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Trees for future 2016


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Talk on choosing native trees and shrubs for a changing S. California climate. Part of 'Out of the Wilds & Into Your Garden' series.

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Trees for future 2016

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2016 (our 12th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND Trees & Shrubs for the Future: large native plants suited to our changing climate C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH (emeritus) & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve February 6 & 11, 2016
  3. 3. The last four years have been stressful… © Project SOUND heat smog drought wind unusual rain patterns
  4. 4. © Project SOUND Some days, you just want to weep….
  5. 5. Like it or not, the past four years have been a pilot test of our future © Project SOUND Some plants lost – others surviving Destructive effects of new pests Cool, green oasis with dry shade
  6. 6. People have gone crazy about water-wise gardening this year © Project SOUND Water restrictions $$$$ rebates $$$ Exhortations/examples
  7. 7. This kind of ‘water-wise garden’ makes me sad and mad at the same time © Project SOUND Heat Wave
  8. 8. So does this one!!! © Project SOUND benefits-that-come-with-artificial-grass-installation-in-your- lawn/
  9. 9. So how do we go about evolving a sustainable – and elegant – future? © Project SOUND
  10. 10. 2016 Season - Rediscovering Eden: S. California Gardens for the 21st Century © Project SOUND
  11. 11. The past four years have taught us important lessons (if we’re willing to listen) © Project SOUND
  12. 12. …lessons that point towards the future © Project SOUND … and steps we can take (right now) to make that future more pleasant & sustainable
  13. 13. Today we’ll be creating a green oasis, starting with replacing a sick tree © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Considering the future is most important when we choose long-lived plants © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Why take your time when choosing a new tree?  They take longer to mature – you don’t want to have to start over  They hopefully will serve you for many decades – if not more  Their size means they dominate – and effect - the landscape  If chosen wisely, they can provide many services:  Shade; cooler temperatures  Food (fruits or nuts)  Materials for crafts  Excellent habitat for birds, insects and others: food, home sites, cover, etc. © Project SOUND A well-chosen tree is the jewel of the garden
  16. 16. Trees are one of the best ways to create a green oasis © Project SOUND
  17. 17. What future will our new tree live in? © Project SOUND
  18. 18. The earth has gotten hotter since 1950-1980 © Project SOUND
  19. 19. A few new pieces have been added since we last considered climate change (2014) © Project SOUND
  20. 20. The Climate Change in the Los Angeles Region Project  Series of studies by atmospheric scientists at UCLA (and others)  Employ innovative techniques, applying multiple global climate models to the Los Angeles region  Goal: to provide detailed projections of climate change (through 2100)  Why important? Direct planning at all levels (National/state government to your own backyard) © Project SOUND Read about it yourself: • • •
  21. 21. First Report (2012):"Mid-Century Warming in the Los Angeles Region."  By mid-century, Los Angeles will experience temperatures similar to what we experience today only about 75-80% of the time (274-292 days a year)  If we don't reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, Los Angeles will continue to get warmer. By the end of the century, temperatures will be like they are today only 50- 65% of the time (1 83- 243 days a year) © Project SOUND • Hotter than normal temperatures will likely be experienced primarily in late summer and early fall (our typical hot, dry period). • December to January and July to August are projected to change the most (relative to today).
  22. 22. The South Bay benefits from it’s proximity to the ocean © Project SOUND  Areas that are already ‘somewhat hot’ will see many more days > 95°  Palmdale, Lancaster  The San Fernando Valley  Riverside  What can we expect (Western L.A. County)?  More hot days in summer/fall  More year-to-year variability in both hot and cold temperatures  Warmer days in winter (on average)  Warmer nights in winter; fewer nights below 45° F
  23. 23. We do need to worry about the effects of more warm/hot days on local plants  All plants have optimal temperature ranges – in general, plants from hotter places have higher ranges  Temperatures higher and lower than the optima affect literally everything a plant does:  Taking up water  Growing new leaves, branches  Producing flowers, fruits & seeds  Warding off pests & diseases  Timing of life & seasonal changes  Just plain staying alive! © Project SOUND applications-in-agriculture/extreme-temperature-responses-oxidative- stress-and-antioxidant-defense-in-plants temperatures just beyond the optimal range can greatly affect both survival and reproduction
  24. 24. Precipitation change in the 20th century  Most of the U.S. saw increased precipitation  S. CA and Arizona saw significant decreases © Project SOUND
  25. 25. This has not been a good 4 years for the West  All of California experienced some level of drought throughout 2015  Estimated population in drought areas: 36,660,308 © Project SOUND
  26. 26. © Project SOUND Totals: 2013 = 3.5 inches 2014 = 9.5 inches 2015 = 6.5 inches What was I thinking, starting a garden in 2012 (and 2014)?
  27. 27. Good news – El Niño year this year! © Project SOUND  The period October through March tends to be wetter than usual in a swath extending from southern California eastward across Arizona, southern Nevada and Utah, New Mexico, and into Texas.  There are more rainy days, and there is more rain per rainy day. El Nino winters can be two to three times wetter than La Nina winters in this region.
  28. 28. Local gardeners are anxiously awaiting El Niño… © Project SOUND …and wondering what all this means for the future
  29. 29. Predicting S. California’s future precipitation is challenging © Project SOUND  Role of El Nino events is not well understood – and they have a role in our precipitation  We have complex topography  Our area lies right between two areas on which most models agree:  An area of more precipitation to the north  An area of significantly less precipitation to the south
  30. 30. “21st Century Precipitation Changes over the Los Angeles Region” - 2014  Major findings:  Probably about the same amount of precipitation overall (some models suggest slightly higher – some slightly lower)  Continued high year-to-year variability  Less precipitation falling as snow (40% decrease in snowfall) due to increasing temperatures  Higher wintertime stream/runoff flows  Need to capture/infiltrate  For more see: PartIII_V2.pdf © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Slight decrease or slight increase?  Probably wisest to assume somewhat drier conditions – and less water available for home gardens  Year-to-year variability will likely increase  Plan for drought years  Plan enough flexibility to deal with wet years:  Plant choices  Water infiltration/ conservation © Project SOUND PV peninsula Much of South Bay Los Angeles average since 1877 thru 2012 (135 years): 14.98 inches
  32. 32. So, we now have a good idea of the conditions we need to plan for: hotter & more variable precipitation © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Trees and large shrubs are more important now (and in the future) than ever  Heat is not just annoying – it kills  Greater risk of death from dehydration, heat stroke/ exhaustion, heart attack, stroke, and respiratory distress  By mid-century, extreme heat events in urban centers such as Los Angeles are projected to cause two to three times as many heat- related deaths as there are today.  High temperatures stress living creatures - from bacteria to mammals. © Project SOUND thermometer-or-thermostat-leader/
  34. 34. Trees/other vegetation cool our neighborhoods in two important ways  Provide shade  Tree shade: decrease temperature 20 to 45ºF (11-25ºC) for walls and roofs; ~ 45ºF for parked cars  Vines: reductions of up to 36ºF (20ºC).  Provide evapotranspirational cooling  Peak air temperatures in tree groves are 9ºF (5ºC) cooler than over open terrain.  Suburban areas with mature trees are 4 to 6ºF (2 to 3ºC) cooler than new suburbs without trees.  Temperatures over grass sports fields are 2 to 4ºF (1 to 2ºC) cooler than over bordering areas. © Project SOUND with-google-street-view
  35. 35. And trees/other vegetation have other effects that will help us cope in the future  Filter out harmful UV rays  Root system allows for increased water absorption during rain/irrigation events  Act as windbreaks to decrease wind-associated drying © Project SOUND We should choose our trees carefully, so they provide these services for years to come.
  36. 36. The human benefits of trees/vegetation  Improve human health and well-being  Reduce pollution/dust  Reduce noise levels  Decrease effects of extreme heat events  Provide habitat, food  Provide oxygen  ‘calm the soul’ © Project SOUND Trees have inspired writers, painters and other artists as far back as record goes.
  37. 37. Why plant trees?  Aesthetics  Light & shade are more interesting  Provides vertical depth  Human/environmental health  Decreases heat for both the home & neighborhood  Cleans the air  Carbon sink; oxygen source  Mental health  Habitat  Perching, nesting sites  Food (flowers; fruits; seeds; insects) © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Qualities to look for in a tree for the future  Tolerates more hot days than we experience now.  Good drought tolerance – can get by on 8-10” per year + supplemental irrigation. Look for deep roots.  Tolerates occasional flooding/above average rainfall. Look for shallow roots, in addition to the deep ones.  Low vulnerabilities to:  Wind  Smog  Pests/pathogens  As locally native as possible for both viability and habitat value © Project SOUND In short, we’re ‘looking for Super-tree’
  39. 39. Where is Super-tree likely to live?  Right here locally  In slightly warmer/drier areas of Los Angeles, Orange & San Diego Counties  In the California deserts – and particularly:  In the Sonoran desert (which experiences summer rainfall)  Along season streams (which experience both drought and flooding)  In desert chaparral (which is dry, but also receives more rain than CSS) © Project SOUND through-the-Sonoran-Desert/d639-3121TWILIGHT
  40. 40. © Project SOUND Needless to say, ‘Super-tree’ must also be lovely and useful Not asking for a lot, are we?
  41. 41. Many people like the look of pine trees © Project SOUND
  42. 42. If you like pines, the smaller CA native species may be just the ticket © Project SOUND
  43. 43. © Project SOUND Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla
  44. 44.  Single-leaf Pinyon occurred as early as the Late Wisconsin glacial period (20,000 to 11,000 years ago.  Large area of distribution and, therefore, probably a large degree of genetic variation © Project SOUND Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla green - Pinus monophylla subsp. monophylla blue - Pinus monophylla subsp. californiarum red - Pinus monophylla subsp. fallax Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  45. 45. © Project SOUND Singleleaf pinyon  Soils:  Texture: most any  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: good soil moisture  Summer: very drought tolerant  Most xeric pine in the U. S.  Mean annual precipitation range is 8 to 18 inches; most precipitation falling December- April (perfect for our area)  Once established, needs only occasional watering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Management: Native Californians pruned out dead branches; removed underbrush – fire can kill this species Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  46. 46. © Project SOUND Gardening with single-leaf pinyon  Large container or bonsai plant  Screen/hedge; good for mild, coastal conditions  Neat and bold appearance for a native tree  Gray-green color blends well with dry high-desert and mountain landscapes, as well as modern and Mediterranean gardens
  47. 47. © Project SOUND *Pinyon pine – Pinus edulis
  48. 48.  Southwestern United States, in southern California (rare), the intermountain region (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico), to w. Oklahoma (rare) and w. Texas, and south into Chihuahua, Mexico.  Note: CA plants may actually be Pinus monophylla with double needles © Project SOUND *Pinyon pine – Pinus edulis ©2005 Robert Sivinski ©1998 Joseph Dougherty/ bin/
  49. 49. © Project SOUND Pinyon pine: medium size tree  Size:  25-50 ft. tall  15-30 ft. wide  Growth form:  Short, shrubby trees; conical when young, mounded with maturity  Somewhat open; shade not dense  Lowest branches quite low  Bark: red-brown aging to gray  Slow-growing; very long-lived  Foliage:  Needles in bundles of two  Yellow-green to blue-green  Tree is very sticky ©1998 Joseph Dougherty/
  50. 50. © Project SOUND Best pinyon for eating  Blooms: spring when weather warms up  Flowers: typical pine  Separate male (pollen) and female (seed) cones on same tree  Seed cones are short, squat and very sticky  Seeds take two years to mature  Seeds:  Produced by mature trees (at least 20 years of age)  Variable crop year-to-year  Large and absolutely delicious  Gathered and used/sold by indigenous and other people  Jays, small mammals LOVE them too
  51. 51. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained best but tolerates clays  pH: any local (6.0-8.0)  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: need normal rainfall; supplement if needed  Summer: likes occasional, deep water (Water Zone 2)  Fertilizer: fine with poor soils, but OK with occasional fertilizer  Other:  Prune to shape, remove dead branches  Use organic mulch (pine needles or bark best Like all pines, especially in dry years, pinyons become more susceptible to pests and diseases: boring insects, moths, sawflies and rusts
  52. 52. © Project SOUND Use Pinyon pine  Where ever a medium- size, hardy, drought- tolerant pine is needed,_UNM_Arboretum,_Albuquerqu e_NM.jpg
  53. 53. Using Pinyon nuts: raw or roasted  Seeds ground, rolled into balls and eaten as a delicacy.  Seeds mixed with yucca fruit pulp to make a pudding.  Nuts parched, ground, mixed with datil fruit, mescal, mesquite beans or sotol.  Pinon and corn flour mixed and cooked into a mush.  Seeds parched, ground, kneaded into seed butter and eaten with fruit drinks or spread on bread.  Nuts used to make a soup.  Needles used to make a tea. © Project SOUND tomatoes-pine-nuts-and-goat-cheese/25832 shortbread-cookies-vegetarian.html
  54. 54. December to January and July to August are projected to change the most (relative to today) © Project SOUND  What can we expect (S. Bay)?  Warmer nights (on average) in summer  Warmer days in winter (on average)  Warmer nights in winter; fewer nights below 45° F. The more heat-absorbing surfaces that surround us, the warmer the nights (whenever we have sunny days)
  55. 55. Decreasing hours of chill: bad for W. Coast agriculture  ‘Chill factor’ – the number of hours below a certain temperature required to trigger some plant behavior (often flowering)  Most important for fruiting trees/shrubs, ‘winter annuals’ and biennials  Fruit and nut production in California will likely be seriously affected  May also affect those of us that grow ‘low chill’ fruits in home gardens [Anna apple; Fuji apple; Black Mission fig; Santa Rosa plum] © Project SOUND DECREASING CHILL HOURS, 2070-2099
  56. 56. How will decreased hours of chill affect local native plants (in gardens & Preserves)?  Some native plants from slightly higher elevations, more northern latitudes and the high desert (which experience more chill) will likely not produce as well/reliably:  Manzanita?  Native cherries & other Prunus  ? Coffeeberry & other Rhamnus species  ??? Native pines  ??? Hard to predict  Research is desperately needed on native species that provide food for birds & other creatures. © Project SOUND Lots of research on effects of heat on crop species – very little on native plant species
  57. 57. The past few years give reason to pause & think © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Climate change raises important concerns for some California plants  Temperature and precipitation extremes may kill or limit reproduction  Fire & disease – will be worse problems  Loss of other key components of habitat:  Associated plant species  Pollinators; seed distributors  Particularly vulnerable:  Small natural populations  Isolated populations  Plants with very narrow climatic ranges  Plants w/ very specialized relationships  Large, long-lived plants (trees) © Project SOUND sin_glands.jpg Piute Cypress Hesperocyparis nevadensis
  59. 59. © Project SOUND * Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis ©2008 Matt Teel
  60. 60.  Narrow endemic: Kern County: the drainage of Bodfish Creek, and, at 4000 feet, on Red Hill in the Paiute Mountains where it grows at elevations of 5000-6000 feet with Juniperus californica, Pinus sabiniana, P. monophylla and Ephedra viridis © Project SOUND * Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis http://ucjeps.berkel bin/ 89300 ©2012 Joey Malone
  61. 61. © Project SOUND Uses for Piute Cypress  Planted as an ornamental tree, particularly for gray foliage  Nice large background plants – or drought-tolerant large hedges/screens  Hardy – planted along roads in Santa Monica mtns ©2002 Dr. Louis Emmet Mahoney ©2010 Rebecca Wenk
  62. 62. Climate change forces us to face serious questions about species conservation © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Gardens/parks are one place to conserve rare/endangered plant species © Project SOUND Nevin’s barberry
  64. 64. © Project SOUND * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  65. 65. © Project SOUND * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii gy/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=784  Very rare – 15 U.S. populations; formerly more widespread – in La Brea tar from Pleistocene  Santa Ana Mountains (Orange County); Guatay Mountain, Otay Mountain (San Diego County); Mount Tecate on the U.S.-Mexican boundary; N. Baja.  Dry slopes, exposed hillsides, ridgetops; also along stream banks/arroyos, 1,500 to 5,000 feet
  66. 66. © Project SOUND Tecate cypress in the garden  Anywhere you might consider a non- native Cypress  Great on dry hillsides – but is fire-prone  Excellent as a large evergreen hedge or screen; good boundary plant  Impressive specimen plant  Can even be pruned up as a shade tree;70998
  67. 67. © Project SOUND *Cuyamaca cypress – Hesperocyparis stephensonii ©2011 Joey Malone
  68. 68.  Endemic to headwaters of King Creek in the Cuyamaca Mountains, Cleveland National Forest, San Diego County. Also a population in NW Baja  AKA: Cupressus stephensonii ; Cupressus arizonica subsp. stephensonii © Project SOUND *Cuyamaca cypress – Hesperocyparis stephensonii
  69. 69. © Project SOUND Cuyumaca cypress: shape changes with age  Size:  30-50 ft. tall  20-30 ft. wide  Growth form:  Central trunk; grows 1-3 ft. per year  Form depends on age and environment; young tend to be tall & narrow, spreading w/ age  Bark pretty red-brown, peeling  Foliage:  Typical scale-like leaves of cypress species  Dull green to blue-green ©2011 Joey Malone ©2013 Susan McDougall
  70. 70. © Project SOUND Cones typical of Cypress  Blooms: in summer – only CA cypress that’s summer-blooming  Flowers:  Separate male, female  Female cones are rounded; each section has a unique projection (umbro)  Green – age to gray when ripe (takes two years)  Pods open with heat (incl. from fire) releasing seeds  Seeds:  Tan, flat and hard; may be hard to germinate ©2011 Joey Malone _stephensonii
  71. 71. © Project SOUND One tough Cypress  Soils:  Texture: well-drained  pH: best with slightly acidic – use pine needle mulch  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs normal rain; supplement if needed  Summer: best with occasional summer (deep); Water Zone 2  Fertilizer: fine with poor soils; light fertilizer probably fine  Other:  Pretty disease/pest-free  Little pruning needed; nice natural shape ©2013 Susan McDougall Has deep roots – but won’t cause damage
  72. 72. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Cuyamaca cypress  As an accent plant – unique appearance, color  On slopes, hillsides and in formal gardens - in place on non-native pines & cypress  For large hedgerows, screens  As large tree in a habitat garden with Ceanotus spp., Cercocarpus spp., Rhamnus spp. - good choice ©2013 Jean Pawek upressus/arizonica_conica/var_stephensonii stephensonii.html
  73. 73. Using cypress in a garden  Mainstay of formal Italian gardens  Good for leading the eye – lining roadways, long driveways  As backdrops, screens & accents in larger gardens – evergreen  Remember: they become LARGE © Project SOUND
  74. 74. How about something a little more open? © Project SOUND
  75. 75. © Project SOUND *Blue paloverde – Parkinsonia (Cercidium) florida J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences.
  76. 76.  Sonoran Desert of California, Arizona & Mexico  Scattered along washes, flood plains in desert riparian associations, pseudo- riparian communities and desert wash woodlands © Project SOUND *Blue paloverde – Parkinsonia florida J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences ©2011 Neal Kramer
  77. 77. © Project SOUND Blue Paloverde: big and impressive Pea  Size:  15-35 ft. tall  20-35+ ft. wide  Growth form:  Large shrub or tree; mounded to weeping habit  Multiple stems (usually)  Drought deciduous – loses all its leaves in dry season  Bark: green (photosynthesis) becoming gray with age  Deep roots  Foliage:  Compound leaves typical of Peas  Blue-green  Has thorns oniaflorida.html
  78. 78. © Project SOUND Clouds of yellow flowers  Blooms: in spring – Mar-May  Flowers:  Bright yellow flowers in loose clusters  Absolutely splendid display!  Habitat for bee pollinators  Seeds:  In flat, rather thin pods  Mature in summer  Seeds are relative large and hard-coated  Usually require some treatment (sanding; hot water; acid) to aid germination ©2011 Neal Kramer
  79. 79. And yes, the seeds are edible  Native tribes (Cahuilla; Pima; Papago) all gather and eat seeds  Immature pods can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable  Green pods & seeds were also eaten raw in summer  Seeds were traditionally dried and ground in mortars to produce a flour which could be used to make a mush or cakes.  They were also parched and stored for lean times. © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  80. 80. © Project SOUND Paloverde needs  Soils:  Texture: adaptable but like well- drained. If clay, limit water  pH: any local  Light: full sun only; heat is fine  Water: drought-tolerant  Winter: normal rainfall  Summer: bi-monthly deep watering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Does fine in our area  Can prune up for tree; periodically thin (no more than 30% a year)  Watch for pests in dry, dusty conditions  Does drop leaves, pods  Few plants can grow beneath it forestry/tree-care 2011-southwest-spring-break.html
  81. 81. © Project SOUND Blue paloverde  Used as an ornamental shade tree in dry gardens  Excellent habitat tree  Large informal screen or hedge  Looks beautiful with other desert natives
  82. 82. Parkinsonia ‘Desert Museum’  Parkinsonia (Cercidium) x 'Desert Museum‘ - complex hybrid among Mexican, Blue and Foothills paloverdes  Introduced by Arizona Sonora Desert Museum (1981); widely available  25-30 ft. x 25-30 ft.  Good attributes  Thornless; few seed pods  Fast growing to 25 ft.  Long flowering season (up to 2 months)  Needs well-drained soil © Project SOUND oniaflorida.html
  83. 83. © Project SOUND *Desert-willow – Chilopsis linearis
  84. 84. © Project SOUND *Desert-willow – Chilopsis linearis  American SW from CA to Texas; S. to Mexico  Desert & adjacent mountain ranges < 5000  Mojave and Colorado deserts  Common in gravelly or rocky soils in arid desert washes and desert grasslands Chilopsis%20linearis,%20Desert%20Willow.html
  85. 85. © Project SOUND Desert Willow is a small, deciduous tree or large shrub  Size:  15-30 ft tall  15-25 ft wide  Growth form:  Naturally grows with several trunks – can be trained to single  Open structure; graceful looking  Branches droop as they age  Old bark has fissures  Foliage:  Bright green glossy leaves  Winter-deciduous (Nov-spring)  Fast growing – to 3 ft/year
  86. 86. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained; can’t take very wet soils  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun best  Light shade ok  Water: drought tolerant  Regular water first 2 years; no flooding  Zone 2; deep water when soil is dry  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: can tolerate extreme heat
  87. 87. © Project SOUND Flowers are like orchids  Blooms:  Long bloom period  usually Apr-Aug/Sept. in S. CA  Flowers:  Like an orchid or Catalpa  Extremely showy – tropical- or Mediterranean-looking  Light fragrance – somewhat like violets  Nectar attracts hummingbirds & bees  Seeds:  In long, thin pods  Tan pods remain on tree through winter
  88. 88. © Project SOUND Common cultivars  If you're looking for a specific flower color, shop in spring, while the trees are in bloom.  Named cultivars are propagated vegetatively and are consistent in their flower characteristics.  Look for a tree with good vigor and a profusion of blooms in the color you like. ‘Lucretia Hamilton’ dings1999/v4-436.html ‘Burgandy’ ‘Warren Jones’
  89. 89. © Project SOUND Many uses for Desert Willow  As a shade tree – even in lawns (with well-drained soils)  Produces filtered sun – can grow other plants beneath it  Winter deciduous  Good near decks/patios  As a specimen/accent tree – even on parking strips  For erosion control on slopes  As a large informal hedge or screen; windbreak  In very large containers – better in ground
  90. 90. We like winter-deciduous – but want a bit more shade © Project SOUND
  91. 91. © Project SOUND Netleaf hackberry – Celtis laevigata var. reticulata Celtis reticulata
  92. 92.  Native to western United States (mainly the Southwest), but extending eastward  Riverside & San Bernardino Co, Kern Co - Banning, Mojave Desert Mtns  Most commonly in bottomlands, washes, ravines, arroyos, etc. Also as scattered individuals in desert shrubland and semi-desert grasslands. © Project SOUND Netleaf hackberry – Celtis laevigata var. reticulata,7730,7731
  93. 93. © Project SOUND Celtis: nice size water-wise tree  Size:  20-30 ft tall  20-30 ft wide  Growth form:  Usually a small tree with relatively short trunk; bumpy bark  Spreading branches; rounded form  Medium-slow growth; lives 100- 200 years  Winter deciduous  Foliage:  Medium green; simple with net-like veins underside; gritty feel  Roots: wide-spreading, shallow & deep. Don’t plant too near foundation ©2013 Jean Pawek
  94. 94. Fruit: sweet drupes  Fruits are small drupes ( ¼ - ½ inch)  Ripen in late summer or fall; ripe fruits are red to dark red  Surprisingly sweet and tasty – you can eat them fresh, but they have a big seed  Important food source for many Native American peoples; eat fresh, dried, as fruit leather, cooked  Make nice jelly, candy, syrup – or dried and ground for tea, seasoning  Birds love them; they stay on the tree in winter, so birds can eat great quantities of them © Project SOUND
  95. 95. © Project SOUND Hackberry: hardy  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local, including alkali  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: wide tolerance range: Water Zone 1-2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: whatever you want  Other: galls are common; other than that no problems Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Start training up fairly early
  96. 96. © Project SOUND Hackberry: water- wise shade tree  Shade, water-wise, habitat and fruit – good all-purpose tree  Good choice for home & public  Fine for rain garden/infiltration  Takes heat, cold, sun
  97. 97. What about something more open & lacy? © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Crepe myrtle Pacific wax myrtle © Project SOUND
  99. 99. © Project SOUND * Baja Birdbush – Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia © 2005 TRNERR P. Roullard
  100. 100.  Very limited range (narrow endemic) : San Diego Co. and N. Baja  In Chaparral from 180-2500‘  listed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act. © Project SOUND * Baja Birdbush – Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia,3582,3583 ©2005 TRNERR P. Roullard oppositifolia-aka-palo-blanco-aka-baja-bird-bush
  101. 101. © Project SOUND An unusual and lovely shrub or small tree  Size:  6-10 ft tall  6-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Erect, multi-branched evergreen shrub  Reddish-brown bark; peels in thin sheets to expose smooth, white or gray-green stems – hence the common name ‘Palo blanco’;  Foliage:  Thick, linear leaves - shiny green above and pale green beneath  Looks almost like an olive © 2005 TRNERR P. Roullard
  102. 102. © Project SOUND Flowers like manzanita  Blooms: winter, usually Jan- March in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  Small, pale-pink or white and urn-shaped  Attracts butterflies  Fruits:  Also like manzanita  Loved by birds; also eaten by Native Californians
  103. 103. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, rocky  pH: any local except alkali  Light:  Full sun best  Part-sun OK  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: looks best with occasional water (Zone 2 or 1-2) but very drought tolerant.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: leaf mulch/self-mulch
  104. 104. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Palo Blanco  As a unique and rare specimen plant – like a manzanita  As a small tree – somewhat like Crepe Myrtle in architecture  In a white/moonlight garden  Does well in large pots  Can even make an informal hedge  Good for hot gardens
  105. 105. Palo Blanco gives the feel of a dry forest © Project SOUND That may be just the look you want for your garden
  106. 106. Have sandy soil – love the look of the desert © Project SOUND
  107. 107. © Project SOUND *Desert ironwood – Olneya tesota
  108. 108. © Project SOUND *Desert ironwood – Olneya tesota  Sonoran Desert of CA, AZ and n. Mexico; Imperial, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego counties  In washes, arroyos, flood plains to 2500 ft. – sandy/rocky soil, intermittent water  Member of Desert Riparian plant community
  109. 109. © Project SOUND Desert ironwood is one tough tree!  Size:  15-35 ft tall (slow-moderate)  15-25 ft wide  Growth form:  Shrubby tree, often multi-trunk, mounded form  Attractive gray bark  Partially drought deciduous; evergreen with a little water  Foliage:  Leaves compound, medium- to blue- green, leathery  Sharp, curved thorns at leaf base  Very nice looking tree; long-lived  Roots:  Deep and shallow; shallow ones nitrogen-fixing desert-ironwood-trees-photos.html
  110. 110. © Project SOUND Flowers like orchids  Blooms: late spring into summer  Flowers:  Pea-shape; in clusters  Color: white, pink, lavender  Bee pollinated  Very pretty – showy – trees covered with blooms  Seeds:  In bean-like, brown pods  Edible seeds  Birds, animals love them!
  111. 111. © Project SOUND Very hardy Sonoran Desert tree  Soils:  Texture: must be well-drained: sandy, gravelly  pH: any local  Light: full sun; takes heat well  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer: deep water monthly or less once established (Water Zone 2 or 1-2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Will need to be pruned up – be careful of thorns  Plant 10 ft. from watered lawn; don’t over-water  Flower, pod, leaf drop – self-mulch
  112. 112. © Project SOUND Water-wise with the look of Crepe Myrtle or Olive  Good shade tree; becomes more dense with water, age  Often used in desert front yards – with Sonoran desert (or other Zone 2) plants (serves as nurse plant)  Attractive: needs few other plantings you/desert-ironwood/
  113. 113. Desert trees as ‘nurse plants’  Ironwood functions as a habitat modifying keystone species – a nurse plant  Services they provide:  Safe sites for seed dispersal  Seedling protection from extreme cold and freezes  Sapling protection from extreme heat and damaging radiation.  Protection from herbivores preying on vulnerable plant seedlings  Enrich the soil with nutrients such as nitrogen.  Other examples: Mesquites and Palo verde © Project SOUND
  114. 114. Edible seeds are an extra plus!  Fresh seeds taste like fresh soybeans  Seeds can also be dried, roasted or parched and eaten as pinole, or ground into a flour  Can also be sprouted for sprouts (like bean sprouts) © Project SOUND you/desert-ironwood/
  115. 115. The wood is fantastic: prized by woodworkers  Very hard & heavy – traditionally used for tool handles and other ‘heavy use’ items like arrowheads  Wonderful grain, colors  Also makes great charcoal © Project SOUND ironwood.html
  116. 116. © Project SOUND *Honey mesquite – Prosopis glandulosa
  117. 117. © Project SOUND *Western honey mesquite – Prosopis glandulosa  Southwest U.S. and Mexico  In CA (var. torreyana) : San Joaquin Valley, San Gabriel & San Bernardino Mtns, Mojave & Sonoran Deserts south into Mexico.  Common. Mesas, washes, bottomlands, sandy alluvial flats and other low places to 4000', creosote bush scrub, alkali sink. ©2002 California Academy of Sciences
  118. 118. © Project SOUND Honey mesquite: large member of the Pea Family  Size:  25-40 ft. tall  20-50 ft. wide  Growth form:  Large shrub or tree  Mounded or weeping form  Bark red, brown or gray  2 inch thorns  Foliage:  Medium green  Double-compound leaves with 15-35 rather narrow leaflets – feathery or fern-like appearance  Roots:  Deep taproot (to 150 ft.)  Shallow roots (N-fixing); most nutrients prosopis-glandulosa-torreyana
  119. 119. © Project SOUND Mesquite flowers: small  Blooms: in warm weather – April to August  Flowers:  Small, yellow flowers on dense stalks  Sweetly fragrant; bee pollinated  Unique – make you want to look at them up close (sort of like willow catkins)  Seeds:  Bean-like pods with constrictions between seeds
  120. 120. Another edible ‘Pea’  Lining of seedpods separated, dried, and ground into a powder to make mesquite meal or mesquite flour  Sweet, caramel-tasting; a staple of indigenous diet & now sold commercially  Can be used to make breads, cookies and other baked goods.  When fermented, it produces a slightly alcoholic beverage.  The green pods can be boiled in water to make a syrup or molasses.  A tea or broth can also be made from the pods. © Project SOUND©2005 Robert Sivinski
  121. 121. © Project SOUND Adaptable Mesquite  Soils:  Texture: just about any  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: need adequate  Summer: best with occasional deep water – Water Zone 1-2 to 2  Fertilizer: fine with poor soils; likely fine with light fertilizer  Other:  Prune up (carefully) for tree  Low risk – roots not invasive  Does drop leaves, pods
  122. 122. © Project SOUND Ornamental shade  Fast-growing & attractive  Best 10-20 ft. away from lawn or regular water  Nice, medium shade – the best kind to have!  Excellent habitat tree &type=85&id=15037
  123. 123. Mesquites are important medicinal plants  Pods/Seeds:  Eyewash  Sunburn treatment  Sore throat  Gum (exuded from trunk):  Eyewash for infection and irritation  Treatment for sores, wounds, burns, chapped fingers and lips and sunburn  Diarrhea, stomach inflammation, system cleansing or to settle the intestines  Sore throat, cough, laryngitis, fever reduction, painful gums  Leaves  Eyewash  To treat headaches, painful gums and bladder infection © Project SOUND Mesquite wood (smoke) is also favored for barbeque barbeque-a-turkey/ mesquite-round-rock-1
  124. 124. Who needs Crepe Myrtle when we have attractive, water-wise natives © Project SOUND
  125. 125. What if you like the looks of an Olive tree? © Project SOUND
  126. 126. © Project SOUND Toyon – Heteromeles arbutifolia Some local native shrubs can be used as ‘tree-like’ shrubs (somewhat olive-like) Lemonadeberry – Rhus integrifolia
  127. 127. © Project SOUND * Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  128. 128. © Project SOUND * Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens  SW north America from TX & CO to CA and s. to northern Mexico  In CA, mostly in foothills of dry desert mountains, 3000-7000 ft.  Dry slopes, canyons, cliffs  Creosote bush scrub, chaparral, coastal sage scrub and foothill woodland  Forestiera: named after Charles Le Forestier (?-1820), an 18th century French physician and naturalist,  pubescens: with soft, downy hair  Other common names are Elbow Bush & New Mexico Privet,5250,5251
  129. 129. © Project SOUND Desert Olive: large shrub or small tree?  Size:  10-15+ ft tall; mod. long-lived  12-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub/tree; lovely gray bark ; moderate growth rate  Somewhat mounded shape – reminds me of Laurel Sumac – but may be almost vine-like  Densely branched, some thorny; hard wood (used for tools)  Foliage:  Winter deciduous  Bright green/gray-green leaves – yellow color in fall  Roots: naturally clump-forming USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  130. 130. Yes, Desert olives do make olives  Plants are dioecious (separate male & female plants)  Fruits (olives) only on female plants, and only if you have both male & female plants © Project SOUND
  131. 131. © Project SOUND Can be pruned and shaped, even hedged  Can be sheared to make a reasonable hedge  Mix with other species in mixed hedge or hedgerow  Very adaptable and useful – could probably even be espaliered  Limit water to provide better shape Forestiera & Cornus glabrata
  132. 132. © Project SOUND Desert Olive makes a lovely tree  Use as a substitute for non-native white-bark ornamentals like Olive, Aspen, Melaluca  Great plant for front yard, background areas, along roadways – very tough and need little water  Management:  Start selective pruning in first year  Limit to 1-5 stems; prune out the rest  Selectively prune each winter to provide open habit
  133. 133. © Project SOUND * Silver buffaloberry – Shepherdia argentea
  134. 134.  Primary distribution outside of CA  South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains  Mt. Pinos, Cuyama River Valley/Piru  Along streams, river bottoms, slopes, 1000–2000 m.  Introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne © Project SOUND * Silver buffaloberry – Shepherdia argentea ©2010 Lee Dittmann
  135. 135. © Project SOUND Silver buffaloberry: silvery foliage  Size:  6-15 ft tall  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Deciduous large shrub or small tree  Bark silver-white, exfoliating  Some stout thorns  Foliage:  Leaves simple, lance-shaped  Color: silvery green – like olive tree  Roots: complex; shallow and deep; sprouting from rhizomes ©2005 Louis-M. Landry
  136. 136. © Project SOUND Flowers: simple  Blooms: in spring - usually April-May in many areas  Flowers:  Dioecious (separate male & female plants)  Both are simple, yellow flowers – small (males slightly larger)  Long bloom period  Bee pollinated – perhaps with help from pollinator flies  Vegetative reproduction: sprouting from rhizomes Al Schneider @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  137. 137. Fruits are drupe-like  Ripe color varies – usually dark red but may be yellow  Fruits have single large seed  Use soon after harvesting – and best to harvest after a cold spell – sweeter  Used to make pies, jams, and jellies & other cooked foods; or dried – breaks down the low levels of saponins  Native Americans also used berries/bark medicinally for fevers, stomach complaints & more. © Project SOUND Dakotas%20Miles%20City%20Field%20Office%20Develops%20Native%20Plant%20Materials% 20Program.htm
  138. 138. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained is best, but adaptable  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: needs good moisture  Summer: fairly drought tolerant but best with some summer water – Water Zone 2 or 2-3. Let dry out between waterings to prevent fungal diseases  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic or thin layer of organic mulch; prune out suckers regularly – other than that easy
  139. 139. © Project SOUND Silver buffaloberry  Often used as hedge/ hedgerow plant – also good on slopes  Nice accent plant – showy foliage, fruit – quite pretty with a little pruning  Prune up for a small tree – nice shape R.A. Howard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database buffaloberry/
  140. 140. We hope this talk has given you some things to ponder – and some hope for the future © Project SOUND
  141. 141. What trees should I choose? The answers are not all available  Need to weigh the effects of heat as well as those of intermittent drought & other factors  Need for empirical studies in the local setting – role of CSUDH, local gardens © Project SOUND
  142. 142. Current favorites (based on last four years)  Citrus fruits: ‘Moro’ and other blood oranges; lemons; grapefruits  Local natives:  Mulefat - Baccharis salicifolia  Mountain mahagony – Cercocarpus spp.  Fremontodendron spp.  Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia  Boxthorns – Lyceum spp.  Catalina ironwood - Lyonothamnus floribundus  Laurel sumac - Malosma laurina  Catalina Island cherry - Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii  Local Quercus (Oaks)  Rhus (especially Lemonadeberry)  ? Chaparral currant - Ribes malvaceum  ? Blue elderberry - Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea  ? Mission manzanita - Xylococcus bicolor © Project SOUND
  143. 143. Desert/chaparral natives to consider Trees  Arctostaphylos pungens  Chilopsis linearis ssp. arcuata  Hesperocyperus forbesii  Hesperocyparis nevadensis  Juniperus californica  Olneya tesota  Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia  Parkinsonia florida  Pinus edulis  Pinus monophylla  Prosopis glandulosa  Prosopis velutina  Prunus andersonii  Prunus fasciculata Large shrubs  Acacia/Senegalia greggii  Baccharis sarothroides  Calliandra californica  Celtis laevigata var. reticulata  Cupressus arizonica ssp arizonica  Fallugia paradoxa  Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens  Hyptis emoryi  Lycium andersonii var. deserticola  Lycium brevipes  Mahonia fremontii  Mahonia nevinii  Shepherdia argentea  Simmondsia chinensis© Project SOUND
  144. 144. Climate change will be a challenge to local plants in the future – often in subtle ways  A few more really hot days – but generally warmer temps  Warmer nights  Shorter winters – chill factor  Pollinator mis-match due to seasonal shifts & higher temperatures  ‘tropical’ pest species: insects and pathogens © Project SOUND We’ll discuss these and other topics in greater detail in future talks
  145. 145. © Project SOUND But we do hope you’re inspired to plant a tree