1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                           Lu...
1/7/2013       Lupines: an interesting genus in the Pea Family                                         Flowers are typical...
1/7/2013            Lupine flowers are ‘color-coded for                                                                   ...
1/7/2013‘Lupinus propinquus’ – Local form of Lupinus arboreus                                            If you really wan...
1/7/2013          Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius                                                              ...
1/7/2013                       Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonis                                                          ...
1/7/2013Plant Requirements                                                                  Soils:                       ...
1/7/2013                 Grape Soda Lupine – Lupinus excubitus var. hallii                                                ...
1/7/2013                                                           Local lupines – not always                             ...
1/7/2013  Use Grape Soda Lupine in the scented garden                                                                     ...
1/7/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/7/2013    Burke’s (Meadow/ Big-leaf) Lupine           Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkei                                   ...
1/7/2013                                                                   Growing native annual lupines                  ...
1/7/2013                         Bajada Lupine – Lupinus concinnus ssp. concinnus                                         ...
1/7/2013                                                                                         Lupines come in a select...
Lupines - Notes
Lupines - Notes
Lupines - Notes
Lupines - Notes
Lupines - Notes
Lupines - Notes
Lupines - Notes
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Lupines - Notes

  1. 1. 1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Luscious Lupines C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Native Plants of Western L.A. County February 7 & 10, 2009 Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The lupines - the genus Lupinus) Lupines have long been garden favorites  Also known as Lupins (Europe) bluebonnets, old maid’s bonnets or wolfbean  Two groups:  Old World lupines, (Mediterranean regions & E. Africa; 12-13 species  New World lupines (N. & S. America); 90% of the genus  Place of original origin???  ~ 165 species (or possibly more) worldwide  82 species in CA;  14 in western L.A. Co. In short, we have a wealth of  An additional 6-10 species in nearby Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mountains native lupines from our area © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/7/2013 Lupines: an interesting genus in the Pea Family Flowers are typical of the Pea family (Fabaceae)  Bloom time: February to July, but usually in spring – often depends on timing of rains  Larger-flowered species usually pollinated by large bees; small flowers may be self-fertilizing (Cleistogamy).  Flower color: white to various shades of blue and reddish-purple, Silver Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonis and even a few yellow species http://montana.plant-life.org/families/Fabaceae.htm  Leaves: palmately compound, with  Five petals are highly modified: 5 to 9+ leaflets. The number of  Large banner petal (often with a white or yellow spot) – attract leaflets on an individual plant can pollinators vary.  Two small wing petals  Two (fused) keel petals – cover the male & female organs  Pea-like pods with hard seeds © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDLupines & pollinators Lupines & pollinators  Lupine flowers have  Plant sex typically must be characteristics to specifically consummated by a third party attract large bees: (the wind, a hummingbird, or a bumblebee) that transfers pollen  Purple/blue color from one blossom to another.  ‘guiding signs’  Heavy-duty landing pad  To lure pollinators, plants clad themselves in colorful (to the  Bumblebee blossoms often have pollinator – UV-colored flowers some form of physical barrier that may appear white to us) flowers only the bulky insect can surmount. with seductive scents.  In Lupines (and other Peas), the  While the bee is fertilizing the nectaries, along with the sexual flower, the plant is returning the organs, are enclosed in the fused favor, offering nectar, the keel petals. insect equivalent of soda pop,  When a bumblebee lands on the and/or life-giving protein in the keel, its weight forces the keel form of pollen. petals to pop open, exposing the flowers private parts (and the  Most lupine flowers offer just a nectar). bit of nectar, and just for ahttp://www.dailykos.com/story/2007/6/22/20290/0906 short time…  Bumblebees ‘pump out’ the pollen © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/7/2013 Lupine flowers are ‘color-coded for Other bumblebee plants  Trees/shrubs freshness’  The ‘banner spot’ on lupine  California lilac (Ceanothus spp) flowers helps to guide the  Desert willow (Chilopsis linearis) bumblebee to the proper landing  Dogwood (Cornus glabrata) spot; bees can see the Grape-soda Lupine contrasting colors  Manzanitas (Arctostaphylos species)  Lupines only make a small amount  Willows (Salix species) of nectar for the pollinator. To  Elderberry (Sambucus) advertise that the flower is un- pollinated and has nectar, the  Wildflowers (perennials & banner petal or banner spot is Annuals) bright white or yellow.  Columbines (Aquilegia species)  Lupines (Lupinus species)  After the flower is pollinated,  Milkweeds (Asclepias species) the banner petal turns reddish- https://www.hometownstation.com/local-news/scv-outdoor-report-2008-  Penstemons (Penstemon species) 04-17-13-01-2.html purple - a cue to pollinators that no more nectar is being produced  Phacelias (Phacelia species) by that flower  Buckwheats (Eriogonum species)  Sages (Salvia species) This color change all involves a single  Bees (and even we) cannot  Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus & pigment type – the anthocyanins discriminate well between blue- Encelia) violet and magenta (bees can’t see  Goldenrods (Solidago & Euthamia red) species) © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.spenceville.org/plant/Wildflowers.htm . But bumblebees aren’t the only pollinators Yellow Tree Lupine - Lupinus arboreus © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College CA coast from Ventura north; Aggressive re-seeder – don’t plant near any native species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/7/2013‘Lupinus propinquus’ – Local form of Lupinus arboreus If you really want a tree lupine, perhaps your should wait….for ‘L. payneii’  Shrub 4-8 ft. high from a trunk- like base, to 8 inches in diameter  Flowers very fragrant, varying from white through lilac, lavender, purple  Canyons of the Tapo Ranch, Santa Susana, May, 1918, Theodore Payne  ‘This plant has been under observation by Mr. Payne for some years. It grows on hillsides of a reddish clay with occasional outcroppings of gravel. Those with long lavender blooms are quite like a Wisteria in appearance and are The Theodore Payne Foundation altogether the most showy of all recently discovered some old seeds our southern lupines.’ of ‘L. payneii’  This plant has been grouped with L. Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences longifolius – but Theodore Payne (and others) suggested this was a separate species Local endemic in Marin Co, right near shore; © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Our local perennial lupines are sub-shrubs Our local shrub lupines are very water-wise  Moderate sized :  Most are adapted for – and do 2-4 ft tall & wide best in – well-drained soils; some  Have a woody root/base even thrive in sand  Most do best – and live longer –  Branches are succulent, if given only modest amounts of at least at their outer summer water (Zone 1-2 or 2) ends  A very wet winter (or over-  Local species: watering) can lead to the demise  L. longifolius of shrub lupines – in all but the  L. chamissonis best-drained soils  L. albifrons  Most will be somewhat summer  L. excubitus var. halii dormant  L. formosusSilver Bush Lupine – Lupinus albifrons © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/7/2013 Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius  Formerly Lupinus chamissonis var. longifolius  Southwestern CA from Santa Barbara to Baja  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral and oak woodland  Formerly frequent in the foothills and on bluffs along the seashore in Los Angeles, Orange & San Diego counties  Longifolius = long-leaved http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4099 © 2005 Michael W. Tuma © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Garden conditions Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonis  Soils:  Texture: well-drained is a must (as for most local bush lupines)  pH: any local is fine  Light:  full sun (coastal) to part shade  Water:  Young plants: weekly (as needed) until established  Winter: moist soils; monitor & supplement in very dry years  Summer:  Quite drought-tolerant; can get by with no water in part-shade  Will take infrequent (1-2 x per month) if soils are well-drainedhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/bushlupine.html  Fertilizer:  None needed & use will likely decreaseLupines don’t like to be moved – lifespan (true for all the bush lupines)protect their rootsProtect young plants from predation © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/7/2013 Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonis Dune Lupine  Immediate CA coast from L.A. Co. to Marin Co.  Always found quite near  chamissonis: after Adelbert von the coast; on dunes, Chamisso (1781-1838) bluffs, ocean strand  Born Louis Charles Adélaïde de Chamissot at the château of Boncourt in http://www.flickr.com/photos/ericinsf/2407184634/in/set-72157604496267203/  Pretty much always on Champagne, France rather sandy soils  Became a German botanist whohttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4053 botanized with J.F. Eschscholtz in the  Gets some water from San Francisco Bay region in 1816 – he ocean fog named the CA Poppy after Eschscholtz  During his time in California, Chamisso  Subjected to maritime studied a number of native plant and conditions: wind, salt- animal species; his inventory is spray considered a valuable ecological record to this day. http://wiki.zum.de/Adelbert_von_Chamisso  Was also a poet & writer © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Lupine leaves – Dune Lupine – flowers unusual & attractive that seem to glow  Blooms:  Early spring; usually Feb-Apr  Why palmate shape? in S. Bay  ?? to funnel water to base  Depends on winter rains of plant?  Flowers:  Silvery violet, with a hint of pink; white/yellow spot  Why often silvery/velvety?  Relatively large for local lupines  ?? Protection from insects  Arranged along flowering  ?? Protection from sunlight branches somewhat above foliage – not very long  ?? To collect moisture  Vegetative reproduction: ?? http://www.flickr.com/photos/93523004@N00/2472655139/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/7/2013Plant Requirements  Soils: Dune Lupine is perfect for  Texture: very well-drained; sandy is best the coastal garden  pH: any local  As an attractive accent plant  Light: full sun; true of most of the in coastal gardens local lupines except those from mountain forests  Nice addition to a dry silvery garden  Water:  Winter: needs adequate winter  In a garden featuring coast rain, but will not tolerate flooding prairie or coastal strand© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Summer: best with very little palettes summer along immediate coast (but will be drought deciduous);  Try with it’s natural coastal can give occasional water (Zone 1- partners: Baccharis pilularis, 2) Ericameria ericoides, Artemisia californica, Croton californicus,  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Camissonia cheiranthifolia, Agrostis pallens  Other: looks best if pruned back hard in winter © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=1985&account=none Silver Bush Lupine – Lupinus albifrons Silvery Dune Lupine makes a nice mid-size shrub  Nice as a smaller foundation plant  Floral fragrance – plant where http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3175/2673277265_678df36ea6.jpg you can enjoy  Looks great with either yellow or pink-flowering native plants  Quite hardy – fine for parking strips, roadways  Nice addition to rock garden  Wonderful for the ‘evening garden’ with its silvery foliage http://www.goingnativegardentour.org/pressroom/LupinusAlbifrons.jpg http://norenes5percent.blogspot.com/2006_03_01_archive.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/7/2013 Grape Soda Lupine – Lupinus excubitus var. hallii Grape Soda Lupine – Lupinus excubitus var. hallii  Fairly limited range: Catalina Island, Palos Verdes, Santa Monica Mtns, San Gabriels and into Baja  Harvey Monroe Hall (1874-1932)  Author (1902) of A Botanical Survey of San Jacinto Mountain  A collector of plants in the Mt. Pinos region in 1905 and on Santa Cruz Island in 1908.  Wrote a Flora of Yosemite (1912)  In charge of the University of California Herbarium at Berkeley http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4065,4068 (1902- ).  After a trip to Europe in 1929 to study natural reserves, he proposed the creation of "Natural Areas," and specifically the White Mountains and Harvey Monroe Hall research areas near Yosemite National Parkhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-excubitus © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Grape Soda Lupine: sometimes silvery Grape Soda Lupine in local foothills  Size: a bit smaller than other local bush lupines  Gravelly and sandy  2-3 ft tall 2-3 ft wide places   Growth form:  Chaparral &  Typical sub-shrub local lupine Sagebrush scrub  Mounded to slightly sprawling to 4500’ http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-excubitus  Foliage:  Often on banks &  Mostly quite low/basal hillsides  Evergreen; silvery green, with velvety hairs http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/lupinex2.htm  Quite attractive  Roots: like all lupines, has a taproot that resents disturbance © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/7/2013 Local lupines – not always Grape Soda Lupine has lovely flowers so silvery  Blooms:  Silvery plants are  Mid/late spring at higher elevations often larger and  Probably Mar-May in greener with more western L.A. Co. water & shade  Flowers:  Similar in color & size to Dune Lupine  Range from silvery violet to light magenta-violet  Scented – reminiscent of grape soda  Attract bees, butterflies, even moths & humans! http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-excubitushttp://www.coestatepark.com/lupinus_albifrons_gp.htm http://www.csuchico.edu/bccer/Ecosystem/FloraFauna/pics/Flora/Lupinus_albifrons.JPG © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Lupines are Collecting lupine seeds – several approaches master catapultists  In general, Mother Nature likes to  The nylon stocking spread genes around – locate genetically similar offspring away technique from parent plant  The paper bag technique  This also keeps the new plants from competing for light, water & nutrients with the parent plant  Lupines literally ‘fling’ their dried seeds away from the parent plant:  Drying pods under mechanical stress  When they reach a certain dryness they fail - dramatically  The large seeds are then further carried by water or by small animals that may cache them http://www.library.uiuc.edu/vex/toxic/lupine/lupine.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.kidsgardening.com/growingideas/PROJECTS/aug04/pg1.html 9
  10. 10. 1/7/2013 Use Grape Soda Lupine in the scented garden What if I have a shady yard?  Great as an accent plant; foliage, flower & scented accent  Does well on hills, slopes, other ‘difficult’ areas  Great habitat plant; bees, blue butterflies, seed-eating ground birds like doveshttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/hallsbushlupine.html http://www.downeasthost.com/vacationrental/lupine.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Lupines from the local mountains and * Broad-leaf Lupine – Lupinus latifolius from the North can take more water  Native habitat: often more shady  Annual precipitation: for some, more like garden conditions  Examples (from local mountains):  Broad-leaf Lupine – Lupinus latifolius  Burke’s (Meadow/ Big-leaf) Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkei  Sickle-keeled Lupine - Lupinus albicaulis © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/7/2013  parishii: after brothers Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838- * Broad-leaf Lupine – Lupinus latifolius ssp. parishii 1928) and William Fletcher Parish (1840-1918), both botanical collectors who lived on a ranch in San Bernardino, California  Made extensive exploring trips through the mountains and deserts.  Foothills of the Sierras, Coastal and  Samuel was the more devoted of the two and corresponded with and was on very familiar terms with Transverse Ranges many of the leading botanists of his day.  Locally: Santa Monica,  William served in the Civil War as a sergeant and later sergeant-major. He is registered at San Bernardino up Simi Valley, Santa to 1890, and at Long Beach in 1892. By 1906 he was living ssp. latifolius Monica Mtns, San at Redondo, and later in Hermosa Beach." Gabriels  Moist places in woods, shady to open areas, many plant communities below 7500 In Santa Monica Mtns ssp. parishii http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/lupinel.htmhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4083,4088 © 2004 Charles E. Jones © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers are quite showy Broadleaf Lupine may fill your garden needs  Blooms:  Soils:  Apr-July in local foothills  Texture: well-drained, though  Probably Mar-May at lower less picky than local natives elevations  pH: any local  Flowers:  Light: full sun to light shade –  fragrant pinkish blue flowers light shade preferable in hot gardens  2-3 foot long spikes  Ssp. parishii particularly  Water: showy!  Winter: good winter water  Summer: can take regular  Vegetative reproduction: water (Zone 2 or 2-3); ssp.  deep, lateral root system parishii can take drier  can spread vegetatively from conditions root sprouts, even from pieces of root  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/7/2013 Burke’s (Meadow/ Big-leaf) Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkei Sickle-keeled Lupine - Lupinus albicaulis Wet places in the mountains from San Gabriels, Sierras north From N. CA Coast Range and Sierra foothills © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDManaging our local shrubby lupines Annual lupines add some magic to the garden  Protect young plants from snails & slugs  Keep area around the plants weed-free  Don’t mulch right up to the woody base – prevent root fungal disease  Be very vigilant in removing these caterpillars http://gardendjinn.typepad.com/garden/2008/03/index.html  Remove old flower heads and woody foliage for neatness & to Coastal Palette combination renew  Cut back to the base in late fall to winter. http://www.wallno1.com/r-flowers-14-lupine-and-poppies-tehachapi-mountains-california-29867.htm Interior Palette combination © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/7/2013 Growing native annual lupines Some of the best small lupines are native to S. CA is quite easy  Soils:  Texture: usually any; often do best in well- drained soils  Usually any local pH  Light:  full sun (best) to bright shade © 2001 Steven Thorsted  Need bare soil (light) to germinate and grow  Often fire-followers; or managed by Native Californians  Water:  Adequate winter/spring water  Best with no water after flowering  Fertilizer: none needed; a little probably won’t hurt © Project SOUND © Lee Dittmann © Project SOUNDhttp://www.gardengates.info/The%20Local%20Wildflower%20 http://flickr.com/photos/repetti/59953037/in/set-1295791/Page.htm Miniature Lupine – Lupinus bicolor Bajada Lupine – Lupinus concinnus ssp. concinnus http://picasaweb.google.com/greenonfire/SWOregonFlora#5189166267831777570 © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/7/2013 Bajada Lupine – Lupinus concinnus ssp. concinnus Bajada Lupine – a petite charmer  A lupine of SW U.S. and  Size: adjoining regions of Mexico  < 1 ft tall  At least two sub-  1-2 ft wide populations - one desert;  Growth form: ?? Are they really subspecies  Herbaceous annual  Open sandy areas to Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Upright or sprawling 5000‘  Foliage:  Grasslands/prairie  Very hairy; velvety texture – http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4057  Both CA deserts appears silvery  Common in disturbed areas, burns  Typical palmate leaves; quite basal, often low to ground  concinnus: neat, well- made, elegant  Looks like a desert plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://seinet.asu.edu/images/maps/seinet/swdots/Lupinus_concinnus.jpg Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Flowers are also petite * Valley Lupine - Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus (Lupinus subvexus var. subvexus)  Blooms:  Early spring; usually Mar.- Apr. in western L.A. Co.  Flowers: Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Color: red-purple to light pink  Small - ~ ¼ inch  Spread on low flowering stalks – may be only as tall as the leaves.  Don’t water after flowering ceases – important for proper seed development Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © 2003 Christopher L. Christie Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND Antelope Valley; W. San Gabriels © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/7/2013  Lupines come in a select The colors of lupine palette: white, pink, red, blues * Yellow Chick Lupine - Lupinus densiflorus var. aureus of many hues, yellow, apricot. (Lupinus microcarpus var. densiflorus)  Many have bicolored flowers, usually including white or yellow contrasting with another color.  Why/how these colors?  The pigments:  Anthocyanins : appear blue/pink; change from blue to pink w/ increasing pH (alkalinity)  Carotenoids:  Appear yellow/orange  In Lupines, only seen if anthocyanins are lacking  How coloration evolved: co- evolution with pollinators  Large bees attracted by blue- http://www.larnerseeds.com/_pages/wildflower_annual.html purple flowers  Hummingbirds attracted by Antelope Valley; San Gabriels; Liebre Mtnshttp://www.visionsofheaven.com/AAngels/newsletter_art/lupine.jpg red/red-violet/ orange © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.beachwatchers.wsu.edu/ezidweb/shoreplants/Lupinusarboreus.htm Mid-size annual lupines look great massed Why include annual Lupines in your garden?  Attractive & unique foliage  Showy, decorative flowers; many shades of white, blue, lavender, magenta  Great habitat plants: © 2006 Chris Wagner, SBNF  Nectar: butterflies, native bees & even hummingbirds  Foliage: Blue Butterfly larval food  Seeds: ground-eaters like doves, quail  Improve soil nutrients (N)  Many are quite easy to grow once you get the seeds to germinate http://www.resimsite.com/img155.htm http://www.panoramio.com/photo/11104501 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LUHI3 15