Fundamentals of Game Design - Ch2

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  • Remember that the goal is entertaining the player, not creating a game you would like to play or preventing the player from winning the game.
  • Take the best from every source. If a feature is not needed, don’t keep it.
  • Many games allow players to switch between first-person and third-person perspectives. In first person, the game world is shown as if you are the avatar. The avatar is not visible in first person because the player is looking through the avatar’s eyes. In third person, the avatar is followed by a chase camera that shows the avatar and the game world.
  • Use common sense to dictate which actions should be available at a particular time.
  • It is easy to get stuck in any stage
  • Fundamentals of Game Design - Ch2

    1. 1. Fundamentals of nd Game Design, 2 Edition by Ernest Adams Chapter 2: Design Components and Processes
    2. 2. Objectives     Understand the player-centric approach to game design Know how the core mechanics and the user interface work together to create gameplay Explain how gameplay modes and shell menus make up the structure of a game Recognize the three stages of game design and describe the design work in each stage © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 2
    3. 3. Objectives (Cont.)    Know the kinds of jobs required on a design team Know the kinds of documents that a game designer is likely to need and what they are for Know the qualities required of a good game designer © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 3
    4. 4. Art, Engineering, or Craft?   Game design is not purely an art nor an act of pure engineering Game design is a craft   It includes both creative and functional elements It can be learned © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 4
    5. 5. The Player-Centric Approach   Player-centric game design is a philosophy of design in which the designer envisions a representative player Two duties in player-centric design:     Entertain the representative player Empathize with the representative player You are not the representative player You are not the player’s opponent © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 5
    6. 6. Other Motivations That Influence Design  Market-driven games   Designer-driven games   Games trying to appeal to the maximum number of people, regardless of implications for harmony Designer retains all creative control, usually to the detriment of the game Games for a specific license   Content must fit into an existing world Limits creativity, but often very lucrative © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 6
    7. 7. Other Motivations That Influence Design (Cont.)  Technology-driven games   Games built to show off the hardware running the game Art-driven games   Games built to show off the artwork Games are visually innovative but seldom good otherwise; comparatively rare © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 7
    8. 8. Integrating for Entertainment  Integrating characteristics to entertain players requires designer to      Have a specific vision Consider the audience’s preferences Understand licensing benefits and exploit them to the game’s best advantage Understand the capabilities of the technology Consider aesthetic style © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 8
    9. 9. Core Mechanics  Core mechanics generate the gameplay     Define the challenges Define the actions Define the player’s effect on the game world Core mechanics determine how realistic the game world seems to the player  Realism is a continuum between abstract and representational © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 9
    10. 10. User Interface  Mediates between the core mechanics and the player    Interprets player’s mouse clicks or button presses Displays the result of the player’s input Can also be called the presentation layer   Presents the game world to the player Includes artwork and audio effects © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 10
    11. 11. User Interface (Cont.)  Interaction model  Identifies the way in which the player acts upon the game world; common models include:    Avatar-based—through a character in the world Multipresent—the player can act on many places at once Camera model   Viewpoint of the virtual camera, and its behavior Simple models are called perspectives. First- and third-person are common perspectives. © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 11
    12. 12. The Structure of a Video Game  Structure is composed of   Gameplay modes Shell menus © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 12
    13. 13. Gameplay Modes  Gameplay modes consist of the available gameplay and user interface at a specific time    Not all actions are available at all times Available user interface choices should be related to the current actions A game is in exactly one gameplay mode at a time.  It can move to another mode as necessary © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 13
    14. 14. The Gameplay Mode © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 14
    15. 15. Shell Menus and Screens  Shell menus are used when the player is NOT in a gameplay mode   The player can’t affect the game world The player can save or load a game, adjust the hardware, etc. © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 15
    16. 16. Forming the Structure   Gameplay modes + shell menus = structure The game switches between gameplay modes as required:   In response to specific player requests In response to events in the game © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 16
    17. 17. Stages of the Design Process     Concept stage Elaboration stage Tuning stage Note that these are purely stages of design, not of development; development includes many more factors  “Pre-production” and “production” are development stages that overlap the design stages © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 17
    18. 18. Concept Stage  During the concept stage, you      Define the fundamental game concept, including the game’s genre Define an audience Determine the player’s role in the game Think about how to fulfill the player’s dream Concept should not change after this stage © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 18
    19. 19. Elaboration Stage During this stage, you      Define the primary game mode Design the protagonist Define the game world Design the core mechanics © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.     Create additional modes Create the first playable level Write the story Build, test, and iterate Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 19
    20. 20. Tuning Stage    You enter the tuning stage at the point when the entire design is locked and no more features may be added to the game During the tuning stage, the design team makes small adjustments to levels and core mechanics Polishing is a subtractive process—removing imperfections © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 20
    21. 21. Game Design Teams  A game design team may include        Lead Designer Game Designers Level Designers User Interface Designers Writers Art Director Audio Director © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 21
    22. 22. Documenting the Design  Design documents are used      To communicate your ideas clearly to other team members As sales tools As design tools To record the decisions made The process of writing a document can turn a vague idea into an explicit plan © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 22
    23. 23. Types of Design Documents  High concept document    Tool to sell your game concept Two to four pages Game treatment document   Sales tool with more detail than the high concept document Summary of the basic game design © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 23
    24. 24. Types of Design Documents (Cont.)  Character design document      Design one character in the game Include moveset Include concept art in different poses Include the character’s backstory World design document    General overview of the game world art Types and locations for sounds Include a map © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 24
    25. 25. Types of Design Documents (Cont.)  Flowboard    Story and level progression document    Document the structure—links among gameplay modes and shell menus List available menu items and player inputs Tell the story Record the player’s progression through the game Game script document  Specifies rules and core mechanics in enough detail to play the game © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 25
    26. 26. Anatomy of a Game Designer  Skills most useful for professional game designer      Imagination Technical awareness Analytical competence Mathematical competence Aesthetic competence © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.     General knowledge and ability to research Writing skills Drawing skills Ability to synthesize Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 26
    27. 27. Summary  You should now understand     Player-centric approach to game design Structure of a game Stages of game design and the required documentation Roles and qualities of the design team members © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Design Components and Processes 27

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