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Instructional Design Lecture 2 Part 2: Instructional Theories


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Instructional Design Lecture 2 Part 2: Instructional Theories

  1. 1. InstructionalDesignTheories involved in the ID processSankarsingh, C. EDFN201B
  2. 2. Lecture 2Learning TheoriesInstructional Theories• Motivational Theories• Communication Theories• General Systems TheoriesEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.Lecture 2 (PART TWO) : Instructional Theories5/20/2013 2
  3. 3. ICEBREAKER:5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 3
  4. 4. InstructionaltheoriesBased on what we understand about the ways peoplelearn, instructional theories focus on how tostructure material for promoting the education ofhuman beings. While learning theory describes howlearning takes place, and an instructional theoryprescribes how to better help people learn!EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.
  5. 5. Elaboration Theory(Charles Reigeluth, 1970)• When structuring a course, it should be organized in thefollowing manner: simple to complex general to detailed abstract to concrete• Certain pre-requisite knowledge and skills must first bemastered for the learner to advance.• There should be learning pre-requisite sequences• It should be applied to individual lessons in a course• Pre-requisite sequencing provides linkages between eachlesson
  6. 6. Types of Sequences(Reigeluth)• Conceptual Elaboration Sequence(used when there are many related concepts to be learned)• Theoretical Elaboration Sequence(used when there are many related principles to be learned)• Procedural Sequence(used when a task of moderate complexity need to belearned)• One of the factors that affect sequencing is the relationshipamong topics.• If the relationship is strong, then the sequencing isimportant; otherwise, sequencing is not important.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 6
  7. 7. Compare these 2 examples:• To learn multiply and division, learners have to be able todo addition and subtraction. Sequencing is very importantin this case. WHY?• On the other hand, if the content is the water cycle, thesolar system, and the earth, the sequencing is not asimportant. WHY not?• Do you believe that this course you are studying has beensequenced?5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 7
  8. 8. Patterns of SequencingTopic/al Spiral5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 8
  9. 9. Instructional design sequence(Reigeluth & Rodgers, 1980)• select all the operations to be taught (task analysis)• decide which operation to teach first• sequence all the remaining operations• identify the supporting content• allocate all content to lessons and sequence them• sequence the instruction within each lesson• design instruction on each lesson and summary.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 9
  10. 10. • Essential to Gagnes ideas of instruction are what hecalls "conditions of learning."• He breaks these down into internal and externalconditions.• The internal conditions deal with previously learnedcapabilities of the learner.• The external conditions deal with the stimuli that ispresented externally to the learner.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 10
  11. 11. Nine Steps5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 11
  12. 12. Walking the Nine Steps5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 12
  13. 13. 5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 13
  14. 14. Confucius say...Tell me and I forget. Show me and I remember. Let me do andI understand.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 14
  15. 15. Cognitive ApprenticeshipWhat’s it about?5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 15
  16. 16. Cognitive Apprenticeship(Collins, Brown & Newman)• ‘Apprenticing’ means being in relationship withsomeone charged with teaching you to become a skilful,situational problem solver.• It is fundamentally social learning.• Attempts to bring tacit (i.e. Implied, silent, mute) processesOUT IN THE OPEN.• In cognitive apprenticeship, one needs to deliberately bringthe thinking to the surface, to make it visible, whether it’s inreading, writing, problem solving.• Assumes that people learn from one another throughOBSERVATION, IMITATION & MODELING.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 16
  17. 17. 5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 17
  18. 18. How might teacher apply the CognitiveApprenticeship Model?• identify the processes of the task and make them visible tostudents;• situate abstract tasks in authentic contexts, so thatstudents understand the relevance of the work; and• vary the diversity of situations and articulate the commonaspects so that students can transfer what they learn.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 18
  19. 19. Bloom’s Taxonomy ofEducational Objectives• One of the most widely used ways of organizing levels ofexpertise.• Blooms Taxonomy uses a multi-tiered scale to express thelevel of expertise required to achieve each measurablestudent outcome.• Organizing measurable student outcomes allow us to selectappropriate classroom assessment techniques.• There are three taxonomies based on knowledge-basedgoals, skills-based goals, and affective goals.• Within each taxonomy, levels of expertise are listed in orderof increasing complexity5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 19
  20. 20. But surely you have seen the[knowledge-based] taxonomy before?5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 20
  21. 21. Let’s examine this resource[Please open link on your pc]5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 21
  22. 22. The 3 Domains [Resources]Taxonomy for Knowledge-based Goals5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 22
  23. 23. The 3 Domains [Resources]Taxonomy for Skills-based Goals5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 23
  24. 24. The 3 Domains [Resources]Taxonomy for Affective Goals5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 24
  25. 25. Mastery Learning (Bloom)• Suggests that teachers could provide the necessary time and appropriatelearning conditions• Teacher organize the concepts & skills they want students to learn into units.• After each, he administers a quiz (assessment); He gives feedback; He movesfrom formative assessment to more specific “corrective” activities.• Attributed to BEHAVIOURISM principles of operant conditioning ( Can you seewhy?)5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 25
  26. 26. Situated Learning(Lave, 1988)• Learning is unintentional and situated (embedded) withinauthentic activity, context and culture• Knowledge therefore needs to be presented in authenticcontexts• Social interaction and collaboration are essential• Learners become involved in “Communities of Practice”• The Beginner starts to move from the periphery to thecentre.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 26
  27. 27. Visualizing the CoP model5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 27
  28. 28. Conversation Theory(Pask, 1975)• Grew out of cybernetics (the study of control processes in electronic,mechanical and biological systems).He conceived human-machineinteraction as a form of conversation, i.e. a dynamic process in whichparticipants learn from each other• For students to learn they must learn the relationships among theconcepts. Subject matter should be represented in the form ofentailment structures which show what is to be learned.• Believed conversation is conducted at different levels: 1) natural language (general), 2)object language (specific subject matter) & 3) meta-language (talking about learning)• The critical method of learning is "teachback" in which one personteaches another what they have learned.• Pask identified two different types of learning strategies: serialistswho progress through an entailment structure in a sequential fashionand holists who look for higher order relations.5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 28
  29. 29. The conversation loop5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 29
  30. 30. Analyze this:5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 30
  31. 31. OrganizingInstructionNEXT UP:Lecture 2 PART 3Motivational Theories5/20/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 31In this “episode”, we’ve looked at theoriesof instruction: i.e. how we may organizeknowledge in easier ways to facilitatelearning.What theories are you most familiar with?Which ones do you readily embrace?How will you use what you have learned todesign instruction?