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Dr Yves Burkhardt - Valeo Siemens

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Dr Yves Burkhardt, Valeo Siemens E-Automotive exploring the challenges for future e-motor materials

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Dr Yves Burkhardt - Valeo Siemens

  1. 1. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 1Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Challenges for future e-motor materials valeo-siemens.com
  2. 2. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 2Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Two high-tech companies Valeo and Siemens joined forces to create a leading global provider of innovative and cost-effective high-voltage components and systems for hybrid and electric vehicles. Inverter Electric Motor On-board Charger Inverter & DC/DC Full Drivetrain Integration DC/DC Converter On-board Charger &DC/DC Generator TechCenters Production Innovative product portfolio More than 10 sites world wide Valeo Siemens eAutomotive
  3. 3. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 3Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Overview 1 Development trends for (H)EV motors 2 Electrification solutions to meet market trends 3 Challenges for e-motors 4 Challenges for insulation materials 5 Challenges for active materials 6 Conclusion
  4. 4. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 4Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Multiple architectures for Hybrid & Electric Vehicles P0/P1 P2 P3 P4 Belt Starter Generator Motor Generator on primary shaft Motor Generator on secondary shaft Motor Generator on rear axle (with speed reducer / transmission)  Focus of Valeo Siemens eAutomotive  Focus of further considerations in this presentation
  5. 5. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 5Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX • Increase general power and torque • Speed increase • Increase of torque density • Increase of DC voltage 400 V  800 V class (DC) • Increase efficiency over driving cycle (e.g. WLTP) • Shorter time to market • Easy to integrate components Development trends for (H)EV motors Development trends result in new challenges for (H) EV motors 0 50 100 150 0 150 300 0 10000 Power[kW] Torque[Nm] Speed [rpm] T_peak P_peak 0 50 100 150 0 150 300 0 10000 Power[kW] Torque[Nm] Speed [rpm] T_peak P_peak n_max n_max
  6. 6. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 6Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Overview 1 Development trends for (H)EV motors 2 Electrification solutions to meet market trends 3 Challenges for e-motors 4 Challenges for insulation materials 5 Challenges for active materials 6 Conclusion
  7. 7. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 7Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Electric motors and integrated systems Technical specifications Peak power 26 - 300 kW Peak torque up to 600 Nm Rotation speed up to 18.000 rpm Efficiency up to 96% Power density up to 6 kW / kg Features  Various types of e-machines for axle drives, hybrid applications, starter generator and range extender  Easy customer specific adaption for motor designs up to integrated e-Drive systems (motor + gearbox + inverter)
  8. 8. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 8Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Overview 1 Development trends for (H)EV motors 2 Electrification solutions to meet market trends 3 Challenges for e-motors 4 Challenges for insulation materials 5 Challenges for active materials 6 Conclusion
  9. 9. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 9Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX • Increase general power and torque: • Higher (magnetic) forces: • Magnetic forces in stator and rotor electrical steel • Higher torque on shaft and package interface • Higher torsion force in housing • Higher losses • Higher electromagnetic losses in active parts • Higher ohmic losses in winding • Stronger cooling needed • Higher electrical power • Higher currents in winding and connecting parts Challenges for e-motors
  10. 10. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 10Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX • Speed increase • Speed capabilities of bearings (esp. lubrication) • Better rotor balancing needed • Higher stiffness of rotor and housing • Higher mechanical strength of rotor lamination • Higher electric frequencies  higher frequency dependant losses (e.g. from 10 kHz up to 40 kHz) • Faster inverter switching  steeper voltage slopes dV/dt (e.g. from 5 V / ns up to 50 V / ns) Challenges for e-motors
  11. 11. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 11Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX • Increase of torque density • Higher utilization of active parts: • Higher flux density in electric steel • Higher magnet flux • Higher current density in windings • Higher loss density in stator and rotor • Direct winding cooling • Rotor cooling • Winding potting • Higher temperature in motor • Higher mechanical strength of rotor, stator, shaft and housing Challenges for e-motors Typically saturated regions Exemplary magnetic flux density distribution Exemplary temperature distribution End windings typically hot spot at high torque
  12. 12. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 12Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX • Increase of DC voltage from 400 V to 800 V class • Higher electric strength for slot insulation • Higher electric strength for winding insulation, wire coating • Increased clearances and creepage distances Challenges for e-motors Clearance Creepage distance Insulation Potential 2 Potential 1 Distances increase > 60 % Today: ~ 33 kV/mm Higher voltage slopes and over voltage peaks have to be covered by wire insulation
  13. 13. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 13Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX 0 nmax 0 Mmax speed n [rpm] TorqueM[Nm] 0 nmax 0 Mmax speed n [rpm] TorqueM[Nm] Thicker sheet / higher conductivity Thinner sheet / lower conductivity Iron loss Iron loss • Increase efficiency • Losses in active parts: • In constant torque range, stator winding losses define thermal limitation • In field weakening, iron losses define thermal limitation • At max. speed, rotor iron loss may define thermal limitation for PSM • Iron losses in active parts for different eddy loss coefficient Challenges for e-motors 0 nmax 0 Mmax speed n [rpm] TorqueM[Nm] • For increased speed / frequencies, low eddy current losses in electric sheet necessary • Hysteresis loss less dominant Stator winding losses predominant Iron losses predominant Rotor iron losses relevant Strong reduction of iron losses Total loss
  14. 14. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 14Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX • Shorter time to market • Platform approach • Common parts which are easy to adapt • Good long term material availability • Stable long term material price • Easy to integrate components • Standardized interfaces • Standardized sizes / motor diameters • Integrated systems:  Motor, inverter and transmission in one component Challenges for e-motors + Rotor package Housing cooling Stator core types Rotor position encoder Ball bearing s HV connector …. Shaft Standard parts Building blocks Products
  15. 15. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 15Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Overview 1 Development trends for (H)EV motors 2 Electrification solutions to meet market trends 3 Challenges for e-motors 4 Challenges for insulation materials 5 Challenges for active materials 6 Conclusion
  16. 16. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 16Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Derived from market needs results different needs for insulation material improvements: • For slot insulation and wire coating: Challenges for insulating material Increased torque density Speed increase Steep dV/dt slopes Voltage increase Market demand Challenge for e-motor Challenge for material High slot fill factor Direct oil cooled Increased operating temperature Good thermal conductivity DC voltage of 800 V Higher insulation strength (>33 kV/mm) High demand for improvements in insulation materials Thin material (< 0,2 mm) Higher thermal class (> 200°C) Higher th. conductivity (> 0,2 W/mK) Withstand oil Improved sliding ability
  17. 17. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 17Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Overview 1 Development trends for (H)EV motors 2 Electrification solutions to meet market trends 3 Challenges for e-motors 4 Challenges for insulation materials 5 Challenges for active materials 6 Conclusion
  18. 18. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 18Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Derived from market needs result different needs for electrical steel / sheet improvements: Challenges for electrical steel / sheet material Increased torque density Speed increase Market demand Challenge for e-motor Challenge for material Higher saturation flux density High mech. strength (Rm > 500 MPa) High demand for improvements in electrical steel / sheet material Higher utilization of e-sheet Higher forces in e-sheet Thin material in series (< 0,3 mm) Lower specific loss at high frequency Fatique data for e-steel Higher electric frequencies Higher rotor speed capabilities
  19. 19. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 19Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Derived from market needs result different needs for permanent magnet improvements: Challenges for permanent magnet material Increased torque density Power and torque increase Market demand Challenge for e-motor Challenge for material High demand for improvements in permanent magnet material Reduced HRE content Improved diffusion process Quality standard Higher energy density Higher temperature class Higher demag. strength (HCJ) Higher magnet flux Increased operating temperature Higher utilization of active parts Short time to market Good long term material availability Stable long term material price
  20. 20. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 20Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Overview 1 Development trends for (H)EV motors 2 Electrification solutions to meet market trends 3 Challenges for e-motors 4 Challenges for insulation materials 5 Challenges for active materials 6 Conclusion
  21. 21. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 21Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX  Strong increase in e-mobility market  Proceeding e-mobility evokes further improvements in e-motor design  Typical operation range is enlarged (higher speeds, higher torque density, …)  To achieve improvements in e-motor design, improvements in motor materials are needed  Close cooperation between motor suppliers and material suppliers beneficial Conclusion
  22. 22. Unrestricted © Valeo Siemens 2018 19.06.2018 Page 22Dr. Y. Burkhardt / VSeA R&D Mot&GBX Thanks for the attention!

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