Cultural Norms Enrich Confirms & extends cultural assumption Assimilation Eg. Pathways to Education Single individual / Organization Existing Paradigm Social determinants of health Culture / Collective Understanding Contextualize What determinants, how do they affect health outcomes, when under what conditions? Private / Public Knowledge Institutions Diffusion SDH adopted by community heath practitioners as means of transforming health outcomes Multiple individuals / Organizations
  11. 11. 3 Targets for KE Intervention <ul><li>Where individuals interact with networks and associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoP’s, social media, networking events, classrooms & cafeterias & other informal settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where networks and associations interact with knowledge institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences, workshops, R&D, educational programs, professional development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where knowledge institutions interact with culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media, political discourse, film and fine art, literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each intervention strategy will differ but be directed towards making co-creators & learning partners </li></ul>
  12. 12. 5 Questions for Online KE <ul><li>What are the various needs, resources, and abilities of the people who will be directly served by the system? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the needs of the information providers ? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the system be used? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the system be shaped by users (suppliers & consumers) to encourage ownership & relevance? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the system encourage reframing exercises among users? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two Fundamental Data Types <ul><li>Subject-matter information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including primary data, research papers, news, events, policy documents, and other related content such as images, video clips, web links, etc.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration-support information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including partnership specific information such as records of previous discussions; MOUs and agreements (especially contribution agreements); joint business plans; contributor rules and behaviour policies; privacy policies; decision making rules; schedules for joint work; joint reports and media announcements; overhead data, such as session transcripts and minutes (audio, video & print); as well as contact information for the various partners. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 10 Ways to Promote Effective Knowledge Mobilization <ul><li>Use active and engaging practices to promote user ownership and contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Provide regular interaction between stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the principles by which partners agree to work together </li></ul><ul><li>Construct different strategies for formal and tacit knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Use effective ‘champions’ </li></ul><ul><li>Keep participation in the CoP open, inclusive, and responsive </li></ul>
  15. 15. 10 Ways to Promote Effective Knowledge Mobilization <ul><li>Website design, content collection and dissemination should generate a sense of belonging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for measuring progress should be identified at the outset and built-into the development processes of the website (eg. www.couchsurfing.org ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the system with support for ongoing learning in mind; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to partner evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Create space for partner awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Provide written or oral summaries of research for practitioners </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank you <ul><li>Christopher Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Research Fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Centre on Governance </li></ul><ul><li>University of Ottawa </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: 613-355-6505 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Additional Resources: Computer Supported Cooperative Work <ul><li>The focus of CSCW is twofold – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>practices that allow partner coordination, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the inter-organizational actions that permit collaborative learning to be absorbed by individual organizations so that joint work can be accomplished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Supported Cooperative Work : Concepts & Tools, Tom Gross </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) – special healthcare edition </li></ul><ul><li>Building Sustainable Community Information Systems </li></ul>

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