Native Seasoning Plants - notes


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Native Seasoning Plants - notes

  1. 1. 1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gourmet Seasonings and Condiments C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants April 4 & 7, 2009 Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Growing your own food: on the upswing? Not your grandmother’s vegetable garden any more!  Fun  Educational  Good exercise  Interesting looking plants  Saves money  Tasty, fresh ingredients  Chance to grow & use ‘exotic’ ingredients – including CA native plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/7/2013 Advantages of including native edible Sand Fringepod – Thysanocarpus curvipes plants in your garden  Often easy to grow  Attract native pollinators as well as honey bees  Attract other beneficial insects (predators)  Many are water-wise; spend you ‘water allowance’ on other vegetables  Add wonderful ‘exotic’ & healthy flavors to your diet © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Sand Fringepod – Thysanocarpus curvipes In nature, Sand Fringepod is usually found with other wildflowers, grasses  Western N. America: Mexico to British Columbia  Most of CA, including western L.A. County  Lindley’s  Common to an elevation of Silverpuffs about 5000  Goldenrods  Slopes, washes, moist meadows  Bicolor Lupine  Valley grasslands, coastal  CA Poppy sage scrub, chaparral and,2683,2685 foothill woodland  Creamcups  Thysanocarpus: from the  Many others… Greek words thusanos, "fringe," and karpos, "fruit," hence "fringed fruit" © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/7/2013Sand Fringepod – a delicate spring annual Flowers are tiny ‘mustard’ flowers  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Blooms:  Spring; usually Mar-May in  1-2 ft wide W. L.A. Co  Growth form:  Depends on timing of rains  Delicate and upright habit  Flowers:  May be a single stem or  Really tiny - < ¼ inch across branched; more branches with more water  White tinged with purple  Generally disappears quickly  Flowers open sequentially with drought ‘up the stalk’  Typical shape for Mustard© 2004, Ben Legler  Foliage: larger leaves mostly at family – parts of 4 base © Project SOUND © Project SOUND …but the real show Cleaning seeds is in the seeds  Flat round pods; each  Collect only fully ripe seeds; contains a single seed usually brown, and often easy to strip of shake from plant  Each seed fringed with a lacey edging – hence  Rub seeds over a rough ‘Fringepod’ or ‘Spectaclepod’ surface (like a screen) or roll between your hands in a cloth  Ripe seeds are golden tan; easy to strip from the stalk bag into a bowl  Separate seeds from chaff:  Remember: annual heavier seeds will fall to wildflowers need a drought bottom – will have to period to set & mature their experiment seeds – the drying period is key to healthy seeds  Then seeds are ready to store or prepare as a condiment! © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/7/2013Sand Fringepod: a welcome addition to Can I plant native the native prairie palette wildflowers in my regular vegetable garden?  Mix with other native annuals and bunchgrasses  But of course!  Great in pots & planters  In pots & planters  Treat them like any other  In out-of-the way corners native annual wildflower:  Full sun to light shade  Amongst winter/spring  Any local soil is fine vegetables  Need plenty of winter/spring water;  In their own place of honor supplement if needed (Zone 1 in summer)  Withhold water after flowering ceases; can taper off in mid/late spring © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Blue Flax –Linum lewisii var. lewisii Blue Flax –Linum lewisii var. lewisii  Found in most of CA north to OR  Grows on dry open slopes and ridges  The genus Linum contains all the flax plants (including the European one used for commercial fibers)  Species name lewisii for Meriwether Lewis of the,4980,4983,4985 Lewis and Clark expeditions © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/7/2013 Blue Flax is a nice addition to the spring- summer garden  Size:  1½ to 2 ft tall; flowering stalks to 3 ft  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Short-lived perennial; sometimes more like an annual  Mounded clump with upright, arching branches  Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green  Leaves are ‘feathery’, delicate looking  Looks ‘woodsy’  Roots: longish tap-root; use a  Blue flax only looks delicate – it’s actually a pretty tough taller pot little perennial (but often grown as an annual) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Treat Blue Flax like most The flowers are just enchanting…. of our native annuals  Blooms:  Soils:  Usually May-Sept. in S. Bay  Texture: light, well-drained soils are best  Will bloom in second year after starting  pH: any local, including alkali from seed  Light:  Long boom period – about 6 weeks  Usually found in full sun in nature  Flowers:  Does fine with part-shade  Electric blue – difficult to photograph  Typical flax flower; parts in 5’s  Water:  Dozens of blooms on drooping branches  Winter: regular winter water  Flowers open in sunlight, close at night  Summer:  Pollinated by bees and flies  Good cold and drought tolerance  Nice butterfly plant  Tolerates anything from no summer water to regular water; best to withhold water in late summer for good seed-set  Seeds:  Small, in papery capsule  Poisonous eaten raw; cooked seeds add a  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils delicious taste to baked & cooked dishesOur native flax is just as pretty as the  Birds eat the seeds  Other:non-native flaxes that most gardeners  Weed control and removal of very competitive species may improve chance of establishmentplant  Vegetative reproduction: Good self-seeder in most gardens;  To maintain tidy appearance, cut plants back  Plant sends up more branches each year – easy to remove unwanted plants after bloom slightly spreading © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/7/2013 Every garden needs a little Blue Flax Parching seeds  Use a heavy skillet (cast iron is  Lovely specimen plant in a pot; great) will trail over edges  Heat a little oil in the skillet  Massed in a mixed bed with over low heat; no oil needed for other wildflowers & grasses well-seasoned skillets  In rock gardens  Wipe out all but a thin layer of the oil  For erosion control or in a  Pour in a thin layer of fully dry greenbelt for fire suppression seeds  In a habitat garden – for bees,  Keep seeds moving so they butterflies & seed-eating birds don’t burn  Flax provided food, medicines  Remove from skillet when and fiber for native golden brown – some may pop Californians  You can also parch seeds in the oven © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Using parched seeds: limited only by your imagination  To add flavor to baked or cooked items  Topping for bread  On bland cooked vegetables  On casseroles  As a salad topper  Etc.  Ground (alone or with other seeds/spices)  Pinole  Mush  Beverages  Biscuits & pancakes  Etc. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/7/2013 Clustered Tarplant – Hemizonia (Deinandra) fasciculata Clustered Tarplant – Hemizonia (Deinandra) fasciculata  CA and Baja  Dry coastal plains below 1000, coastal grasslands, vernal pools, disturbed areas, sage scrub, southern oak woodland  Often in sandy or clayey soils  Taxonomy –still evolving Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Characteristics of Clustered Tarplant Flowers are a spot of gold in summer/fall  Size:  Blooms:  1-3 ft tall  Summer/early fall  1-3 ft wide  Usually May-Sept. in local lowland areas  Growth form:  Flowers:  Herbaceous annual  Yellow sunflower heads  Shrubby habit; many branched  Few ray & disk flowers – Southern Tarplant (H. parryi  Foliage: ssp. australis) has more  Sparse, toothed leaves with  Seem to float above the bristly hairs twiggy foliage  Upper leaves narrow, in  Seeds: bundles  Little ‘sunflower seeds’  Aromatic  Edible; parched or boiled – but© 2006 Steven Thorsted  Produces a tarry substance very small © Project SOUND  Re-seed nicely onProject SOUND © bare ground 7
  8. 8. 1/7/2013 Encouraging native wildflowers: Native Flavored vinegars are still quite popular… California Wisdom  Many native annuals were valued as food plants (seed; greens)  Native annuals usually require light, spring moisture – little competition  Native practices:  Scattering seed during harvest (seed-beating)  Burning in fall after harvest  Clearing a ‘garden spot’ near dwellings to raise commonly eaten plants  Weeding © Project SOUND © Project SOUND You can make your own with native CA plants Seasoning marinades & vinegars  Artemisia californica  Artemisia dracunculus  Bladderpod  Native onions (Allium)  Peppergrasses  Salvias  Even some of the berries/ fruits Experiment to find the best combinations. In general, stronger flavors are best with red wine or rice vinegars © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/7/2013 California Boxthorn – Lycium californicum California Boxthorn – Lycium californicum  A local endemic:  S. CA coast, Channel Islands into Baja CA  Western L.A. Co. and south  Washes and hillsides, coastal bluffs, coastal sage scrub, below 1500‘  In the nightshade family,7636,7642 (with the Nightshades, tomatoes, etc.) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA Boxthorn: Right at home on interesting or homely? the bluffs…  Size:  3-6 ft tall (occasionally to 10 or 12 ft tall)  Fine with salty soils,  4-8 ft wide (occasionally salt-spray, high winds wider) & blowing sand  Growth form:  Habitat is disappearing  Dense, woody shrub – on CNPS ‘rare’ watch  Drought-deciduous list  Ends of branches have thorns (hence ‘boxthorn’)  Foliage:  Small, very succulent leaves© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/7/2013 Flowers are slightly Using the fruit…think tomato-like ‘tomato’  Blooms: Spring - usually  Fruits are firm and red when Mar-June in S. Bay ripe – usually in summer  Flowers:  Birds will eat the fruits  Small; < ½ inch  Fruits are not sweet – more  Green-white to somewhat tart purple tinged  Look like members of the  Fruits can be dried for later nightshade family – yet use unique  Can be used to make a sauce that’s somewhat like a tomato sauce – see recipes Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA Boxthorn has a place in some CA Plant Requirements  Soils: gardens…..  Texture: any well-drained, sand to clay, rocky  pH: any local  On seaside slopes  Light:  Full sun to light shade  As a barrier plant or hedge  Water:  Winter: needs winter rains  As an unusual – and  Summer: rare – specimen plant  Very drought tolerant – but loses leaves  ? as an interesting pot  Best Water Zone 2 CA Boxthorn thrives on seaside plant? – I’ll let you conditions; excellent for sea  Fertilizer: none; likes poor know bluffs soils © 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/7/2013 Maybe you really wanted a sweet/tart Make nice, sweet/tart sauces & jellies sauce….  *Amelanchier alnifolia – Western Serviceberry  *Berberis/Mahonia species – Oregon Grapes  Opuntia littoralis – Coastal Pricklypear  Prunus ilicifolia – Catalina & Holly-leaf Cherries  *Prunus virginiana – Western Chokecherry  Rosa californica – CA Wild Rose  Sambuccus cerulea - Blue (Mexican) Elderberry  Vitis species – Native Grapes © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDOregon Grape – Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Oregon Grape – Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium  Much of western N. America: Mexico to British Columbia  In CA:  Mostly N. CA  Also mountains & foothills throughout Ca – locally in San Gabriels  Slopes, canyons, coniferous forest, oak woodland, chaparral  In the Barberry family© 2006 Louis-M. Landry © Project SOUND  State flower of OR© Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/7/2013Oregon Grape: sized for the garden Oregon Grape: not  Soils: demanding at all  Texture: pretty much any  Size:  3-8 ft tall  pH: any local  3-6 ft wide  Light:  Growth form:  Best in part-shade; can  Evergreen shrub; medium-slow take full sun to very shady growth  Stiff, upright branches; overall  Water: irregular or mounded form  Winter: likes water; can  Foliage: take some flooding  Very attractive – leaves ‘holly-like’  Summer: best with some  Shiny dark green above; may give supplemental water – Zone red color in fall/winter 2 to 2-3 (even 3)  Overall – coarse texture  Fertilizer: likes a good  Roots: spreads via rhizomes organic mulch; renew yearly © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers are a cheerful sight Berries are tart but delicious during rainy season  Blooms: winter/spring  Can be eaten directly for  Usually Feb-Apr in S. Bay a tasty zing!  Blooms for 3-4 weeks  Can be fermented with  Flowers: sugar to wine  Bell-shaped & buttery  Make nice, tart jellies – yellow good with meats  In dense clusters – very  Boil berries in soup to showy against the darker add flavor leaves  Honey-like fragrance  Use to make sauces and marinades for ham, pork,  Seeds: chicken  Relatively large © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/7/2013 Oregon Grape is a Cultivar ‘Compactum’ (sometimes ‘Compacta’) popular home shrub  foundation plant  Smaller – 3’ by 3’  mass plantings  More mounded- bushy  shrub border  mixes well with other broadleaf evergreens  useful in shady spots  desirable for spring bloom, high quality summer foliage and blue fruit in fall  Yellow natural dye from roots & bark; also dye from berries  Medicinal uses: roots for various infectious conditions © Project SOUND © Project SOUND may know that CA Wild Rose hips make a nice jelly or syrup… * Western Serviceberry – Amelanchier alnifolia….but there are other members of the Rose familythat are even better known for their tasty fruits © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/7/2013 * Western Serviceberry – Amelanchier alnifolia In the wilds, a shrub or small tree  Mainly a plant of the Pacific Northwest, the midwest and western Canada – up to AK  Size and shape very  In CA, mainly in the greatly depending on: northwest, but… OGY/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=193  Also, in the western San  Available water Gabriel mountains  Available light  Found on forested slopes,  Snow pack open rocky woods, cliff edges, prairies, or along side streams  Growth season or lakes; also bogs and wet sites.  ‘Serviceberry’ and ‘Juneberry’ refer to the time of bloom © Project SOUND © Project SOUND In the local mountains, Western Western Serviceberry: very adaptable Serviceberry is an understory to pines  Size:  6-15+ ft tall  6-10 ft wide  Often grows in the shade of the shade of  Growth form:  Erect shrub/single or multi- larger trees trunk small tree  Branches smooth with gray or red bark  Dense, but winter-deciduous  Medium/slow growing  Foliage:  Medium to dark green  Leaves oval, toothed In Western San Gabriels  Roots: spreads via rhizomes; also deep taproots © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/7/2013 Serviceberry is showy in bloom But most folks like the berries best  Blooms:  Spring: usually Apr-May  Ripen in summer in Western L.A. Co.  Dark blue-purple when ripe  Bloom period up to 1 mo. with white bloom – look like blueberries  Flowers:  White; rose-like  Loved by berry-eating birds – you’ll probably have  In dense clusters; very to outwit them! showy  Use just like a blueberry:  Fragrant (sweet)  Eat fresh or dry  Seeds:  Used in baked goods  Like rose; propagate  Use for sauces, syrups, jellies, beverages, etc. similar to roses© 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Serviceberry does well in the home garden Serviceberry: a garden favorite  Soils:  Makes a great small tree  Texture: just about any for front yard or patio moderately or well-drained soil  pH: likes pH between 5.0-7.5  Fine as a large shrub; dormant Dec.-Feb/Mar  Light:  Adaptable: part-sun best, but  Good choice for hedge, can take full sun to quite shady hedgerow or screen  Water:  Espalier along a wall  Winter: like good soil moisture  Summer: best in Zone 2 to 2-3  Can even trim to a medium groundcover  Fertilizer: likes a good organic mulch like leaf litter eriscape/xeriscape/garden2002.htm l Leave some of previous year’s© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College growth as fruiting wood © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15