What is Engagement?
• “Student Engagement is a process and a product that is
experienced on a continuum and results from the
synergistic interaction between motivation and active
learning.” Barkley (2010)
What influences student
Expectancy x value model
The effort people are willing to expend on a
task is the product of the degree to which
they expect to be able to perform the task
successfully (expectancy) and the degree
to which they value the rewards as well as
the opportunity to engage in performing the
task itself (value). Barkley (2010)
What influences student
Students’ motivations are strongly
influenced by what they think is
important and what they believe
they can accomplish.
Students must believe that they can
succeed if they provide adequate
effort. Without hope students have
Cross and Steadman (1996)
A students’ belief about their ability
to succeed at a learning task is
more important than their actual
skill level or the difficulty of the
task. (Bandura, 1977, 1982)
Strategies that provide extrinsic
rewards (high grades, bonus points,
praise, etc.) may increase motivation
for the short term but may also inhibit
students from developing the intrinsic
motivation to experience truly engaged
learning. Barkley (2010)
Flow – Deep intrinsic motivation
Flow - When we are so absorbed in the
task that it becomes worth doing for its
own sake. Csikszentmihalyi’s (1993,
Helping students achieve a sense of
1. Goals are clear and compatible, allowing
learners to concentrate even when the task is
2. Feedback is immediate, continuous, and
relevant as the activity unfolds so that students
are clear about how well they are doing; and
3. The challenge balances skills or knowledge with
stretching existing capabilities.
Wlodkowski (2008 pp. 267-268)
Engagement and Active Learning
Active learning means that the mind is
actively engaged. Its defining
characteristics are that students are
dynamic participants in their learning
and that they are reflecting on and
monitoring both the process and the
results of their learning. Barkley (2010)
• Active learning is fundamental to student
• Students make information or a concept their own
by connecting it to their existing knowledge and
• Student examines, questions and relates new
ideas to old to achieve learning that lasts.
• Barkley (2010)
• Barkley, Elizabeth F.. Student engagement techniques: a handbook
for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010.
• Cross, K. Patricia, and Mimi Harris Steadman. Classroom research:
implementing the scholarship of teaching. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass, 1996. Print.
• Wlodkowski, Raymond J.. Enhancing adult motivation to learn: a
comprehensive guide for teaching all adults. 3rd ed. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint, 2008. Print.
• Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Intrinsic motivation and effective
teaching; A flow analysis. In Bess, James L.. Teaching well and
liking it: motivating faculty to teach effectively. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1997. Print.
• Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of
behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(1), 191-215.
• Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.
American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.
Connie White – Senior Collaborator