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Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden    Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants                   Project SOUND ...
Pools, Ponds and    Streams      C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake       CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve         Madrona Marsh Pres...
S. California has many different kinds of               wet places                  Estuarine—marsh*                  Es...
Local wetlands – what do they look like?                                     Western L.A./Orange County                  ...
Local wetlands – a little farther away –and a                          bit more topography                              L...
Two key elements that determine plant                   life in freshwater systems                                      I...
What do you have in mind? Types of                water features in home gardens                                          ...
Perhaps you’ve fallen in love with the Madrona Marsh…
…and want to have a little bit of the marsh           in your backyard    http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2009/01/winter-in...
Three water habitats in garden ponds/pools                                               http://www.finegardening.com/desi...
You can create a mini-pond in your                   garden…complete with pond plants                                     ...
Madrona Marsh provides excellent examples        of local pond/marsh plants   Tules dominate the wettest parts of the marsh
Tules – Schoenoplectus (formerly Scirpus)              Six local species:               Schoenoplectus acutus – Tule     ...
The trouble with Tules …           They are large – to 8 ft. tall           They are active spreaders           They ar...
Southern Cattail – Typha domingensishttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Typhadomingensis.jpg                           ...
Southern Cattail – Typha domingensis                                                                         Warm tempera...
Genus Typha – the Cattails                      Members of the cattail family (family                       Typhaceae); t...
Characteristics of Southern Cattail                                                              Size:                   ...
Distinguished from the                                                                                                    ...
Flowers are unusual Blooms: Late spring/summer - usually   May-July Flowers: Typical for Cattails     Flower structure ...
Many uses of cattails and tules                                                 Roots & young stalk – eaten              ...
Cattails like water…                                                                   Soils:                            ...
Cattails – not for every                                                                                      garden/garde...
What makes water plants so invasive?                                                                 Fast-growing when   ...
Why the need for vegetative propagation    in wetland species?                                          Conditions are no...
Managing cattails/rushes/etc. in the garden setting                                                                       ...
In garden ponds, you must be the ‘disturbance’                                                                            ...
Smaller choices for habitat 1(shallow  water) & 2 (pond edge) areas                 Scouring Rushes - Equisetum          ...
Giant Scouring Rush – Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine   http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/bio406d/images/pics/equ/equisetum_hyemale....
Equisetums are well suited to moist                                                       container gardening             ...
Pale Spikerush – Eleocharis macrostachya http://www.joesnowaquaticplants.com/plant%20list%20with%20links.htm              ...
Pale Spikerush –                                                                          Common Spikerush –   Eleocharis ...
Spikerushes grow at the edges of ponds or invernal wetlands – seeds germinate under water http://www.cnps.org/programs/veg...
Eleocharis (Spike Rushes) in the wild                     Seeds can germinate under water                     Do best wi...
Eleocharis Spike Rushes in the garden                                                                    Rain gardens and...
Juncus, Carex and water-tolerant perennials are           useful for spanning Wetland Habitats 2 & 3http://www.csupomona.e...
Juncaceae: Rushes (Wire-grasses)                                                               Characteristics: stiff nar...
Blue Rush: adaptable to a                                                               wide range of water               ...
Some local rushes – and there are others    Baltic Rush                            Common/Blue   Iris-leaved   Leopold’s R...
 Accent plant in/around pools       Juncus in                                                       Planted among stones...
Uses for Carex species in                                                           the garden                            ...
Water Smartweed – Polygonum hydropiperoides    http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/eme...
Water Smartweed – Polygonum hydropiperoides                                                                            Mu...
Smartweed is different… but kind of interesting                                                                           ...
Flowers are showy                                                  Blooms:                                               ...
Plant Requirements    Soils:                          Texture: any                          pH: any local, acidic to al...
Garden uses for                                                                                           Smartweed       ...
Container gardens allow us to create the conditions needed by selected plants
Yerba Mansa – Anemopsis californica
Garden uses for                                                                           Yerba Mansa                     ...
Musk Monkeyflower – Mimulus moschatus  J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Cardinal Flower: a garden perennial                                                              Size:                   ...
Cardinal Flower is a                                                             great Zone 3 plant…                      ...
Yellow-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium californicum  http://www.soquelnursery.com/perennials_Santolina_Sutera.html
Yellow-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium californicum                                                                         Pac...
Yellow-eyed Grass – like Blue-eyed Grass                                                          Size:                  ...
Flowers are lovely                                                                                Blooms:                ...
Likes a drink in spring                                                   Soils:                                         ...
So now we’re feeling confident about  planting a small garden pool….                   http://www.wiseacre-gardens.com/pon...
But maybe you really wanted more of a            streamside look…                        http://www.calflora.net/wildplace...
There’s something special about a  lowland riparian woodland…
*California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum     http://trees.stanford.edu/ENCYC/ACERneg.htm                     ...
*California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum Several nice specimens at the Gardena Willows Wetland©Preserve      ...
*California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum                                        http://na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silv...
CA Boxelder: large shrub/                                                                           small shrubby tree    ...
Flowers are subtle                                               Blooms:                                                 ...
Seeds are definitely                                                                                                  Mapl...
 Soils:  Boxelders are                                                                              Texture: just about ...
Boxelder provides quick shade                 Often planted as a street                  tree – but wood can be weak     ...
Boxelder provides the look of riparian woodlandhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acer_negundo_JPG2a.jpg              ...
Other native riparian trees…all large                       CA Sycamore – Platanus racemosa                       Native...
Most S. CA native riparian trees aresimply too large for most home gardens
Narrow-leaf Willow – Salix exigua
Narrow-leaf willow in the garden                  Locate away from water lines                   (invasive roots) and bui...
Four riparian plant zones                                          waters edge                                    Same pl...
Lowland riparian/pond gardens can utilize riparian    species from our own and desert regions    http://www.naturamediterr...
* Desert False Indigo – Amorpha fruticosa                                   © Project SOUND
* Desert False Indigo – Amorpha fruticosa                                                              Many areas of west...
Western False Indigo: almost tropical-looking                                                               Size:        ...
Flowers are amazing!                                                                                  Blooms:            ...
False Indigo – many human uses                                                                                     Crushe...
False Indigo adapts                 Soils:                                         Texture: well-drained ; light to     ...
False Indigo – for                                                                moist areas                             ...
Perhaps a mountain stream is what you had in mind                                                http://www.cnps-sgm.org/g...
A shady yard lends itself well to a ‘mountain   steam’ theme – even in the lowlands                                       ...
* Giant Stream Orchid – Epipactis giganteaG.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database   © Project SOUND
* Giant Stream Orchid – Epipactis gigantea                                                                         Wester...
Giant stream Orchid is, well … an orchid                                                             Size:               ...
Flowers: beautiful orchids                      Blooms: in spring - usually Mar-May in                        our area.  ...
Flowers: beautiful orchids                     Blooms: in spring - usually Mar-May                                       ...
Easy to propagate                                                     from divisions                                      ...
Stream Orchids love water                                           Soils:                                               ...
Stream Orchids are a showy                                                                           addition to a water f...
Cultivar                                                                                     ‘Serpentine Night’           ...
* Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum  © 2001 Jeff Abbas                                    © Project SOUND
* Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum                                                                         Footh...
CA Mountain Mint – a typical mint                                      Size:                                         1-2...
Flowers are tiny & sweet                                     Blooms:                                        Summer - usu...
Easy to please                                                  Soils:                                                   ...
Use Mountain Mint in                                                                     wet areas                        ...
Combine Mints with grasses for a nice                 stream bank planting                                                ...
Get out and look at our local streams, creeks and wetlands forinspiration                                       http://www...
Good luck with your water garden!
Pools & ponds   2010 a
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Pools & ponds 2010 a

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This lecture was given in June, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Pools & ponds 2010 a

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Pools, Ponds and Streams C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve June 5 & 8, 2010 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. S. California has many different kinds of wet places  Estuarine—marsh*  Estuarine—mudflat  Estuarine—open water  Estuarine—submerged aquatic vegetation  Vernal pools & swales (always seasonal)  Depressional wetlands except vernal pools & swales—marsh and unvegetated flats*  Depressional wetlands except vernal pools & swales—open water*  Seeps and springs wetlands*  Playas—marsh*  Playas—open water*  Lakes—marsh  Lakes—open water  Streams and rivers—channel*  Streams and rivers—riparian habitat*
  4. 4. Local wetlands – what do they look like?  Western L.A./Orange County (lowlands)  Wetlands associated with depressions  Vernal pools (Madrona Marsh)Madrona Marsh – seasonal marsh  Freshwater marshes - vernal or year-round (Madrona Marsh)  Wetlands associated with moving water  Year-round streams (San Gabriel & Santa Ana Rivers)  Seasonal streams (Gardena Willows Preserve)Gardena Willows – seasonal stream
  5. 5. Local wetlands – a little farther away –and a bit more topography  Local Mountains (Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns.)E. Fork, San Gabriel River  Seeps & wet meadows  Ponds & lakes  Year-round creeks, streams & rivers Malibu Creek
  6. 6. Two key elements that determine plant life in freshwater systems  Is the water still or moving?  Is the water year-round or seasonal?http://walkingboots.wordpress.com/ These two elements will also determine the types of pond/pool/creek side plants appropriate for your garden
  7. 7. What do you have in mind? Types of water features in home gardens  Seasonally wet places (rain garden; vernal swale)  Moist ground year-round (splash zones around fountains or irrigation)  Wet soil year-round (wet meadow/bog garden)  Ponds/pools/puddles (standing water year-round)  Streams/creeks (running water at least part of thehttp://greenlifeinsocal.wordpress.com/2010/01/30/my-veggie- year) – may be natural or constructedgarden-in-january/
  8. 8. Perhaps you’ve fallen in love with the Madrona Marsh…
  9. 9. …and want to have a little bit of the marsh in your backyard http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2009/01/winter-in-blake-garden.html
  10. 10. Three water habitats in garden ponds/pools http://www.finegardening.com/design/articles/a-garden-set-in-stone.aspx Some ponds have just 2 of the habitatshttp://www.mabaquascapes.co.uk/portfolio.htm Habitat 1 – shallow water (less than 1-2 ft) Habitat 2 – pond edge – very shallow water/ muddy soils Habitat 3 – upper bank
  11. 11. You can create a mini-pond in your garden…complete with pond plants  Any water-tight container will do: a watertight half wine barrel; large ceramic pots or bowls ; galvanized tubs or horse troughs, etc.  Use ceramic or terra cotta pots set upon bricks or cinderblocks, adjusting them to the level of the top edge of the pond container.  Depending upon the size of your container, you can select about three to five plantshttp://www.penick.net/digging/index.php?s=wildflower+center for your little "pond".  Be sure you deal with mosquito larva – mosquito fish or chemical means "mosquito dunk"  Relocating a water garden is a challenge. Its best to begin in the right location: in the sun and away from trees and plants dropping debris.
  12. 12. Madrona Marsh provides excellent examples of local pond/marsh plants Tules dominate the wettest parts of the marsh
  13. 13. Tules – Schoenoplectus (formerly Scirpus) Six local species:  Schoenoplectus acutus – Tule  Schoenoplectus americanus – Chairmaker’s Bullrush  Schoenoplectus californicus – CA Tule  Schoenoplectus pungens var. badius - Common Threesquare  Schoenoplectus robustus – Sturdy Bullrush  Scirpus microcarpus – Small-fruited Bullrush Note: the terms Tule and Bullrush are used interchangeably
  14. 14. The trouble with Tules …  They are large – to 8 ft. tall  They are active spreaders  They are tough  They require active management  They can take over a garden pond
  15. 15. Southern Cattail – Typha domingensishttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Typhadomingensis.jpg © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Southern Cattail – Typha domingensis  Warm temperate and tropical areas, worldwide  In CA - most areas, with proper conditions  Almost anywhere soil remains wet, saturated, or flooded most of the growing season, including : wet meadows,http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=222000445 marshes, fens, pond and lake margins, floating bog mats, seacoast estuaries, roadside ditches, irrigation canals, oxbow lakes, and backwater areas of rivers and streams. © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?9383,9390,9392
  17. 17. Genus Typha – the Cattails  Members of the cattail family (family Typhaceae); the only genus in the family.  Aquatic or marsh herbs with creeping rootstocks, long, narrow leaves  Tiny flowers crowded in terminal spikes, with the male (staminate) ones Typha latifolia at the top and female (pistillate) below.  ~ 18 species all occur in temperate and tropical regions.  Local species:  Typha latifolia – Broadleaf Cattail  Typha dominguensis – Southern Cattail  ?Typha angustifolia – Narrowleaf Cattail (definitely from San Gabriel Mtns)Typha angustifolia http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/emergent/typhaa.cfm
  18. 18. Characteristics of Southern Cattail  Size:  3-6+ ft tall  spreading – many ft wide  Growth form:  Like a very large sedge; upright  Foliage:  Long, strap-like leaves  Leaf width ( ~ ½ inch) between that of Broad- and Narrowleaf Cattails  Roots:  Rhizomes stout, to 27" in length and typically ¾"-1½" in diameter  Can be eaten raw, cooked or dried and made into flourhttp://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/aquatics/typhaan.html © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Distinguished from the closely related Common Cattail (Typha latifolia) by:  narrower, deeper green leaves on a less robust plant  fruiting spikes showing clear separation between the male and female sections - staminate above the pistillate  leaves typically extending beyond the spike. http://www.opsu.edu/Academics/SciMathNurs/NaturalScience/PlantsInsect sOfGoodwell/plants/pasturefiles/pasture119.htmlhttp://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=3281 © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Flowers are unusual Blooms: Late spring/summer - usually May-July Flowers: Typical for Cattails  Flower structure a dense, fuzzy, cylindrical spike on the end of stem  A distinct gap of 1"-3" of naked stem between the upper, male portion (staminate) and the lower, female (pistillate) portion.  Male flowers lighter brown; female flowers often green during bloom turning dark brown during seed maturation. Seeds: fluffy, small – typical Cattail; wind-distributed © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Many uses of cattails and tules  Roots & young stalk – eaten as food; used as diuretic  Young female flowers – eaten raw or cooked like corn on the cob  Pollen – eaten raw or cooked; often added to flour to increase nutrition  Seeds – used to stuff pillows  Leaves:  Medicinal: diuretic and haemostatic (stops bleeding  For constructing shelters, hats, mats, etc.http://practicalsurvivor.com/wildedibleplants
  22. 22. Cattails like water…  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local including quite acidic (to pH 3.0)  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: flooded  Summer: Tolerates continuous inundation, seasonal draw-downs, and brackish waters. Can grow in water to 24" deep. Great for boggy pond margins  Fertilizer: light fertilizer  Other: Less water = less invasivehttp://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/Evolutionary_Ecology_Research/Ecology_of_Cumberland_Plain_Woodland/woodland_plants/typha_domingensis © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Cattails – not for every garden/gardener  Interesting container plant – can control spread and conditions  In seasonally wet areas – rain gardens, vernal swales  Around/in ponds & pools  Bank stabilization around ponds, streams, rivers.http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1248/702390298_0a32a0a4cd.jpg http://homepage3.nifty.com/plantsandjapan/img698.gif © Project SOUND
  24. 24. What makes water plants so invasive?  Fast-growing when conditions are optimal (water; temp.; pH, nutrients)  Most expand through an extensive rhizome system which is responsible for the maintenance and expansion of existing stands.  Most will also reseed – if conditions are righthttp://brg.cma.nsw.gov.au/uploads/images/ih_CumbungiBoomi.jpg
  25. 25. Why the need for vegetative propagation in wetland species?  Conditions are not always optimal – needs to be able to maximize growth in optimal times  Seed reproduction is iffy – small seeds must quickly germinate on moist soil, which often doesn’t occur  Disturbance – plays a key role in both removing andIn the absence of disturbance, cattail disbursing wetland plantsdominates marshes in dense, single-species stands, out-competing otherspecies.
  26. 26. Managing cattails/rushes/etc. in the garden setting  Many not suitable for growing in small areas – choose appropriate species  Fast-spreading species need to be managed yearly or will take over:  Cut back stems in dormant season  Remove ½ to 2/3 of mass  Replant http://www.jardin-mundani.org/typhaceae/typha.jpg  Best contained in large, strong, bottomless container.http://www.westcarlston.com/aquatics_Plants_Lists.htm © Project SOUND
  27. 27. In garden ponds, you must be the ‘disturbance’ © Project SOUNDhttp://greenlifeinsocal.wordpress.com/2010/01/30/my-veggie-garden-in-january/
  28. 28. Smaller choices for habitat 1(shallow water) & 2 (pond edge) areas  Scouring Rushes - Equisetum  Spikerushes – Eleocharis species  Some rushes – Juncus species  Some sedges – Carex species  Flat-sedges – Cyperus species  Fiber-optic grass - Isolepis (Scirpus) cernuus
  29. 29. Giant Scouring Rush – Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/bio406d/images/pics/equ/equisetum_hyemale.htm
  30. 30. Equisetums are well suited to moist container gardening  Soils:  Texture: any from sandy or gravelly muds to clays  pH: any – prefers 6.5 to 7.5  Light: full sun to shady  Water:  can tolerate prolonged wet conditions, but should not be totally submerged nor allowed to dry out  Best in cool moist soils or pots submerged up to 4”http://www.vanbloem.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/PLANTS.plantDetail/plant_id/363/index.htm
  31. 31. Pale Spikerush – Eleocharis macrostachya http://www.joesnowaquaticplants.com/plant%20list%20with%20links.htm © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Pale Spikerush – Common Spikerush – Eleocharis macrostachya Eleocharis palustrishttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=9080&flora_id=1=1&taxon_id=242101136  Jepson treats them as one species – but there are some slight morphologic differences  Classification is currently undergoing revisions  Challenge – widely disbursed world- wide (as are many wetland species © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Eleocharis+macrostachya
  33. 33. Spikerushes grow at the edges of ponds or invernal wetlands – seeds germinate under water http://www.cnps.org/programs/vegetation/Table_Mountain/images/16_Eleocharis-Sagittaria-Paspalum_JT.jpg
  34. 34. Eleocharis (Spike Rushes) in the wild  Seeds can germinate under water  Do best with fluctuating water levels in streams, vernal ponds/pools – can even grow in ponds (or aquariums)  Short, delicate stems - bright green color in spring/early summer  Form large meadows in vernal pools  Have great little flower spikes that tower above the leaves  Attractive to bees when flowering  Attractive stems even when dry – looks like a silvery-brown meadow
  35. 35. Eleocharis Spike Rushes in the garden  Rain gardens and vernal swales  On the edges of ponds/pools  In pots in freshwater pools  As a “natural lawn” – needs water to stayhttp://www.greenthumbinternational.com/ponds/images/Eleocharis_montevidensis_jpg.jpg green, but needs no mowing  Good for erosion control  Good habitat - birds eat the seedsSpike rushes need more water  Improves useable soilthan many rushes & other sedges nitrogen
  36. 36. Juncus, Carex and water-tolerant perennials are useful for spanning Wetland Habitats 2 & 3http://www.csupomona.edu/~biotrek/tour/tour03.html http://www.finegardening.com/design/articles/a-garden-set-in-stone.aspx
  37. 37. Juncaceae: Rushes (Wire-grasses)  Characteristics: stiff narrow stems with tiny flower clusters at tips or on side of stem  “Rushes are rounded but sedges have edges”  Juncus – large genus with > 200 annual and perennial species  Rushes form an extremely important component of wetlands, rivers and estuaries  Rushes reproduce by seed, but many species set little viable seed; form large clonal colonies throughhttp://www.biology.iastate.edu/Courses/Bot364%20Aquatic%20B underground spread of rhizomes.otany/Genera/Juncus/Juncus-line.GIF
  38. 38. Blue Rush: adaptable to a wide range of water schedules  Seasonal flooding in winter  Prefers moist summer soil but will take:  Growing in water in a pond (grow in a pot)  Regular watering  Occasional (every few weeks) watering  No added water – and still looks greenishhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/spreadingrush.html
  39. 39. Some local rushes – and there are others Baltic Rush Common/Blue Iris-leaved Leopold’s Rush Mexican Rush Rush Rushhttp://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Junca1.html
  40. 40.  Accent plant in/around pools Juncus in  Planted among stones the garden  As a container plant  Erosion control – along streams  In moist areas in general – bio- swales, wet areas in lawns  Good nesting, hiding cover for birdshttp://www.paradiseenvironments.com/images/New/PONDS-GRIFFITH%20JUNCUS.JPG http://www.cjb.unige.ch/BotSyst/APG2/Commelinid/100_JUN_13.jpg
  41. 41. Uses for Carex species in the garden  In vernal swaleshttp://www.alamedacreek.org/Join%20-%20Volunteer/FOTA/GNG%20plants.pdf  In rain gardens Carex tumulicola  Along banks of ponds and natural pools  In full sun or in shade under trees  In watered rock gardens  As an ornamental “grass”http://www.smgrowers.com/imagedb/Carex_spissa.jpg Carex spissa
  42. 42. Water Smartweed – Polygonum hydropiperoides http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/emergent/polygonumh.cfm © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Water Smartweed – Polygonum hydropiperoides  Much of N. America  Locally – Madrona Marsh & other local wetlands  Shallow water along the margins of lakes, ponds, and streams http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=92773&flora_id=1  Smartweeds are members of the buckwheat family (family Polygonaceae).  Stems commonly have swollen nodes. (The family name refers to this, deriving from Greek words meaning many knees.) © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5936,6248,6270
  44. 44. Smartweed is different… but kind of interesting  Size:  2-4 ft tall  3-4+ ft wide, spreading  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Many erect to leaning stems – clump-forming  Dies back in winter – nice fall color  Foliage:  Long narrow leaves  Young leaves and be eaten – also important as an antiseptic medicine  Roots:  Rhizomes; stems also root where they touch the groundhttp://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/emergent/polygonumh.cfm © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Flowers are showy  Blooms:  Summer into fall  Usually July & Aug or later – depends on available water  Flowers:  Clustered on slender flowering stems  Many small pink-white flowers –old-fashioned look  Seeds:  Small, dark brown/black  Food for many birds – waterfowl & songbirds © Project SOUNDhttp://www.backyardnature.net/n/h/swamp-sm.htm Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  46. 46. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local, acidic to alkali  Light:  Full sun to part-shade (good in filtered shade under trees)  Water:  Winter: takes winter flooding  Summer: wet to moist; can grow in shallow water, but also in seasonally dry areas  Fertilizer: leaf mulch; ok with light fertilizer  Other: may need to be replaced when starts looking raggedy – every 3-4 years © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Garden uses for Smartweed  As a pond plant – in shallow water; can grow in pot in a pond  As a pond-side plant  As an attractive pothttp://www.backyardnature.net/n/h/swamp-sm.htm plant – good for wet/bog containers  Other moist areas of the garden © Project SOUND http://bhushandalvi.wordpress.com/tag/polygonum-hydropiperoides/
  48. 48. Container gardens allow us to create the conditions needed by selected plants
  49. 49. Yerba Mansa – Anemopsis californica
  50. 50. Garden uses for Yerba Mansa  As an attractive pot plant, particularly for mini ‘bog gardens’  In containers placed in the ground  Around ponds  In water gardens  As a turf substitute or ground cover  Under birdbath or other moisthttp://www.mswn.com/Plant%20Info%20Sheets/Anemopsis%20californica.pdf areas of garden
  51. 51. Musk Monkeyflower – Mimulus moschatus J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  52. 52. Cardinal Flower: a garden perennial  Size:  2-6 (usually 2-4) ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; winter dormant  Upright growth  Short-lived but re-seeds well  Foliage:  Leaves: most basal, alternate  Light to deep green; often with bronze tingehttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LOCA2
  53. 53. Cardinal Flower is a great Zone 3 plant…  Great candidate as a container plant; bog garden plant  Moist meadow, rain garden, anywhere that gets a little extra water  Flowers make nice cut flowers  Fine at back of conventional (regularly watered) bedshttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LOCA2
  54. 54. Yellow-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium californicum http://www.soquelnursery.com/perennials_Santolina_Sutera.html
  55. 55. Yellow-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium californicum  Pacific coast from central California to s. British Columbia -  Primarily in moist-wet peripheries of ponds, bogs, marshes, lakeshores, moist grasslands and other moist sites near the coast http://www.efloras.org/fl orataxon.aspx?flora_id= 1&taxon_id=242101895  Genus Sisyrinchium  In the iris family, Iridaceae.  Between 70 to 150 species, all native to the New World.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8185,8222,8224
  56. 56. Yellow-eyed Grass – like Blue-eyed Grass  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide, spreading  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial from rhizomes (like Iris)  Foliage:  Grass-like (or mini-Iris-like) leaves  Pale to blue-green; dry to black  Roots:  rhizomesGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences
  57. 57. Flowers are lovely  Blooms:  Spring/summer usually Apr- June in our area  Long bloom season with good waterCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Flowers:  Like Blue-eyed Grass – except bright, cheery yellow  Delicate, star-like - on stem above the foliage © 2007  Open in morning; close by midday Ron Wolf  Seeds:  Pod is 3-chambers – like Iris © 2001 Tony Morosco  Small, angular dark seeds
  58. 58. Likes a drink in spring  Soils:  Texture: any – sand to clay  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun best; will tolerate light shade  Water:  Winter: adequate moisture  Summer: moist to wet conditions in spring - somewhat drier conditionshttp://www.anniesannuals.com/signs/s/sisyrinchium_californicum_yeg.htm in midsummer through winter. Needs dormant period  Fertilizer: not picky; poor to medium- rich soils  Other:  Divide every 3rd year  Re-seeds well; deadhead to preventhttp://www.geoffhandley.com/Gardening/flowergallery/siscalifornicum.jpg
  59. 59. So now we’re feeling confident about planting a small garden pool…. http://www.wiseacre-gardens.com/pond/pond_matt2.jpg © Project SOUND
  60. 60. But maybe you really wanted more of a streamside look… http://www.calflora.net/wildplaces/index.htmlMalibu Creek - Santa Monica Mountains
  61. 61. There’s something special about a lowland riparian woodland…
  62. 62. *California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum http://trees.stanford.edu/ENCYC/ACERneg.htm © Project SOUND
  63. 63. *California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum Several nice specimens at the Gardena Willows Wetland©Preserve Project SOUND
  64. 64. *California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum http://na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/acer/negundo.htm  Species: moist areas of U.S… including much of east  var. californicum: CA Floristic Province (W of Sierras) from OR to Baja  Locally in Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns  Introducing into nursery trade by Theodore Payne  Species widely planted as a street treehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?256,257,0,264 © Project SOUND
  65. 65. CA Boxelder: large shrub/ small shrubby tree  Size:  30-60 ft tall – usually 30-40  20-30 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrubby tree –irregular shape w/ several trunks – dark/red bark  Winter deciduous  Fast-growing first 15-20 yrs; lives ~ 75 years  Produces Maple syrup  Foliage:  Leaves similar to Ash  Foliage light, bright green in spring – http://www.laspilitas.c fall color (yellow) om/nature-of- california/plants/acer- negundo-californicum © Project SOUNDhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=acne2
  66. 66. Flowers are subtle  Blooms:  In spring; usually Mar-Apr in our area  Flowers:  Trees are dioecious (sep. male and female trees) – unique for Maples (but common in riparian plants)  Female flowers – on long, drooping stalks  Male flowers – in clusters  Neither is particularly showy  Bee pollinatedhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- © Project SOUNDcalifornia/plants/acer-negundo-californicum
  67. 67. Seeds are definitely Maple seeds  Seeds:  Winged samaras – single wing – in fall  Wings help in seed dispersal - seeds are wind distributed continuously until spring  Seeds produced each year on individual trees beginning at 8 to 11 years of age.  The samaras are borne on drooping racemes.  Seed eating migratory birds (like Cedar Waxwing) devour them  Vegetative reproduction:  Re-sprouting from stump, rootshttp://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Acnegundo.jpg&filetimestamp=20071026225348 © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/acer-negundo-californicum
  68. 68.  Soils: Boxelders are  Texture: just about anystream bank trees  pH: any local except > 8.0  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: can take brief periods of flooding – but best on banks above flood-line  Summer: regular when young – then fine with occasional (Zone 2) to regular water – probably best Zone 2 to 2-3 – susceptible to fungal diseases  Fertilizer: likes leaf mulch  Other: easy to prune/shape, but often needs little; reseeds on moisthttp://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Acer_negundo_var._californicum ground © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Boxelder provides quick shade  Often planted as a street tree – but wood can be weak with over-watering  Nice shade tree if pruned up  Excellent for screen or natural hedgerow  Great for stream bank stabilization or for swales  Ornamental – fall color; looks vaguely Asian  Don’t plant too near buildings or water/sewer lines © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Boxelder provides the look of riparian woodlandhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acer_negundo_JPG2a.jpg © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Other native riparian trees…all large  CA Sycamore – Platanus racemosa  Native Cottonwoods  Black Cottonwood - Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa  Fremont Cottonood - Populus fremontiiCalifornia Sycamore  Native Willows  Goodding’s Black Willow - Salix gooddingii  Red Willow - Salix laevigata  Arroyo Willow – Salix lasiolepis  Shining (Pacific) Willow - Salix lucida ssp. lasiandraBlack Cottonwood
  72. 72. Most S. CA native riparian trees aresimply too large for most home gardens
  73. 73. Narrow-leaf Willow – Salix exigua
  74. 74. Narrow-leaf willow in the garden  Locate away from water lines (invasive roots) and buildings (20+ ft)  Containment: probably best in contained area in most smaller gardens  Great along stream-banks, moist slopes – soils stabilizer  Super habitat plant: butterflies, birds, mammals  Nice in a moist garden with sedges, rushes  Lovely color; good contrast with darker greens, grays
  75. 75. Four riparian plant zones  waters edge Same plants as for ponds &  low terrace pools in garden  upper slope  top of bankhttp://www.fivestarponds.com/ http://www.californiawaterscapes.com/blog/ © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Lowland riparian/pond gardens can utilize riparian species from our own and desert regions http://www.naturamediterraneo.com/Public/data6/Angelo47/DSCF1193%20per%20forum.jpg_20071016205646_DSCF1193%20per%20forum.jpg © Project SOUND
  77. 77. * Desert False Indigo – Amorpha fruticosa © Project SOUND
  78. 78. * Desert False Indigo – Amorpha fruticosa  Many areas of west – including the coast of CA & Baja  Locally in San Gabriels, mountains of San Diego, Riverside & San Bernardino Counties  Along stream banks, canyon bottoms to 5000, coastal sage scrub, chaparralhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,3713,3717 http://aces.nmsu.edu/riparian/AMFR.html © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Western False Indigo: almost tropical-looking  Size:  6-15 ft tall; usually 10-12  5-15 ft wide; usually 5-10  Growth form:  Leggy, irregular form  Multiple upright woody stems – exotic-looking  Most of leaves on top 1/3  Foliage:  Green, compound leaves with many leaflets – typical Pea family  Resinous, stickyhttp://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=17605  Roots: nitrogen-fixing (with symbiotic soil bacteria) © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Flowers are amazing!  Blooms:  Late spring - usually May-July  Flowers:  Thousands of tiny flowers on dense flowering stalks – very showy, unique  Individual flowers pink-purple with prominent yellow stamens  Open from base to tip  Vanilla scent; butterfly plant  Seeds: bean-like in small pod; seeds disbursed by water over months – can float on water 1 wkhttp://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=17605  Vegetative reproduction: from broken stems © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Amorpha_fruticosa
  81. 81. False Indigo – many human uses  Crushed fruit is used as a condiment  Resinous pustules on the plant contain amorpha, a contact and stomachic insecticide that also acts as an insect repellenthttp://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/amorpha_fruticosa.jpg  The stems are used as bedding.  The plant contains some indigo pigment and can be used to make a blue dye. It is only present in very small quantities - not enough to harvest commercially  True indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) is also in Pea family True Indigo http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/7823 © Project SOUND
  82. 82. False Indigo adapts  Soils:  Texture: well-drained ; light to medium texture  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer: best with some to regular water (Zone 2-3 to 3);  But has long roots - quite drought tolerant  Tolerates fluctuations in water – flooding to drought  Other:  Prune heavily in late winter  Will spread via seeds if happyFertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  83. 83. False Indigo – for moist areas  Along stream banks – popular  In regularly watered beds, near lawns  Pruned as a small tree  In rain gardens  As hedge/windbreak planthttp://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=17605 http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/loeb_library/information_systems/projects/E_vue/pl ants/amorpha_fruticosa.htm © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Perhaps a mountain stream is what you had in mind http://www.cnps-sgm.org/gallery/GP-WestFork.htmlhttp://www.calflora.net/wildplaces/index.htmlBig Sycamore Canyon - Santa MonicaMountains © Project SOUND
  85. 85. A shady yard lends itself well to a ‘mountain steam’ theme – even in the lowlands  Use the correct type of rocks/boulders http://homepage.mac.com/cjbowdish/GaviotaHotSpringsTrail042107/large-55.html  Have areas of light and shade  Use the a combination of wetland & upland plants – some of which are mountain species © Project SOUNDhttp://www.pacificoutdoorlivingofgeorgia.com/waterscapes.htm
  86. 86. * Giant Stream Orchid – Epipactis giganteaG.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  87. 87. * Giant Stream Orchid – Epipactis gigantea  Western U.S., Mexico  California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, s Channel Islands)  Locally Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns.  Seeps, wet meadows, streambanks , ledges  May occur in riparian woodlands http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101585http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8695,8709,8710 http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/epipactis_gigantea.html © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Giant stream Orchid is, well … an orchid  Size:  1-3 ft tall  2-5 ft wide clump  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Winter dormant  Very woodsy looking  Foliage:  Glossy, strap-like leaves – medium green  Roots:  short rhizomes – can form dense, spreading clump (like Day Lilly)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=EPGI © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Flowers: beautiful orchids  Blooms: in spring - usually Mar-May in our area.  Flowers:  On wand-like stalks – up to 30+ flowers per stalk  Flowers ~ 1 inch across  Color: 2 forms  Maroon and white (may actually be more pink)  Orange/yellow/gold  Significant variation between individual plants© 2007, G. D. Carr  pollinated by Syrphid flies, beneficial flies that feed on aphids.  Seeds: many, small. Difficult to grow from seed (unless you’re and orchid fancier) © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Flowers: beautiful orchids  Blooms: in spring - usually Mar-May in our area.  Flowers:  On wand-like stalks – up to 20+ flowers per stalk  Flowers ~ 1 inch across  Color: 2 forms  Maroon and white (may actually be more pink)  Orange/yellow/gold  Significant variation between individual plants  Pollinated by Syrphid flies, beneficial flies that feed on aphids.  Seeds: many, small. Difficult to grow from seed (unless you’re and orchid fancier) Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Easy to propagate from divisions  Divide in late winter/ early spring  Divide pot-grown plants yearlyhttp://culturesheet.org/orchidaceae:epipactis © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Stream Orchids love water  Soils:  Texture: most local soils  pH: any local (5.5 to 8)  Light:  Part-shade to quite shady; needs shade during hot part of day  Water:  Winter: very wet fine – stream’s edge  Summer: needs regular water – flowing/moving water best – stream’s edge  Fertilizer: likes a good leaf mulch; could give ½ strength fertilizer  Other: pretty easy to grow; may be dormant for a year or so. http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=EPGI © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  93. 93. Stream Orchids are a showy addition to a water feature  In a seep or bog garden  On edges of ponds or stream banks (including manufactured streams) or in moist ground near fountains  Grow in large pots – much as you would cymbidiums http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=EPGI  Plant with Scarlet Monkeyflower to fill the space when Stream Orchid is dormant  The lower lip and tongue move when the flower is touched or shaken; hence the alternate name Chatterbox Orchid. © Project SOUNDhttp://cactiguide.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=16440&view=previous&sid=e49e5e49a4aff386a3dd309d17e0215d
  94. 94. Cultivar ‘Serpentine Night’  Natural cultivar from just north of the Bay area  A bit more difficult that the straight specieshttp://cactiguide.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=16440&view=previous&sid=e49e5e49a4aff386a3dd309d17e0215d  Foliage emerges jet black in spring  Blooms are typically greenish purple.  Slower to spread than the straight species. © Project SOUND
  95. 95. * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum © 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND
  96. 96. * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum  Foothills of mountain ranges from OR to Mexico  Locally in the San Gabriels  Moist sites of chaparral, oak woodland, and coniferous forestshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4745,4861,4862  The genus Pycnanthemum - in the mint family, Lamiaceae.  Most species are very strongly scented and pungent  Most are used in cooking and in making herbal tea.  All species in this genus are native to North America. © Project SOUND
  97. 97. CA Mountain Mint – a typical mint  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Spreading to 4+ ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Stems erect (for the most part)  Fast-growing (like Stachys)  Woodsy looking  Foliage:  Attractive gray-green color – may be fuzzy or not  Simple, lance-shaped leaves  Make a nice tea  Roots:  Spreading via rhizomes© 2006 Dean Wm. Taylor, Ph.D. © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Flowers are tiny & sweet  Blooms:  Summer - usually June-Aug in our area  Flowers:  In ball-like cluster typical of Mint family  Flowers are small  White, usually with lavender spots  Very old-fashioned look  Seeds:© 2009 Neal Kramer  Many tiny seeds – can shake them out of dried clusters © Project SOUND © 2001 Jeff Abbas
  99. 99. Easy to please  Soils:  Texture: any, very adaptable  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: takes seasonal flooding – good for wet parts of garden  Summer: needs regular water – Zone 2-3 to 3.  Fertilizer: would do best with some added humus or leaf mulch  Other: treat like other mints – rip out parts that are growing where you don’t want it (pot up and give new plants away – people will be happy to gethttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3421/3922100003_85f1edee51.jpg them!) © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Use Mountain Mint in wet areas  Under a birdbath or fountain  Places where the neighbor’s water makes the soil damphttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/29/97463864_abe4a596f8.jpg?v=0  In bog gardens  In large, moist-soil containers  In the vegetable garden  Moist areas along walkways – smells wonderful when stepped on – and it doesn’t mind a bit!  Around ponds/pools© 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Combine Mints with grasses for a nice stream bank planting  Poa secunda ssp. secunda  Bromus carinatus var. carinatus  Elymus multisetus  Agrostis pallens  Vulpia microstachys var. microstachys  Koeleria macranthahttp://forbesontech.typepad.com/my_weblog/forbes_fablesfishing_strategies/
  102. 102. Get out and look at our local streams, creeks and wetlands forinspiration http://www.panoramio.com/photo/4242808
  103. 103. Good luck with your water garden!

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