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  1. 1. Instructional Strategies to Enhance Engagement
  2. 2. Judy Willis, M.D. Engagement Strategies (2006) • Attention Is Not Voluntary Choice • Whatever is new or different will get priority
  3. 3. #1 Reason Kids Drop Out is Boredom (Bridgeland, Dilulio, & Morrison 2006) • Judy Willis, M.D. Stated: • Boredom is stressful. – The lower reactive brain is in control. • Behavior – Fight (Disruptive) – Oppositional Defiant – Flight (Withdrawal) – ADHD and ADD – Freeze (Zone Out) social anxiety syndrome, seizures, OCD – Children are misdiagnosed when the brain is not the problem. Kids are bored. Children want the dopamine pleasure that games and technology brings.
  4. 4. Judy Willis, M.D. Engagement Strategies (2006) • The more ways something is learned, the more memory pathways are built • Multiple stimulation mean better memory • Examples: • Multiple forms of review • Visual imagery • Personal relevance • Role-play • Produce product or models
  5. 5. Engagement Strategies (Willis, 2006) • Attention is not a voluntary choice – input must be selected by sensory filter. If it does not reach per-frontal cortex, it does not make it to long term memory. • Must be selected to make it to the Reticular Activating System (RAS). Survival skills for animals.
  6. 6. The RAS – Judy Willis (2006) • Curiosity alerts the RAS • Sound (voice volume, pitch, cadence) • Color, placement of objects • Your appearance (costumes, hats) do something unusual • Novelty and curiosity • Predictions are great (which one do you want 1 penny doubled for a year or $1,000,000?) • Optical Illusions • Grumpy faces do not allow passage to pre-frontal cortex
  7. 7. Emotions and Learning: Brain-Targeted Teaching Strategies Mariale M. Hardiman • Predictability • Personal connection between teacher and students • Trust and acceptance • Safe environment • Control and choice • Humor • Music, art, dance and theater • Celebration
  8. 8. Connecting Emotions to Content • It helps to make emotional connections to curriculum in order to achieve long term retention. • For example by considering the emotional toll of the US Civil War may connect learning much more than isolated battles, and persons involved. By Mc Knoell - The two structures in the brain responsible for long- term remembering are located in the emotional area of the brain.
  9. 9. “Visual Tools Help Students Reach Higher Levels of Thinking” • Arrangements of ideas that can be linked to previous learning • Access both left and right side of brain • Appeal to all learns starting at about age 5. • Can have new info added easily and quickly. • Are helpful in all subjects • Are fun and easy to create - Sprenger (2010)
  10. 10. Graphic Organizers Sequence Chart First Next Next Next Last Venn Diagram (comparison Similarities Differences Differences T- Charts (cause/effect) or (problem/solution) or Y - Charts K What do we Know? W What do we want to find out? H How can we find out what we want to learn? L What did we learn?
  11. 11. Mind Maps or Pictures • “With mind maps we are creating pictures that will enable student to remember 80 to 100 percent of what we have taught.” – Marilee Sprenger • Nonlinguistic representations are a way of imaging information and are one way to improve student achievement. – Marzano, Pickering, and Pollack (2001) • It does not have to be pictures, mind maps or graphic organizers. It may be movement, sounds and smells…
  12. 12. Engagement Strategies Think-Pair Share • Ask students to reflect on a question or prompt. Give them a brief amount of time (perhaps 30 seconds) to formulate a response. • Ask students to pair up or to turn to their assigned partner. • Ask them to discuss their responses. Quick-Writes • Select a prompt that you would like students to address. • Give students a specified amount of time to collect their thoughts and jot down a response(~3-5min). • Follow up with a Networking Session. Quick-Draw • Reflect on meaning of “big idea” and create a visual. • Follow up with Chalkboard Splash. “Ideas taken from Total participation Techniques” – Persida Himmele and William Himmele
  13. 13. Engagement Strategies Networking Session • Prepare 1-4 prompts. Ask students to reflect on or quick- write responses to prompts. • Ask students to find someone (they have not spoken to) to discuss topic. • Signal when to switch to next person with next prompt. Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down • Ask students a question for which a yes/no or agree/disagree response is appropriate. Chalkboard Splash • Copy responses to Quick- Write or Quick-Draw onto random or selected places in classroom. (butcher paper) • Ask students to walk around, analyze and jot down similarities, differences, and surprises. • Ask students to get in small groups and share before sharing with larger group. “Ideas taken from Total participation Techniques” – Persida Himmele and William Himmele
  14. 14. References • Willis, J. (2006) Research based strategies to ignite student learning. ASCD: Alexandria, VA. • Willis, J. (2011) Sustaining students classroom attention in the digital age [Presentation]. 2011 Learning and the Brain Conference. San Francisco. • Hardiman, M. (2004) Connecting Brain Research With Effective Teaching: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model. Lanham, Maryland: R&L Education • Sprenger, M. (2010), Brain-based teaching in the digital age. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. • Medina, J. (2008), Brain rules. Seattle, WA: Pear Press. • Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D.J., & Pollack, J.E., (2001), Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. • rsida, and William Himmele.Total participation techniques making every student an active learner. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD, 2011. Print.