Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden    Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants                   Project SOUND ...
The Name Game:    Taxonomy, Local& Island Endemic Plants    C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake     CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve  ...
What’s in a name?                                Common names                                   Are the names that most ...
 Scientific names were developed to                                                                                get ar...
 Taxonomy: the systematicWhat’s in a name?                                   study and classification of                 ...
Charles Darwin and ‘The   Origin of Species’     Insights:        The environment shapes         which individuals survi...
Plant Systematics: the interrelationship    between ‘natural’ taxonomy, evolution and                   phylogeny         ...
The scientific name                           Ideally, a new species is given a                            formal, scient...
Kingdom        Plantae – PlantsSubkingdom      Tracheobionta – Vascular plantsSuperdivision    Spermatophyta – Seed plants...
What is a species?                             Some definitions of species                                Biological Spe...
How do species arise/develop? How does this relate to island species?                Speciation: The evolutionary        ...
The Channel Islands of California are               unique places                                                         ...
Channel Islands – magical places that some peoplenever want to leavehttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www-pers...
Traveling by ti-at   http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/catalina/        http://www.laurelcanyon.org/Images                          ...
What is unique about islands?                                                                                             ...
What is unique about islands?                                      http://www.synergygis.com/geog/rs/images/Catalina_CA_US...
What is unique about islands? Often have unique flora and fauna – and fauna may effect flora.  Example: plants may not be...
Some species are endemic to Catalina    © 2006 BonTerra Consulting   Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. floribundus    20,000 ...
Also endemic to Catalina    http://www.uncledougs.com/Dudleya_hassei.jpg   Dudleya hassei    The only Catalina endemic wh...
Other common Catalina plants are more widely                     distributed…including on the mainland                    ...
Catalina Ceanothus - Ceanothus arboreus                                                               Native to Catalina....
Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus                                    © Project SOUND
Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpushttp://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html                   ...
Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus                                                                                  ...
var. insularis                                                                Sometimes a bit shorter                    ...
var. megacarpus                                                                                                 May be sl...
Characteristics of Big-pod Ceanothus                                                                              Size:  ...
‘Covered with snow-like flowers’                                                                    Blooms:              ...
Why the ‘soapy’                           Ceanothus flowers (& sometimes                                              lea...
Big-pod Ceanothus                                                  reproduces by stored seeds                             ...
Big-pod Ceanothus                                                                     Soils:is a chaparral shrub         ...
Big-pod Ceanothus – spectacular                                                           in bloom, pretty the rest of the...
Big-pod Ceanothus teaches us 5                                            things about S. CA island                       ...
Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii    Donald Myrick © California Academy of Sciences              ...
Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii                                                                ...
Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii                When a species is named,                 it is placed within a         ...
What is the appropriate genus?                              Has been placed in several taxonomic homes.                  ...
Blair’s wire-lettuce/Munzothamnus - attractive sub-shrub                             Size:                               ...
Flowers are lovely                                                 Blooms:                                               ...
Likes a coastal climate                                                   Soils:                                         ...
Blair’s Munzothamnus is a                                    nice flowering perennial                                 Has...
Why do names keep changing?                                                                                            Tr...
Why do names keep changing?                              Many populations which were                               former...
Lessons from Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii                       1.   Island species can be very different from      ...
Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony –                                              Cercocarpus traskiaehttp://www.centerforp...
Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony –                                              Cercocarpus traskiae                     ...
Catalina Mountain Mahogany                                                                                      Size:    ...
Threats to endemic ‘Island’ plant species Large introduced herbivores have historically altered the  flora and the landsc...
The problem of hybridization:                                                                               can be insidio...
What makes a species susceptible to geneticassimilation? Cercocarpus traskiae is a case study                   Small num...
Management strategies for                endangered plant species Remove species that may hybridize with the desired spec...
What genetic resources should we conserve(and why)?                                                         For aesthetic...
Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii                                © Project SOUND
Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii                                                                        Endemic to the Chann...
San Clemente Island                      © Project SOUND
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072402466/student_view0/chapter18/virtual_vista.html           49 miles from the ma...
Sheep, goats and    naval artillery Since 1934 the U.S. Navy has  administered San Clemente  Island. Their objective in ...
Many plants endemic to San Clemente Island                                                                                ...
Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Nevin’s Gilia - pretty little plant that’s tougher  than it looks             ...
The genus Gilia                                   ~ 25-50 species of flowering plants - family                           ...
Nevin’s Gilia reminds one of Bird’s-eye Gilia                          Size:                                6-20+ inches...
Gilias are all easy-to-grow    Soils:    annual wildflowers             Texture: any                                   ...
Flowers are sweetly                                                            old-fashioned                              ...
Garden uses for   native Gilias As a cute little pot  plant – place it near  where you sit so you can  enjoy it Massed i...
The connection between the Channel Islands,mainland mountains and the Palos Verdes peninsula                           So...
The earth’s crust is made up of giant plates  New molten rock is constantly being added in deep   oceanic trenches – as a...
The connection between S. Channel                 Islands and mainland mountains                                          ...
Coastal mountains were formed as the Pacific      Plate moved under the N. Amer. Plate The high areas (original islands) ...
Why the connection between S. Channel            Island and Baja Island species?http://www.geol.ucsb.edu/faculty/atwater/R...
Geologically, there are likely 3 ‘Island  Clusters’ off the coast of S. CA                           Northern Channel    ...
Giant Coreopsis – Coreopsis gigantea                                © Project SOUND
Giant Coreopsis – Coreopsis gigantea                                                              South-Central Coast, no...
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anacapa-Island-Coreopsis.jpg                                                       ...
Like something dreamed up by Dr. Seuss…                                                                         Size:    ...
? Is Giant Coreopsis ‘giant’ because of                        mild island climates?                                      ...
Flowers are a bright                                                             spot in spring                           ...
 Soils:Plant Requirements                                          Texture: well-drained, sandy                         ...
Giant Coreopsis adds and unusual                                                                                 note to t...
Mission Manzanita – Xylococcus bicolor http://www.cnpssd.org/plantlistpdfs/xylococcusbicolor.pdf                          ...
Mission Manzanita – Xylococcus bicolor                                                                           Local en...
What is this plant, anyway?                                     ‘At first, I couldnt figure out what                     ...
Mission Manzanita: ‘Manzanita in hot/dry mode’                                                                            ...
Flowers are like their                                                                             Manzanita cousins      ...
Fruits are also showy                           Fruits ripen in spring/early                            summer           ...
 Soils:Easy to grow & maintain                             Texture: any well-drained; sandy                             ...
Mission Manzanita thrives on     hot, dry conditions  Nice choice for evergreen   shrub – looks good all year   with a li...
S. California’s Scrub Oaks          Scrub Oak is a general name for           several species of small, shrubby,         ...
Channel Island Scrub Oak – Quercus pacifica   © 2001 Tony Morosco                                    © Project SOUND
Channel Island Scrub Oak – Quercus pacifica                                                                        Endemi...
Channel Isl Scrub Oak: in many ways a typical scrub oak                                                                   ...
Flowers are understated                                                                Blooms: in winter to early spring ...
Island Oak: not picky                                                     Soils:                                         ...
Scrub Oaks – so                           versatile                       Excellent on dry slopes,                       ...
What is that scrub oak, anyway?http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/quercus/scrub_oaks.html   © Project SOUND
So where did this oak come from?                                            http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_i...
Those promiscuous white oaks – difficult       to classify & understand                  It is likely that Q. pacifica is...
The name game   2010
The name game   2010
The name game   2010
The name game   2010
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The name game 2010

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This lecture was given in March, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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The name game 2010

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. The Name Game: Taxonomy, Local& Island Endemic Plants C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve March 6th & 9th, 2010 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What’s in a name?  Common names  Are the names that most gardener’s (and others) use  Developed from common use, over time  Often describe some distinctive feature of the plant - or where it came from  Problems with common names:  The same name may be used to describe several, very different plants  Do not imply any relationship between plants – loss ofCatalina Snapdragon important informationGambelia (Galvezia) speciosa © Project SOUND
  4. 4.  Scientific names were developed to get around some of the limitations of Scientific names common names  Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)  Swedish botanist and physician  Considered the “father” of modern taxonomy  Was a keen observer of plants  Described nature as a Divinely-inspired harmonious system in which every organism fulfills a specific role to maintain the general balance  Named approximately 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants.  Was the first to consistently use a binomial system of classification, giving organisms a one-word general name (called the genus) associatedhttp://www.library.otago.ac.nz/exhibitions/linnaeus/walls/wall_linnaeus.jpg with a one-word specific epithet. His many publications encouraged the standardization of binomial nomenclature © Project SOUND
  5. 5.  Taxonomy: the systematicWhat’s in a name? study and classification of plants and animals  ‘Artificial’ (for convenient ‘pigeon- hole’ing)  ‘Natural’ (reflecting underlying biologic/evolutionary connections)  Linnaean taxonomy was actually an ‘artificial’ system – but he was an excellent observer, so it did reflect natural connections (ie, things that are genetically related often tend to share physical (morphologic) traits)  True ‘Natural’ systematics required 1) better microscopes; 2) increasing interest in plant morphology; 3) an understanding of the concept of species & evolution – e.g., Charles Darwin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species_Plantarum © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Charles Darwin and ‘The Origin of Species’  Insights:  The environment shapes which individuals survive & pass on their genetic material (genes)  Given enough time, new species can arise from ancestral ones  There are true biologic relationships – in the past – between some species.  You can determine these relationships through studying similarities and differences © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Plant Systematics: the interrelationship between ‘natural’ taxonomy, evolution and phylogeny http://www.alonnissos.org/page9/files/taxonomy%20tree.jpg © Project SOUNDhttp://www.anbg.gov.au/asbs/newsletter/book-review-74a-a.gif
  8. 8. The scientific name  Ideally, a new species is given a formal, scientific name  The generic name is listed first (with its first letter capitalized), followed by a second term, the specific name (or specific epithet)  International Code of Botanical Nomenclature – specifies the format and conventions  U.S. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) - facilitates sharing biologic info. by providing a common framework for taxonomic dataCatalina Snapdragon  Sometimes regional experts don’tGambelia speciosa Nutt. agree with ITIS © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Kingdom Plantae – PlantsSubkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plantsSuperdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plantsDivision Magnoliophyta – Flowering plantsClass Magnoliopsida – DicotyledonsSubclass AsteridaeOrder ScrophularialesFamily Scrophulariaceae – Figwort familyGenus Gambelia Nutt. – greenbrightSpecies Gambelia speciosa Nutt. – showy greenbright © Project SOUND
  10. 10. What is a species?  Some definitions of species  Biological Species Concept - they cannot interbreed & produce viable offspring; interbreeding studies  Morphospecies Concept - they are Lyonothamnus floribundus different morphologically and do not ssp. aspleniifolius come in contact for interbreeding  Genetic Species Concept – still working on this – how similar must they be to constitute a species?  Practical definition - Practically, biologists define species as populations of organisms that have a high level of genetic similarity.  The field of taxonomy is changing with our increasingly sophisticated toolsLyonothamnus floribundusssp. floribundus © Project SOUND
  11. 11. How do species arise/develop? How does this relate to island species?  Speciation: The evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by the division of a single species into two or more genetically distinct ones.  Allopatric Speciation -- speciation occurs in geographic isolation  Founder Effect Speciation -- a special kind of allopatric speciation in a small isolated population on the edge of a species range © Project SOUND
  12. 12. The Channel Islands of California are unique places  The four Southern Channel Islands are San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente.  Catalina - 26 miles & in many ways our closest neighbor  San Clemente – 49 miles – a bit morehttp://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm distant in several ways © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Channel Islands – magical places that some peoplenever want to leavehttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jensenl/visuals/album/2006/catalina/IMG_1349.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jensenl/visuals/album/2006/catalina/&usg=__z0Gzu8ecXJHx5dzfWJdpegGFwQM=&h=500&w=800&sz=158&hl=en&start=280&itbs=1&tbnid=NQDkmxmRitZD3M:&tbnh=89&tbnw=143&prev= © Project SOUND/images%3Fq%3Dcatalina%2Bisland%2Bcalifornia%26start%3D270%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1
  14. 14. Traveling by ti-at http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/catalina/ http://www.laurelcanyon.org/Images /EarlyPhotos/TongvaCanoeEtching.j pg The Tongva people lived on Catalina Island for over 7,000 years. © Project SOUND
  15. 15. What is unique about islands?  Separated from the mainland by water  Sometimes for great distances  Sometimes for long periods  May have different climatehttp://www.catalinachamber.com/images/Photos/High/CatalinaIslandWest.jpg  Moister – more fog and rain  Warmer – insulated by ocean http://www.uptake.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/channelislandsca1.jpg © Project SOUND
  16. 16. What is unique about islands? http://www.synergygis.com/geog/rs/images/Catalina_CA_USGS_DEM_Overview.jpg May have unusual/steep terrain – are really mountain peaks May have different rocks & soils from mainland May have limited area  Limits the number of species & individuals  Increases the effects of human interventions © Project SOUND
  17. 17. What is unique about islands? Often have unique flora and fauna – and fauna may effect flora. Example: plants may not be subject to certain diseases or to large herbivores (sheep) © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Some species are endemic to Catalina © 2006 BonTerra Consulting Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. floribundus 20,000 years ago, this unique sub-species of ironwood tree grew abundantly on the mainland. Now, this tree exists nowhere else in the world but Catalina. Cercocarpus traskiae The rarest of the Catalina endemics. Only seven of these small shrubs or trees occur naturally in a single canyon. Eriogonum giganteum var. giganteum Grows on dry, rocky slopes throughout Catalinas interior. Changes with the seasons - from white in the spring, to beige, light brown, then deep russet in the fall . © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Also endemic to Catalina http://www.uncledougs.com/Dudleya_hassei.jpg Dudleya hassei The only Catalina endemic which is a succulent. Look for it on the slope at the foot of the Wrigley Memorial. Arctostaphylos catalinae When the manzanita fruit ripens, its color resembles the brilliant wine-red bark - and the ground squirrels love it. Galium catalinense ssp. catalinense A perennial herb found mostly on rocky outcroppings on the lee side of Catalina. © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Other common Catalina plants are more widely distributed…including on the mainland  Heteromeles arbutifolia - Toyon  Rhus integrifolia – Lemonadeberry  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii This sub-species is a Catalina endemic.  Ribes viburnifolium Used in landscaping as a native ground cover for shady areas. Extremely fragrant. Grows in San Diego Co. as well as on Catalina  Eriodictyon traskiae This evergreen shrub has a pungent fragrance and sprawling growth habit. Yerba Santa occurs on Catalina and in coastal Ventura and San Luis Obispo Counties.  Solanum wallacei A member of the deadly nightshade family, the Wild Tomato also occurs on other Channel Islands and Guadalupe, off the coast of Mexico.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/prunus-lyonii © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Catalina Ceanothus - Ceanothus arboreus  Native to Catalina. Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz & Guadalupe Islands  Source of many commercial cultivars – ‘Ray Hartmen’ is C. arboreus X C. griseus hybridhttp://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpushttp://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus  Coast of S. CA from Santa Barbara to San var. insularis Diego Co. – CA endemic  var. insularis – Channel Isl. (Catalina & San Clemente in south)  var. megacarpus – mainland (Santa Monica Mtns our nearest) var. megacarpus  Dry, chaparral slopes below 2000 ft. © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Ceanothus+megacarpus+var.+insularis
  25. 25. var. insularis  Sometimes a bit shorter  Leaves opposite and slightly larger  Grows on most of the Channel Islandshttp://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  26. 26. var. megacarpus  May be slightly larger  Leaves, generally alternate and slightly smaller  Grows on the mainland  ??? Other, as yet unknown differences (chemicals;http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adenostoma_sprsifolium_and_Ceanothus_megacarpus.jpg disease resistance; heat resistance; etc) In Santa Monica Mountains © 2001 CDFA © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Characteristics of Big-pod Ceanothus  Size:  4-16 ft tall  8-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright (more common) or sprawling woody shrub  Compact & dense  Young bark reddish  Foliage:  Simple leaves – rounded to wedge-like – typical Ceanothus leaves  Leaves are upright on branchesJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Roots: shallow; not basal burl, so no re-sprouting after fire © Project SOUND http://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html
  28. 28. ‘Covered with snow-like flowers’  Blooms:  In winter to early spring; usually Jan.-March  Bloom period - weeks  Flowers:  Clusters of small flowers  Petals white to slightly pink or purple  Dark purple centerhttp://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html  Fruits:  Lumpy spherical capsule  Red-green & sticky  In three parts; each part holds a seed © Project SOUND© 2009 Gary A. Monroe
  29. 29. Why the ‘soapy’  Ceanothus flowers (& sometimes leaves) were used to make a mild flowers? soap or shampoo – preferred soap for washing babies  Rub the flowers in warm water – get a soapy, nice-smelling froth  Why? saponins - plants that contain quite high concentrations of saponins have often been used as an alternative soap.  Other examples – CA natives:  Soap Lily (Chlorogalum pomeridianum) roots  Yucca roots  Mock Orange (Philadelphushttp://www.fotolog.com/treebeard/56541746 lewisii) flowers & leaves © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Big-pod Ceanothus reproduces by stored seeds  Cannot reproduce by re-sprouting after a fire – relies on seeds stored in the ‘natural mulch’ (duff) - ~ 2 million seeds/acrehttp://www.hazmac.biz/seedphotoslistgenus.html  Seed pods burst open, flinging the heavy seeds  Seeds have thick, tough seed coat – can lie in waiting for years (probably hundreds of years)  Ceanothus seeds only germinate in response to range fires and forest fires in the wild. © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Big-pod Ceanothus  Soils:is a chaparral shrub  Texture: rocky or sandy best – needs well-drained soil  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Benefits from afternoon shade in hot inland gardens  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: low needs – Zone 1- 2 (water very infrequently, if at all, once established)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; likes an organic mulch © Project SOUNDhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3373/3275037528_782b3c6c8f.jpg?v=0
  32. 32. Big-pod Ceanothus – spectacular in bloom, pretty the rest of the year  Nice as an informal hedge – or include it in a hedgerowhttp://www.ssseeds.com/database/db_testvv.php3?uid=103  Can prune to shape into a small tree  In a chaparral-themed garden  Anywhere you need a large, water-wise shrub  As a habitat plant - CA Hairstreak, Green Hairstreak larval food J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Big-pod Ceanothus teaches us 5 things about S. CA island specieshttp://www.calliebowdish.com/SBPlaces.htm1. Sometimes the same species is found on both the islands and on the mainland2. Variants are similar enough to be grouped in the same species – yet different enough to be considered the different variants.3. Differences between variants can reflect the fact that the variants have not interbred for some time (have ‘drifted’ apart); alternatively the ‘founder’ plants could have differed from the original (usually mainland) population in significant ways4. Taxonomy based on morphologic (physical) traits can be difficult – what’s important?5. Sometimes it makes sense to preserve variants – particularly those from unusual sites. They may have important differences that we don’t even know about © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii Donald Myrick © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii  Endemic to San Clemente Island  Rocky canyon walls in island bluff scrub  The only problem is, what genus does it belong in? http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1868,1869 © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii  When a species is named, it is placed within a genus. From a scientific point of view this can be regarded as a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus – may change with new information © Project SOUND
  37. 37. What is the appropriate genus?  Has been placed in several taxonomic homes.  Initially placed in Stephanomeria;  Transferred to Malacothrix (P. Munz 1935).  P. H. Raven (1963) considered it "clearly a relictual and highly isolated genus," based on leaf shape & vegetative architecture, which are significantly distinct from those found in any species of Stephanomeria or Malacothrix. He erected Munzothamnus for it. Recent genetic studies suggest he mayStephanomeria – Wire-lettuce be correct – not similar to Stephanomeria  Others emphasized similarities to Stephanomeria - concluded that the species belongs in Stephanomeria (G. L. Stebbins et al. 1953). :  similar number/appearance of chromosomes  certain similarities between their pappi (number and "coarseness")  pollen size and sculpturing Malacothrix – Cliff Aster © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Blair’s wire-lettuce/Munzothamnus - attractive sub-shrub  Size:  2-4 ft tall  3-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Sub-shrub with woody base and herbaceous new growth  Semi-evergreen (stress deciduous)  Stems thick & fleshy  Foliage:  Bright to medium-green leaves – medium size  Mostly clustered at the base or at ends of branches  Quite attractive, even when not blooming © Rick York and CNPS © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Flowers are lovely  Blooms:  In summer - usually July-Aug, but possible into Sept.  Flowers open over several weeks  Flowers:Robert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Aster-like (or Wire-lettuce-like) heads  Lovely pale pink or purple – nice, old-fashioned color  Nectar attracts hummingbirds, bees, butterflies and other insects  Seeds:  Small, sunflower-type  Seed-eating birds love them © 2005 Dieter Wilken © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Likes a coastal climate  Soils:  Texture: sandy or rocky, well-drained soils  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-sun; suggest some afternoon shade in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains – starts to grow with the rains  Summer: wide tolerance: quite dry (Zone 1-2) to Zone 2 (possibly even 2-3 in sandy soils)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://www.theodorepayne.org/gallery/pages/S/stephanomeria_blairii.htm © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Blair’s Munzothamnus is a nice flowering perennial  Has not been used much in gardens due to rarity.  Lovely in an old-fashioned mixed native perennial bed. Looks like an English garden plant.  Try with Cirsium occidentale, Delphinium cardinale, Mimulus aurantiacus, Eriophyllum nevinii (another island endemic)  Does fine in a large pot (at least for several years)© 2005 Dieter Wilken  Flowers make nice cut flowers Also a good habitat plant © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Why do names keep changing?  Traditionally, researchers relied on observations of anatomical differences and interbreeding studies to distinguish species. This information is still used in helping to define species.  Thanks to advances in research techniques, including DNA analysis, a great deal of additional knowledge about the differences and similarities between species has become available in the last few decades. © Project SOUNDhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Ehret-Methodus_Plantarum_Sexualis.jpg
  43. 43. Why do names keep changing?  Many populations which were formerly regarded as separate species are now considered to be a single taxon, and many formerly grouped populations have been split.  Any taxonomic level (species, genus,Lump with Stephanomeria or family, etc.) can be synonymized ordoes it deserve its own split, and at higher taxonomicgenus? levels, these revisions have been still more profound. © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Lessons from Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii 1. Island species can be very different from local mainland species 2. Taxonomists can disagree – and often do so over time 3. New scientific tools can change the classification of a plant a. Scanning electron microscope – seed & pollen details b. Molecular genetics (DNA analysis) – can look for similarities in actual genetic code; allows construction of genetic trees that may be closer to the actual course of evolution 4. Taxonomic classifications are becoming more ‘natural’ over time (reflect underlying biology/evolution). This can be frustrating for the gardener, but invaluable for our understanding of© Rick York and CNPS plants. © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Cercocarpus traskiaehttp://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/CPC_ProfileImage.asp?FN=872b © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Cercocarpus traskiae  A single population in an arroyo on Santa Catalina Island  Slopes of a steep-sided, narrow, dry arroyo in a coastal sage scrub community  Named in honor of Blanch Trask naturalist – 1865-1916  On both U.S. and CA Endangered Species listshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6695,6705 © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Catalina Mountain Mahogany  Size:  10-15 ft tall  8-12+ ft wide  Growth form:  Large evergreen shrub or small tree  Branches erect to spreading  Long-lived  Foliage:  Leaves leathery, shiny above and wooly beneath  Very prominent lateral veins beneath – very different from Island Mountain Mahogany C. betuloides© 1993 Dean Wm. Taylor © Project SOUND http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/CPC_ProfileImage.asp?FN=872b
  48. 48. Threats to endemic ‘Island’ plant species Large introduced herbivores have historically altered the flora and the landscape of Santa Catalina, San Clemente & other Channel Islands.  Goats, pigs, bison, and deer were noted at the time of listing of C. traskiae as a threatened species. The small size of the current C. traskiae population is attributed to the historical presence of goats, deer, and pigs Invasive non-native plants pose as increasing threat now & in the future – increase fire threat Threat of hybridization – ‘genetic assimilation’ Threat of limited genetic diversity – sometimes a small population becomes too inbred to be able to survive © Project SOUND
  49. 49. The problem of hybridization: can be insidious.  Cercocarpus traskiae has hybridized locally with C. betuloides var. blancheae, which also occurs naturally on the island.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cercocarpustraskiae.JPG  The hybrids have been characterized morphologically as well as by enzyme (allozyme) and DNA differences.  Morphological assessments of hybridization have not always agreed with the genetic results  Bottom line: only six genetically “pure” Cercocarpus traskiae trees in existance http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplan ts/islandmountainmahogany.html © Project SOUND
  50. 50. What makes a species susceptible to geneticassimilation? Cercocarpus traskiae is a case study  Small number of individuals compared to other local species  Ability to hybridize with local species – and close geographic proximity to those  Low genetic diversity – may limit reproduction within the species  Low geographic diversity/lack of space – common problem for Channel Island species  Invasion by species with hybridization potential © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Management strategies for endangered plant species Remove species that may hybridize with the desired species Remove other pressures to reproduction – e.g. herbivores that eat seedlings, other stressors – protect the remaining individuals as source plants +/- Remove hybrid plants/seedlings Save seeds – long-term storage Vegetative propagation to create more individuals Plant out in appropriate sites:  Local area  Otherwise appropriate conditions  No potential hybridizing species © Project SOUND
  52. 52. What genetic resources should we conserve(and why)?  For aesthetic/moral reasons  Because we don’t know all the ‘services’ provided by individual species (medicines; habitat value; etc)  Because more diversity means more likely that species will survive changinghttp://www.hazmac.biz/090218/090218CercocarpusTraskiae.html conditions – in the near future  Loss of species uniquely adapted to certain conditions – we may need those genes sometime  Outbreeding/hybridization depression  Probably other reasons – need to study more © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157604510160123/
  53. 53. Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii  Endemic to the Channel Islands – specifically Catalina & San Clemente Islands and Isla Guadalupe (Baja)  Uncommon in nature  Grows on rocky, grassy slopes, coastal canyons in coastal shrublands & CSS  Named after the Reverand Joseph Cook Nevin (1835-1913), of Los Angeles, a brilliant linguist and botanical collector, one of the first to collect on Catalina Islandhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Gilia+nevinii © Project SOUND
  55. 55. San Clemente Island © Project SOUND
  56. 56. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072402466/student_view0/chapter18/virtual_vista.html 49 miles from the mainlandhttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tierradata.com/photocorecapweb1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tierradata.com/corecapweboutreach.htm&usg=__am3z-EUbQKb3KDDSYghnFbRg9ww=&h=400&w=294&sz=22&hl=en&start=27&itbs=1&tbnid=cjb-xVNWpVZ78M:&tbnh=124&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsan%2Bclemente%2Bisland%2Bcalifornia%26start%3D18%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1 © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Sheep, goats and naval artillery Since 1934 the U.S. Navy has administered San Clemente Island. Their objective in the 1970s was to re-establish the native ecosystem as much as possible. This included the removal of feral goats - the last goat was exterminated in April 1991. © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Many plants endemic to San Clemente Island  Brodiase kinkiensis  Triteleia clementina  Erigonum giganteum formosum  Delphiniam kinkiense  Delphinum variedatum thornei  Lithophragma maximum  Astragalus nevinii  Lotus argophyllus adsurgens  Lotus dendroideus traskiae http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/earth/usa/clemente-cliff-browse.jpg  Malcothammus clementinus  Camissonia guagalupoensis clementina  Castilleja grisea  Galium catalinense acrispum  Munzothammus blairii  Probabaly others © Project SOUNDhttp://abdulazeem.files.wordpress.com/2006/11/WindowsLiveWriter/ConsequencesOfPolariceMeltingRisingSeale_E394/clip_image006%5B1%5D%5B3%5D.jpg
  59. 59. Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Nevin’s Gilia - pretty little plant that’s tougher than it looks © Project SOUND
  60. 60. The genus Gilia  ~ 25-50 species of flowering plants - family Polemoniaceae  Temperate/tropical regions of the Americas, from the western U.S. to northern Chile  Occur mainly in desert/dry areas.Globe Gilia – G. capitata  Herbaceous annual, rarely perennial  The leaves are spirally arranged, usually pinnate (rarely simple), forming a basal rosette in most species.  The flowers are produced in a panicle, with a five-lobed corolla, which can be blue, white, pink or yellow.  Gilia species are larval food plant for some species of moths Bird’s-eye Gilia – G. tricolor © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Nevin’s Gilia reminds one of Bird’s-eye Gilia  Size:  6-20+ inches tall & about as wide; size depends on water  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual  May be upright or sprawling – depends on conditions  Delicate-looking  Foliage:  Leaves lacy, fern-like, somewhat basal – similar to Bird’s-eye Gilia  Easy to grow from seed © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Gilias are all easy-to-grow  Soils: annual wildflowers  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:  Sun; perfectly fine with ½ day of sun  Water:  Winter: needs good winter/spring water – delicate when young  Summer: none after flowering ceases  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: will reseed- not as abundantly as Globe Gilia © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Flowers are sweetly old-fashioned  Blooms:  In spring - usually Mar-May here  Long bloom period – at least a month  Flowers:  Loads of lavender trumpets withGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database blue anthers – no yellow or white on throat  Just lovely Bird’s-eye Gila for comparison © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya
  64. 64. Garden uses for native Gilias As a cute little pot plant – place it near where you sit so you can enjoy it Massed in the front of a flower bed Mixed with other native grasses & wildflowers Nevin’s Gila - in an ‘Island-themed’ garden; © Project SOUND
  65. 65. The connection between the Channel Islands,mainland mountains and the Palos Verdes peninsula  Some rocks (Catalina schist) found in only 2 places – Catalina & PV  Some rocks (Poway Conglomerate – derived from ancient Poway River rocks) are found in neither place – but are on other Channel Islands  So, what’s going on here? © Project SOUND
  66. 66. The earth’s crust is made up of giant plates  New molten rock is constantly being added in deep oceanic trenches – as a result, the plates collide and ride over one another. © Project SOUND
  67. 67. The connection between S. Channel Islands and mainland mountains  The North American West Coast illustrates some of the complex geology that develops along a plate boundary.  The original source of rocks in our mountain ranges (and Channel Islands) were probably ancient island arcs, similar to perhaps Japan or the Philippines.  These original island arcs werehttp://www.urbanedpartnership.org/target/fragile_habitats/geo_of_Ca.html the high points (‘mountains’) of the Pacific Plate © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Coastal mountains were formed as the Pacific Plate moved under the N. Amer. Plate The high areas (original islands) were compressed and ‘scraped off’ as the Pacific Plate moved under the N. American Plate The whole area, was extensively faulted, folded, uplifted and eroded to form the current S. CA coastal topography. © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Why the connection between S. Channel Island and Baja Island species?http://www.geol.ucsb.edu/faculty/atwater/Research/SOCAL.pdf  About 20 million years ago, the Pacific plate (which is slipping under the N. American Plate) began moving NW compared to the N. American Plate  This resulted in the formation of the San Andreas fault, among other things © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Geologically, there are likely 3 ‘Island Clusters’ off the coast of S. CA  Northern Channel Islands/Santa Monica Mountains  Catalina/PV/?? Santa Ana Mountains  San Clemente/San Nicolas/Isla Guadalupe (Baja)  Move 120-160 km to the NW – or even more.  So San Clemente Island was probably really was once off the coast of Baja – shared geology at the very least!  Of course other factors have also played a role in the intervening time © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Giant Coreopsis – Coreopsis gigantea © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Giant Coreopsis – Coreopsis gigantea  South-Central Coast, north & central parts of South Coast, Channel Islands (all)  On mainland, limited to a few peninsulas right on the coast http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1008,1013Alice Eastwood - May 12 1896 - Pt.Sal Pt. Sal (near the boundarybetween Santa Barbara and SanLuis Obispo Counties) © Project SOUND
  73. 73. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anacapa-Island-Coreopsis.jpg On Anacapa Island © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Like something dreamed up by Dr. Seuss…  Size:  2-6 ft tall; rarely 8-10 ft in wild  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial sub-shrub; base is woody  Trunk is succulent; secondary woodiness  drought deciduous – drops all leaves in summer. Looks like a weird sculpture  Foliage:  Bright green in spring  Typical, lacy leaves of coreopsishttp://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2008/04/coreopsis_gigantea.php © Project SOUND
  75. 75. ? Is Giant Coreopsis ‘giant’ because of mild island climates?  Islands have milder climates – less likely to experience frosts – surrounded by water  Herbaceous plants which typically die back from cold on mainland areas are released from seasonality when they become island colonizers.  In Mediterranean climates (hot dry summers) plants that store water (succulents) have ahttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/giantcoreo survival advantage – but they are limited in size by winter frosts.psis.html  Plants which are normally succulent may develop secondary woodiness in areas with little frost. This is seen on islands in dry regions throughout the world.  Is Coreopsis gigantea, a much larger plant than other native species of Coreopsis, ‘giant’ because © 2006 Steve Matson it grows in ‘frost-free zones’ (Channel Islands and a few restricted sites on the mainland)? © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Flowers are a bright spot in spring  Blooms:  Late winter to mid-spring - usually March-April in local gardens  Flowers:  Typical yellow Coreopsis heads –http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coreopsis_gigantea intense gold-yellow, 3” across  Held on thin flower stalks above the bright green foliage – really striking  Bee pollinated  Seeds:  Sunflower seeds; loved by birds  Vegetative reproduction: can start from pieces of broken stems © Project SOUND
  77. 77.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: well-drained, sandy soils are best  pH: any local  Fine with salt/maritime exposure  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: be careful not to over-water in winter  Summer: quite drought- tolerant, but in nature gets summer mists; Zone 1-2http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coreopsis_gigantea  Fertilizer: fine in garden soils  Other: not frost-hardy; best along coast where danger of frost is minimal. © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Giant Coreopsis adds and unusual note to the coastal garden  As an unusual pot plant  As a specimen plant (most common use)http://www.anniesannuals.com/special_pgs/pom/0610/default.asp?account=none  In a border  In a Channel Island themed garden  On sunny coastal hillsides/ slopes  Along pathwayshttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/170/451543125_a1f4bb7a09.jpg © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Mission Manzanita – Xylococcus bicolor http://www.cnpssd.org/plantlistpdfs/xylococcusbicolor.pdf © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Mission Manzanita – Xylococcus bicolor  Local endemic: S. CA coastal region from L.A. to San Diego counties, Catalina Island  Hot, dry slopes, chaparral < 2000 ft. elevation http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3616,3617Grows on the slopes above Sunland © Project SOUND
  81. 81. What is this plant, anyway?  ‘At first, I couldnt figure out what it was - it had the beautiful reddish- brown twisted bark reminiscent of a Manzanita, but it also had these odd, leathery, elliptical-shaped leaves that were sort of curled or rolled under, and a profusion of little black berries. I was stumped - was this some kind of manzanita-ceanothus- oak-elderberry experiment gone wrong?’  Originally called Arctostaphylos clevelandii, part of the manzanita and bearberry genus. Name was changed to Arctostaphylos bicolor in 1923, then to Xylococcus bicolor in 1974.© 2008 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Mission Manzanita: ‘Manzanita in hot/dry mode’  Size:  6-10+ ft tall (usually 6-8)  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub  Single or multi-trunk; rounded shape  Red-brown, shreddy bark  Foliage:  Similar to Coffeeberry: leathery/waxy above, wooly beneath  Leaf edges roll in drought  Roots: re-sprouting ability – typical of chaparral plants © Project SOUND © 2003 Michael Chartershttp://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Xylococcus_bicolor.html
  83. 83. Flowers are like their Manzanita cousins  Blooms:  In winter, after rains begin usually Dec. to Feb.  Flower buds form previous summer – assures quick-http://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Ericaceae/EricaceaeKey.htm flowering  Flowers:  Shaped like Manzanita (and other Heaths);  Flower color may be white, pink to darker pink  Showy in bloom  Excellent hummingbird plant © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Fruits are also showy  Fruits ripen in spring/early summer  Color varies from dark red to almost black  Look like a cross between Manzanita & Coffeeberry fruits  Loved by birds (esp. Thrashers & Jays) and humans alike  Can be used to make ‘cider’ type drink  Make a fine jelly, sauce, syrup – need a lot as fruits is thin- fleshed  Seeds: hard coat – usually sprout after trip through alimentary canal (coyote; Grizzlies) & some heat© 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  85. 85.  Soils:Easy to grow & maintain  Texture: any well-drained; sandy & rocky are best, well-drained clays possible (water judiciously)  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Young plants: water regularly (Zone 2-3) for first 1-2 years  Mature plants: very drought tolerant, but looks best with some summer water (Zone 1-2 to 2 works well)  Fertilizer: none needed; likes a layer of organic mulch  Other: prune as needed or to shape; can prune severely to rejuvenate old plants© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Mission Manzanita thrives on hot, dry conditions  Nice choice for evergreen shrub – looks good all year with a little summer water  Good choice for informal hedge or included in a water- wise mixed hedgerow  Stars on hot, dry slopes – consider for hot, sunny gardens  Excellent habitat plant  Edible – and showy - berries © Project SOUND
  87. 87. S. California’s Scrub Oaks  Scrub Oak is a general name for several species of small, shrubby, evergreen oaks, including the following species:  California Scrub Oak (Quercus berberidifolia)  Leather Oak (Quercus durata)  Coastal Scrub Oak (Quercus dumosa)  Tucker Oak (Quercus john-tuckeri)  Channel Island Scrub Oak (Quercus pacifica)  Santa Cruz Island Oak (Quercus parvula)  Sonoran Scrub Oak (Quercus turbinella) © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Channel Island Scrub Oak – Quercus pacifica © 2001 Tony Morosco © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Channel Island Scrub Oak – Quercus pacifica  Endemic on three of the California Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, and Santa Rosa.  Island Chaparral, woodlands, margins of grasslands  Is a species of concernhttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501070 © Project SOUND http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/Quercus-pacifica1.htm
  90. 90. Channel Isl Scrub Oak: in many ways a typical scrub oak  Size:  6-15 ft tall  10-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Large shrub or small tree  Gray, furrowed bark at maturity  Rather dense – heavily branched © 2001 Tony Morosco  Foliage:  Medium-sized leathery leaves  Surfaces glandular & waxy  Have star-shaped hairs (trichomes)  larval food for Hairstreaks, Duskywings, CA Sister butterflies  Roots: Both shallow & deep roots © Project SOUNDhttp://128.253.177.182/taxpage/0/0/79/binomial/Quercus%20pacifica.html
  91. 91. Flowers are understated  Blooms: in winter to early spring – usually Jan-Mar  Flowers:  Separate male & female flowers on the same tree  Male flowers on long trailinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Quercus_pacifica catkins  Mostly wind pollinated  Seeds:  Are acorns  Shorter & lighter than Q. agrifolia; thinner than Q. berberidifolia © 2005 Dieter Wilken © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Island Oak: not picky  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: need adequate winter/spring rain, particularly for good seed crop  Summer: none or very little; Zone 1 or 1-2 oncehttp://128.253.177.182/taxpage/0/0/79/binomial/Quercus%20pacifica.html established  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilsDon’t over-water; susceptible to oakroot rot fungus in the genus Armillaria  Other: leave the leaf litter in place; important for plant health & for ground-dwellers © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Scrub Oaks – so versatile  Excellent on dry slopes, for erosion control  May be appropriate for parking strips  Can bonsai – or trim as a hedge/screen  Superb habitat plant  Butterflies  Other insects  Wide range of birds  Provides food, perches, nesting sites (CA Towhee)© 2001 Tony Morosco © Project SOUND
  94. 94. What is that scrub oak, anyway?http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/quercus/scrub_oaks.html © Project SOUND
  95. 95. So where did this oak come from? http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501070 Closely resembles Q. berberidifolia, but differs in having consistently spatulate leaves with a narrowed leaf base, and acute- tapered fruit, with thinner cups. Leaf vestiture otherwise is similar to berberidifolia, but that species has typically square or rounded- attenuate leaf bases and blunter, heavier fruit. Quercus pacifica also appears to be closely related to Q . Douglasii, a tree-oak, whether by direct descent or by hybridization with another species no longer extant on the islands. © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Those promiscuous white oaks – difficult to classify & understand  It is likely that Q. pacifica is phylogenetically close to Q. berberidifolia or possibly represents a hybrid between Q. berberidifolia and Q. douglasii.  Other stable hybrids suggest that widespread hybridization has occurred on the islands between the scrub oaks and either Q. lobata or Q.douglasii, neither of which occur in abundance, but are found in isolated pockets. Both of these are larges trees. © Project SOUND

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