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James Goss - Motor Design Limited


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James Goss's EV Momentum Summit, Berlin 21 June 2018

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James Goss - Motor Design Limited

  1. 1. Simulation based eMachine design for EV powertrains
  2. 2. 2 Overview • Introduction to Motor Design Ltd • Multi-physics simulation and design • Practical engineering approach • Systems modelling and engineering workflow • Conclusion
  3. 3. 3 Motor Design Ltd (MDL) Motor-CAD Software ➢ Develop Motor-CAD software for electric motor design ➢ High level of customer support and engineering know-how ➢ Motor design software is developed by motor engineers Consultancy ➢ Design, analysis & training. Research ➢ Involved in collaborative government/EU funded research projects: ➢ Concept_e – Prototype Electric vehicle development with Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) ➢ HVEMS – High Volume E-Machines Manufacturing Supply. Make-Like-Production prototyping facility in the UK with JLR ➢ Tevva – Design of SRM motors for Trucks ➢ ReFreeDrive – Rare Earth Traction motors with improved performance and lower cost (Induction and Reluctance Motors) ➢ ELETAD – Helicopter electric tail rotor ➢ Collaborate with Universities worldwide to develop electric machine modelling techniques and create validation data.
  4. 4. 4 Introduction • Development of an EV powertrain is a complex systems problem • Achieving an optimal system design requires evaluation of many different concepts and topologies as well as detailed understanding of the system interactions. • These interactions are typically cross specialism or discipline, involve different teams and often require multi-physics analysis. • Design and simulation tools are crucial to evaluating different design topologies as well as identifying and understanding important system interactions.
  5. 5. 5 Motor-CAD Software: Multi-physics machine design ➢ Leading dedicated multi-physics tool for design and simulation of electric motors ➢ Motor-CAD EMag, Therm and Lab modules are developed to enable fast and accurate analysis in one integrated software ➢ EMag: A fast 2D finite element module for accurate electromagnetic and electrical performance predictions. ➢ Therm: Combines a lumped circuit and finite element thermal calculation for optimising the cooling system of a machine. ➢ Lab: Provides efficiency mapping and duty cycle / drive cycle transient outputs within minutes
  6. 6. 6 Motor-CAD EMag ➢ Motor Types: ➢ BPM (inner & outer rotor) ➢ Induction ➢ Synchronous reluctance ➢ Switched reluctance ➢ Synchronous wound field ➢ Very fast and easy to set- up a design and do complex analysis ➢ Comprehensively validated Winding eddy current loss
  7. 7. Motor-CAD Therm: Thermal Network • Thermal and flow network analysis • 3D network automatically generated • 20 years of embedded experience in thermal modelling of eMachines
  8. 8. 8 ➢ Facilitates very fast and accurate calculation of the motor electromagnetic and thermal performance over the full torque/speed envelope by use of intelligent loss algorithms ➢ Suited to applications such as traction applications that have complex duty cycle loads ➢ Automated calculation of optimum phase advance angle for maximum torque/amp or maximum efficiency control Motor-CAD Lab: Virtual Testing Laboratory Efficiency map with drive cycle overlaid Loss v Time calculated from efficiency map to be input into thermal model Temperature v Time for a particular drive cycle
  9. 9. Examples of Traction Motors in Motor-CAD ➢Can model all common EV traction motors types in Motor-CAD ➢Leaf, Tesla, Prius, Accord, Volt, i3, Zoe, …. ➢Different winding types ➢Distributed, Tooth Wound, Bar/Hairpin, Litz … ➢BPM, Induction, Wound Field, Reluctance, …. ➢Different Cooling types ➢Air Cooled, Water Jacket, Oil Spray, ….. TESLA LEAF PRIUS ACCORD i3
  10. 10. 10 Motor-CAD: Drive cycle simulation ➢ The operation of these machines is very dynamic and consideration of performance across the full torque/speed operating envelope is required ➢ Modelling tools need to support this, Motor-CAD is a unique solution on the market for this type of analysis ➢ It allow machine efficiency to be optimised over standard operating cycles and sized for a worst-case cycle, giving minimum system size and cost Vehicle Speed Profile Motor/Generator: Time vs Torque vs Speed Motor/Generator: Loss vs Time Motor/Generator: Temperature Vs Time
  11. 11. 11 Motor-CAD: Engineering tool ➢ Typically there are a number of unknowns when designing or modelling electric machines, often influenced by the manufacturing process, for example: ➢ The influence of the manufacturing process on the loss coefficients in the electrical steel laminations ➢ The thermal interface resistance between the stator lamination and housing ➢ The ratio of air to impregnation in the winding ➢ Motor-CAD includes embedded knowledge on these aspects built up over many years using practical/experimental experience
  12. 12. 12 Motor-CAD: Engineering tool ➢ Example on-going project: ➢ Quantify the impact of different types of oil spray cooling on a hairpin wound machines ➢ Oil Mist from spray nozzles ➢ Oil Drip from tube above winding ➢ Oil Jet from ring offset axially from the machine ➢ Oil thrown from rotor due to centrifugal force ➢ This is used to provide useful information on the set-up of oil cooling models
  13. 13. Motor-CAD: Systems Engineering and workflow ➢ Interaction between other powertrain components is handled through coupling with other specialist tools ➢ Combined NVH response of motor and gearbox using Motor-CAD and Romax designer ➢ Combined inverter and motor behaviour through model export to Simulink Simscape ➢ Vehicle thermal system behaviour analysed through co-simulation with GT- Suite ➢ Partnership with Ansys provides coupling to high power numerical simulation: ➢ 3D FEA for analysis of end-effects with Ansys Maxwell ➢ CFD for analysis of heat transfer due to fluid flow with Fluent ➢ Mechanical stress and vibration analysis with Ansys Mechanical
  14. 14. Motor-CAD Links to ANSYS for Improved Design Workflow Concept Design to System Validation Design Tool for electrical machines Advanced Magnetics Modeling Maxwell 2D & 3D Lab Efficient Motor Design Toolkit Motor-CAD EmagThermal NVH, Cooling Mechanical & CFD Control logic, software System Validation 3D Physical Validation Concept Design System Validation Lab Design Analysis Operation
  15. 15. 15 • OptiSlang is a robust design optimisation platform its offers sensitivity analysis, optimization and robustness evaluation • Previous state-of-the-art electric motor design optimisation techniques focus on only analysis of machines at single operating points and usually only account for electromagnetic operation. • This coupling will allow the full power of Motor-CAD to be used in an optimisation procedure. • This will include peak performance, continuous performance and drive cycle analysis to be included in the cost or constraint functions. Motor-CAD – OptiSlang Coupling
  16. 16. 16 Summary • E-machine development requires iteration of many design variants with other system components to achieve an optimal system solution • These e-machine design variants need to be analysed considering electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical behaviour over the full operating range • A combined physics and practical based experience approach is crucial • Modelling of the interaction between components is required to understand the performance and capability of the overall system.
  17. 17. Motor Design Ltd 5 Edison Court | Wrexham | LL13 7YT | UK Tel. +44 (0)1691 623305