Woodland wonders 2010

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This lecture was given in August, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Woodland wonders 2010

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Woodland Wonders:Plants for Dry Shade C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve August 7 & 10, 2010 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. For some gardeners, restoration of locally native plant life is of key importance… ‘Very local’ native plants may be the easiest to grow – literally ‘grow themselves’ © Project SOUND
  4. 4. What is my local Plant Community?  Coastal strand/bluff  S. Coastal Prairie  Coastal shrubland  Coastal Sage Scrub  Chaparral – parts of PV, mostly at higher elevationshttp://www.planetizen.com/node/23441 Riparian (wetland/streamside) communities © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Madrona Marsh Preserve gives a good idea of what many localneighborhoods might have looked like in the past © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Gardens are located in the spacebetween natural and human landscapes © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Many gardeners want to create a cool, shady oasis © Project SOUNDhttp://www.nanscapes.biz/gardens.html
  8. 8. The Riparian Woodland is a source for local shade plants that like water © Project SOUND
  9. 9. But what if you want/need both shade and water-wise? http://philipsgardenblog.com/2008/04/ Perhaps you’re lucky enough to have a mature oak(s) in your garden © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Or you may just want to make the shady parts of yourgarden more water-wise © Project SOUND
  11. 11. A few guidelines – choosing appropriate plant species for your garden  If you live near natural areas:  Choose local native plants (from locally derived sources) – best choice  Choose other native (and non-native) plants & cultivarsConsult with your local Land with great care –Conservancy/Preserve or local native should not invade orplant experts (CA Native Plant hybridize with localSociety) to make good choices native plants © Project SOUND
  12. 12. A few guidelines – choosing appropriate native plant species for your garden  If you live in an urbanized area you may also:  Choose plants from appropriate areas that are not immediately local, but still are close by:  Inland areas of L.A. Co.;  Local foothills;  ‘Coastal’ (lowland) plants from Orange or San Diego Co.  Choose plants from farther away that have appropriate characteristics for your garden:  Central/N. CA coastal areasIn fact, plants from ‘nearby areas’  S. CA desertsmay actually have grown in your  Baja CAneighborhood at one time © Project SOUND
  13. 13. The Southern Oak Woodland is our most obvious source for dry shade plants  Foothills of S. CA (including L.A. and other local counties)  Inland valleys of L.A. County (Woodland Hills; Thousand Oaks; Diamond Bar; Cal Poly Pomona)http://www.rivenrock.com/october2007.htm © Project SOUND
  14. 14. The Southern Oak Woodland of CA  Precipitation: 15-25” annually  Elevation: 1500-5000 ft in western S. California  Common trees/large shrubs:  Coast Liveoak (Quercus agrifolia) - also Canyon Liveoak (Q. chrysolepis), California Black Oak (Q. kelloggii), Engelmann Oak (Q. engelmannii ) and Valley Oak (Q. lobata)  CA Walnut  Blue Elderberry  California Bay Laurel (Umbellularia californica)  Toyon  Lemonadeberry  Sugarbush  Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica),  Sourberry/Tri-lobe Sumac © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/communities/southern-oak-woodland
  15. 15. Southern Oak Woodland  Most often on North-facing slopes, shaded canyons and sheltered inland valleys – onhttp://bss.sfsu.edu/holzman/courses/Fall01%20projects/AcornW.htm well-drained soils  May be intersected by intermittent streams  Oaks may grow in dense clusters or more openly – a woodland rather than a forest  Smaller trees and shrubs along with herbaceous plants, ferns and grasses form a vegetative understory which is an important part of thishttp://farm3.static.flickr.com/2289/1594943902_ead554319f.jpg community.One of the more commonunderstory plants is Poison Oak © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Southern Oak Woodlands have a distinctive ‘feel’ – dry shadehttp://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds/Sparoows_towhees_and_buntings/Chipping_sparrow/Chipping_sparrow_in_your_garden.htm http://grounds.stanford.edu/points/significanttrees/quercusagrifolia.html © Project SOUNDhttp://jamesgonzalez.net/images/trips/pinecreek/quercus_agrifolia.JPG
  17. 17. Oaks are adapted to our Mediterranean climate  Mature CA oaks survive on winter rains and a summer dry period.  Oaks set a deep tap root and have many shallow surface feeder roots.  Shallow oak roots extend beyond the tree’s canopy. Feeder roots are typically 1 to 3 feet below the soils surface.  To keep S. CA oaks healthy you need to replicate the summer dry (Zone 1 or 1-2) water pattern; this means using only plants with the same summer water requirements under oaks.  Regularly watered lawns will killhttp://ic.ucsc.edu/~wxcheng/wewu/quercusagrifolia.htm a native CA oak, usually by disease (root fungi)© Project SOUND
  18. 18. Watering mature oak (or other Zone 1-2) trees Do not water in ‘critical area’ (10 ft from trunk) Water only in dry spring and summer conditions (if at all) Water no more than once a month; no overhead watering Let water soak to depth of 18-24 inches Organic mulch (oak leaves) required, even in critical area – but not touching the trunk © Project SOUND
  19. 19. What do we mean by ‘dry shade’? http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Gardening/diggin-it/2009/0917/dry-shade-in-the-garden-a-checkered-solution Your definition may be very differenthttp://www.hotgardens.net/santa_barbara_garden_tour.htm from mine http://ilonasgarden.com/ © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Gardens in Mediterranean climates(including S. CA) have three Water Zones Zone 1 – no supplemental water; soils are dry in summer/fall. Zone 2 – occasional summer water; soil is allowed to dry out between waterings. Watering is slow & deep to replenish the soil water stores. Zone 3 – regular water; soil is usually moist to soggy, even in summer. © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Water Description Picture Result/consequenceZone Many Zone 1 plants (including many native to western L.A. No supplementalZone 1 water county & deserts) become summer dormant; some shade species remain green Includes ‘CA Natives’ from Occasional water; many plant communities; soil dries out occasional summer waterZone 2 between deep helps many species to remain waterings evergreen – many also extend bloom season Only native riparian and some Regular water;Zone 3 soil moist/ soggy mountain/N. CA species – will kill many local CA natives © Project SOUND
  22. 22. The secret of a water-wise garden is to prioritize water needs and group plants with similar requirements Regular waterDry; needsdrought-tolerantplants ‘Water-wise’ ; occasional summer water http://www.taunton.com/finegardening/pages/g00101.asp © Project SOUND
  23. 23. © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Is it hard to grow plants under oaks (and othersummer dry trees)?  Yes, but not impossible  Challenges: summer drought requirement; dense shade; root competition  Solutions:  Choose plants that thrive in dry shade:  Plants from the Southern Oak Woodland  Plants from the Central and Northern Oak Woodlands  Other drought-and-shade tolerant plants (often from Chaparral)  Prune to provide better airhttp://syllable.rice.edu/LangEx_06_07/WIKI/index.php?title=Presentation_Group_1_with_ circulation, lightAndr%C3%A9s&printable=yes&printable=yes © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Under many drought-tolerant trees you have options/choices © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Central & Northern Oak Woodlands  Annual rainfall: 20-35 inches  Dominant large trees/shrubs  Valley Oak (Quercus lobata), Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii), Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Interior Live Oak (Quercus wislizenii)  Gray Pine ( Pinus sabiniana)  Understory:  Manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.)  Coffeeberry and Redberry (Rhamnus spp.)  Currant and Gooseberry (Ribes spp.)  Toyon  In openings:  Grasses & ferns  Annual & perennial wildflowers : Goldfields (Lasthenia spp.), Poppies (Eschscholzia spp.), Lupines (Lupinus spp.) and other forbs in spring. © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Oak woodlands in Central & N. CA get more rain – they look & feel more lush than those of S. CAhttp://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds/Finches/House_finch/house_finch.html You may find the ‘greener’ look of the more northern Oak Woodland more to your liking/needs http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/communities/central-oak-woodland © Project SOUND
  28. 28. The key is to group plants with like needs together © Project SOUND
  29. 29. © Project SOUND
  30. 30. http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/Natural_Resources/Oak_Woodlands.htm Shade is variable, even in an Oak Woodland © Project SOUND
  31. 31. You need to become a ‘connoisseur of shade’  Light shade (FS/PS): receives shade for less than four hours each day.  Partial or semi-shade (PS): assumes a half day of shade.  Full shade (FSH): occurs where there is no direct sun.http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Loeb/Loeb-Pages/index.html © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Light shade  Definition: shaded but bright  Examples:  The suns rays blocked by a tree, wall or building for several hours at midday, sunny the rest of the day  Areas that receive filtered or dappled sunlight for longer periods.http://www.rivenrock.com/blogcanyon062006.jpg (edges of shady gardens or areas under the canopy of lightly branched trees)  Effects on plants:  Provides beneficial cooling/shade during the heat of summer  Flower and foliage color may be more brilliant  Most sun-loving plants can survive/thrive in light shade © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Partial, medium or semi- shade  Definition: direct sun rays are blocked from an area for at least half the day.  Similar to an open glade in the forest or the woods edge  Examples:  Established landscapes with mature trees; area receives some direct sun early or late in the day  Bright, north- or east-facing exposures, slopes  Effect on Plants:  Protection from harmful effects of direct sunlight  Less available light – so best to utilize plants that require some shade http://wildsuburbia.blogspot.com/2009/11/friends-of-south-pasadena-nature-park.html © Project SOUNDhttp://longbeachnaturalareas.blogspot.com/2007/06/el-dorado-regional-park.html
  34. 34. Full (dense) shade  Definition: Little or no direct sunlight reaches the ground at any time of the day.  There may be reflected light from sunnier areas of the yard or off light-colored walls.  Examples:  Under thick tree canopies (underhttp://www.nopalcactusblog.com/category/politics/ oaks and pines) or in dense groves of trees  Areas under stairways, decks or covered patios on the north side of buildings  Effect on plants:  Relatively little available light  Plant choice is critical since only limited plants will perform well in such reduced light. © Project SOUND
  35. 35. http://longbeachnaturalareas.blogspot.com/2007/06/el-dorado-regional-park.html Openings in Oak Woodlands increase the variety © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Oak Woodlands are transitional – include areas that are wetter & sunnier  Seasonal riparian plants  Plants of adjacent plant communities:  Valley Grasslands  Chaparral  Even Mixed Evergreen Scrubhttp://www.urbanedpartnership.org/target/fragile_habitats/climate.html http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/Natural_Resources/Oak_Woodlands.htm http://oakesfamily.net/nature.htm © Project SOUND
  37. 37. http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Loeb/Loeb- Pages/index.html  Get to know your shade – throughout the year  Choose plants that naturally growhttp://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Meuris/Meuris-Pages/index.html well under oaks http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Richard/Richard-Pages/Image11.html © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Let’s say this is your front yard… © Project SOUND
  39. 39. http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/Natural_Resources/Oak_Woodlands.htmPart of what attracts you is the variety of understoryplants © Project SOUND
  40. 40. First let’s replace a shrub that’s gotten too big & old… © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Possible shrubs for local Oak Woodlandunderstory  California sagebrush (Artemisia californica)  California blackberry (Rubus ursinus) Nevin’s Barberry  Nevin’s Barberry (Mahonia/Berberis nevinii )  California coffeeberry (Frangula/Rhamnus californica)  Sourberry/Three-lobed Sumac (Rhus trilobata) Coffeeberry © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Three-lobe Sumac – Rhus trilobataUSDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E. et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSUExtension and Western Area Power Admin., Bismarck, ND. © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Three-lobe Sumac – Rhus trilobata  Naturally occurring:  Many areas of western N. America – Canada to Baja  Coastal and mountain areas of CA  In S. CA: coastal sage scrub, chaparral and southern oak woodland  Moist areas including stream-sides, seasonal drainages, and canyon bottoms  sand dunes and sand hills  dry rocky slopes  In same genus as Lemonade Berry, Sugar Bush & Poison Oak (which ithttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Rhus+trilobata resembles)  Also known as Basket-brush, Sumac, Sourberry, Skunkbrush © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Three-lobed Sumac is loved by gardeners because it’s so easy to grow…  Soils: not too particular  Any texture; well-drained  Any pH  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Very drought tolerant when established  Can take some summer water – but may become leggy  Nutrients: fine with no fertilizer, but can tolerate light doses/organic mulches  Very hardy; takes a frost  Rapid growth first 3-5 years; then moderate  Lives 20-30 yearshttp://weather.nmsu.edu/nmcrops/ornamentals/SUMAC.htm © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Management of Three-lobe Sumac  Planting:  Best in fall/winter  If planting under oaks, don’t plant within 6 ft. of trunk  Good transplant success rates  Pruning:  Can be pruned for shape  Cut back severely (to 6 inches) to rejuvenate oldThat’s all – very easy to manage plant plants or produce straight stems (e.g. for basketry)  Remove any unwanted suckers © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Three-lobe Sumac pleases the palette…  Yellow flowers in spring  Butterflies & beeshttp://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Rhus_trilobata  Red berries in summer.html  Birds love them (many species)  Make a tangy drink  Excellent for jelly  Can even eat them raw (tart)  Even the foliage is eaten occasionally by large & small animals Many parts of the plant are used for natural dyes © Project SOUND
  47. 47. © Project SOUND
  48. 48. http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Quercus-agrifolia/ © Project SOUND
  49. 49. * Bluewitch Nightshade – Solanum umbelliferum © 2009 Ron Wolf © Project SOUND
  50. 50. * Bluewitch Nightshade – Solanum umbelliferum  Coastal and foothill regions from OR to Baja – locally in the San Gabriel Mtns/foothills.  Dry, brush-covered slopes & valleys – usually in chaparral and low-elevation oak woodlands inhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7682,7699 California  A tough shrub which can grow in rocky and clay soils  Often springs up in areas recovering from wildfires or other disturbances© 2008 Ellen Tatum © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Characteristics of the ‘Bluewitch’  Size:  2-4 ft tall  3-5 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial sub-shrub – part woody  Mounded to sprawlingJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (particularly in shade)  Fairly open branching  Foliage:  Grayish to blue-green – rather pretty  Caution: all parts of plant are toxic if eaten  Roots: branching © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Fabulous flowers  Blooms:  Mainly in spring-summer, when days are warm  With water may bloom some at other times  Flowers:  Large for the family – 1” +  Light blue-purple color with golden stamens  Quite showy – close at night  Fruits:  In summer/fall  Green turning to purple; flat seeds like tomato© 2009 Keir Morse Brother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  53. 53. One hardy plant…  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained; will even take clays on slopes  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: very drought tolerant (Zone 1 or 1-2) but looks a littleGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database better at Zone 2 (occasional water)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: prune to shape © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Use Bluewitch in tough spots  On dry slopes – even part-shade areas  Under oaks and otherhttp://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/solanaceae/solanum/solanum-umbelliferum/ water-wise trees  In difficult to water areas  In a dry mixed bed with grasses and wildflowers © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Cultivar Spring Frost  Slightly smaller (2’ x 2’)  Very light (gray) foliagehttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1201  White flowers  Very attractive choice for a white garden – very unique, showy © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Other perennials for S. Oak Woodland – mostly sprawlers in shadeDiplacus aurantiacus Stachys bullataSalvia spathacea Symphoricarpos mollis © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Grasses are also an important part of local Oak woodlands – especially in dappled sun & sunny edgeshttp://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds/Sparoows_towhees_and_buntings/Lark_sparrow/Lark_sparrow_in_your_garden.htm http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Melica-imperfecta/ © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Coast Range Melic Grass - Melica imperfecta © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Coast Range Melic Grass - Melica imperfecta  Distribution: CA, Baja CA  Habitat: dry, rocky hillsides, stable dunes, open woodlands  Delicate-looking cool-season perennial bunching rhizomatous grass  Height: 1-3 ft Width: 2-3 ft  Flowers on graceful stems above leaves – dark brown fading to gold – Mar-June  Local variation in characteristics http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Melica-imperfecta/ © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Melic grass in the garden  As a specimen plant in small areas, rock gardens, deep pots  In natural meadows, grassy borders  Good for shaded areas – meadows or under trees  Soil stabilizer for slopes  Restoring bare areashttp://www.conservaseed.com/Melica%20imperfecta.htm © Project SOUND
  61. 61. California Polypody- Polypodium californicum http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Polypodium-californicum/ © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Characteristics of CA Polypody  Size: 20” tall; individual plants ≈ 25” wide – but often grow in spreading clumps  Leaves:  Simple for fern – many leaflets with serrated edges  Drought deciduous – dies back in summer  No flowers: Sporangia are grouped in round sori on the underside of the leaflets.  Rhizomes (underground stems) – relatively slow- spreadinghttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiapolypody.html http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/s dpls/plants/Polypodium_californi © Project SOUND cum.html
  63. 63. Growth requirements: not your eastern fern  Sun: part-shade to full shade; can tolerate full sun only right along coast, with adequate water  Soils:  Any well-drained  Does not tolerate alkali soils  Water:  Moist in winter-spring – even tolerates flooding http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/Ferns.htm  Gradually reduce water for summer/fall dormancy – must haveProbably the easiest local dormant periodfern for the garden;  Nutrients: probably benefits fromlocation is everything organic mulch; not a “big eater” © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Polypody in the South Bay garden  Bank cover on North-facing slopes  On north sides of buildings  Delicate, small scale fern for foreground rock walls  In mossy (winter/spring wet) rock gardens  Excellent under oakshttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Polypodium-californicum/  In shaded beds  In a “fern dell” – needs it’s summer drought so place appropriately © Project SOUND
  65. 65. We could fill in with some shade-tolerant annuals http://philipsgardenblog.com/2008/03/ © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Miner’s Lettuce – Claytonia perfoliata© 2001 Steven Thorsted © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Miner’s Lettuce is fine in sun or shade…  Herbaceous annual; makes a good annual groundcover  Size: 6-12 in. high; to 12 in. wide  Growth period: fall to spring  Blooms:  Small, white http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/minersl2.htm  Feb-May  Foliage:  Attractive & unusual  Edible: usually raw in salads or as greens © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Growing Miner’s Lettuce from seed Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Extremely easy  Sow in prepared soil in fall (best) through spring  Germinates with:  Damp soil/fall rains  Short days  Re-seeds  May want to remove plants if too prolific – will depend on site © Project SOUNDhttp://www.pacifichorticulture.org/phv66n3.editorial.html
  69. 69. Chinese Houses – Collinsia heterophylla © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Reasons to include Collinsia in yourshade garden  Easy, reliable annual  Beautiful flowers  Long blooming season  Make great cut flowers  Brighten up shady areas of the garden  Does fine in planters, pots  Looks great with many other flowers in planted beds  Fine under trees © Project SOUND
  71. 71. © Project SOUND
  72. 72. But perhaps this is more your style – ‘Central Oak Woodland’ theme © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Central & Northern Oak Woodlands  Primarily Zone 2 plants (in our area); remember, in nature these plants get more water than S. CA native plants  Understory:  Manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.)  Coffeeberry and Redberry (Rhamnus spp.)  Currant and Gooseberry (Ribes spp.)  Toyon  Others  In openings:  Grasses & ferns  Annual & perennial wildflowers : Goldfields (Lasthenia spp.), Poppies (Eschscholzia spp.), Lupines (Lupinus spp.) and other forbs in spring. © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Low-growing Manzanita: perfect for your garden?  Attractive, ‘neat-looking’ foliage; red bark on interesting trunks/branches ©J.S. Peterson  Low-maintenance under the right conditions:  Needs good drainage  Low water in summer - susceptible to fungal diseases; deep watering (Zone 1/2)  No fertilizerJo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences  Many take some shade – grow naturally under oaksFlammable: manzanita plants containvolatile compounds, which burn like a  Coastal varieties will thrive alongtorch when ignited – not a good immediate coast – even right next tochoice for fire-prone areas beach © Project SOUND
  76. 76. * Point Reyes Ceanothus - Ceanothus gloriosus© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Creeping Barberry – Mahonia repens R.A. Howard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  78. 78. In the wild – a groundcover planthttp://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/mahonia%20repens.htm © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Characteristics of Creeping Mahonia  Size:  1-2 ft tall  spreading – 2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Sprawling woody shrub; spreads via stems (stolons or rhizomes)  Evergreen  Rather stiff appearance  Foliage:  Leaves holly-like  Dark green; old leaves may turn purple/red in winter  Roots: deep rooted; can resprout from root crowns© 1984, H. Tim Gladwin © Project SOUND
  80. 80.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any, including heavy clays  pH: any local; does fine with acidic soils – OK under pines  Light:  Part-shade to full shade  Will flower and fruit best in part- shade (like under trees)  Water:  Winter: good winter water  Summer: Zone 2 (or even 1-2) once established; Zone 2-3 for first 1-2 years  Fertilizer: use an organic mulch (pine needles or oak leaves are ideal)  Other: tolerates heat © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Creeping Barberry  Most often used as a low natural groundcover  Evergreen; low-growing  Easy to grow  Fills in to cover an area  Interesting, attractive foliage  Bright spring flowers; winterhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MARE11 foliage color  Great under trees; other shady areas  In a woodsy garden; or creeping over a low stone wall  To attract fruit-eating birds  Fine in pots/planters  Anywhere you might consider (shudder) planting ivyhttp://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/mahrep.htm © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Coyote Mint – Monardella villosa © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Showy mint flowers Blooms: May-Aug. in S. Bay Flowers:  Dense heads of small flowers; showy  Color ranges from lavender, rose-purple, to white  Long-blooming  Attract a wide range of butterflies, bees, other pollinators Vegetative reproduction: natural layering © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Coyote Mint  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  Light: full sun to part shade  Water:  Winter: don’t let it get too wetIf the plant loses its leaves  Summer: best with slightly damp toto drought during the hot slightly dry sandy soil; don’t over-months, it will leaf out water – will make it leggy and decreaseagain with rain and cooler it’s lifespanweather.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Pinch tips to promote fuller growth  Shear back to about 1/3 of it’s volume in fall/winter © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Coyote Mint – just what your garden needs!  Good in herb gardens, mixed borders, even vegetable gardens!  Dramatic cascading down slopes or over rock walls  Does well on hot dry slopes and sand dunes.  Nice ground cover in sun or dappled shade  Great along paths & walkways  Would do well in containers & planters  Fresh or dried leaves & flower heads can be steeped in cold water (should not be boiled) to make a refreshing clear tea.Russian River‘ cultivar is slightly fuzzy © Project SOUND
  86. 86. * Bolander’s Phacelia – Phacelia bolanderi © Project SOUND
  87. 87. * Bolander’s Phacelia – Phacelia bolanderi  Plant of coastal N. CA and OR/WA  Component of coastal woodlands (including pine/fir)  May be found in either dry (dry slopes) or more moist areas  Honors Henry N. Bolander (1831-1897) who made extensive collections of California plants from 1863-1875, particularly in thehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?PHBO San Francisco area http://www.pnwflowers.com/flower/p hacelia-bolanderi © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Bolander’s Phacelia is a pretty perennial  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Drought-deciduous perennial  Mounded to sprawly  Looks like a perennial groundcover  Short-lived (3-4 years) but re-seeds  Foliage:  Fresh medium green  Leaves toothed, somewhathttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/phacelia-bolanderi like grape leaves; attractive  All parts are hairy – may cause contact dermatitis © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Among the prettiest phacelia flowers  Blooms:  late spring into summer – May to July in our area  Fairly long bloom season 4+ weeks – can extend with judicious watering  Flowers:  Light blue-purple – can be very pale  Open flowers – ½” and more across  Open sequentially along the stem (uncurls as flowers open)  Seeds: many tiny seeds in dryhttp://www.larnerseeds.com/_pages/wildflower_perennial.html#Bolanders_Phacelia capsules; will often re-seed in garden © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Bolander’s Phacelia  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained is easy to grow  pH: any local  Light:  Really best in some shade: dappled shade or bright shade; morning sun  If grown in full sun will need more water  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: wide range – if Zone 1 or© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College 1-2 will be summer deciduous; Zone 2 to 2-3 can extend bloom, green Don’t forget to wear gloves and  Fertilizer: adaptable; can take long sleeves if you are occasional fertilizer sensitive to Phacelias’ hairs  Other: remove dead stems in late summer/fall © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Summer-dry perennials make good groundcovers  Lovely as a sprawling perennial under oaks or other water-wise trees  Mix with other perennials and grasses with similar requirement  Like all phacelias, is an excellenthttp://www.robsplants.com/plants/PhaceBolan.php habitat plant – attracts many visitors  Use as a filler between shrubs – particularly in young gardens  Can also be used as a pot plant on shady deckshttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Phacelia-bolanderi/ © Project SOUND
  92. 92. © Project SOUND
  93. 93. We’ll e-mail you some resources  Internet resources on gardening with oaks/ dry shade  Some book resources to inspire you  A dry shade plant list (includes local and other CA native plants that grow well in S. CA) © Project SOUNDhttp://www.statebystategardening.com/shop/images/9780520251106.jpg
  94. 94. Get out in natureand experience an Oak Woodland Coast Liveoak Woodland central coast © Project SOUND http://www.bahiker.com/slideshows/jserrapics.html
  95. 95. See how other gardeners make the most of their shade & water resources © Project SOUND

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